Nazi Secret Weapons and the Cold War Allied Legend

by Joseph P. Farrell

GÖTTERDÄMMERUNG

"A comprehensive February 1942 (German) Army Ordnance report on the German uranium enrichment program includes the statement that the critical mass of a nuclear weapon lay between 10 and 100 kilograms of either uranium 235 or element 94.... In fact the German estimate of critical mass of 10 to 100 kilograms was comparable to the contemporary Allied estimate of 2 to 100.... The German scientists working on uranium neither withheld their figure for critical mass because of moral scruples nor did they provide an inaccurate estimate as the result of gross scientific error". 

-- Mark Walker, "Nazi Science: Myth, Truth, and the German Atomic Bomb"

A Badly Written Finale

"In southern Germany, meanwhile, the American Third and Seventh and the French First Armies had been driving steadily eastward into the so-called 'National Redoubt'.... The American Third Army drove on into Czechoslovakia and by May 6 had captured Pilsen and Karlsbad and was approaching Prague".

-- F. Lee Benns, "Europe Since 1914 In Its World Setting"   (New York: F.S. Crofts and Co., 1946) 

 
On a night in October 1944, a German pilot and rocket expert by the same of Hans Zinsser was flying his Heinkel 111 twin engine bomber in twilight over northern Germany, close to the Baltic coast in the province of Mecklenburg. He was flying at twilight to avoid the Allied fighter aircraft that at that time had all but undisputed mastery of the skies over Germany. Little did he know that what he saw that night would be locked in the vaults of the highest classification of the United States government for several decades after the war.
 
And he certainly could not have been aware of the fact when his testimony finally was declassified near the end of the millennium, that what he saw would require the history of the Second World War to be rewritten, or at the very minimum, severely scrutinized. His observations on that one night on that one flight resolve at a stroke some of the most pressing questions and mysteries concerning the end of the war. By the same token, what he saw raises many more mysteries and questions, affording a brief and frightening glimpse into the labyrinthine world of Nazi secret weapons development. His observations open a veritable Pandora's box of horrifying research the Third Reich was conducting, research far more horrendous in its scope and terrible promise than mere atomic bombs. More importantly, his observations also raise the disturbing question of why the Allied governments - America in particular - kept so much classified for so long. What, really, did we recover from the Nazis at the end of the war?

But what precisely is that badly written finale?

To appreciate how badly written a finale it truly is, it is best to begin at the logical place: in Berlin, far below ground, in the last weeks of the war. There, in the bizarre and surreal world of the Führerbunker, the megalomaniac German dictator huddles with his generals, impervious to the rain of Allied and Soviet bombs that are reducing the once beautiful city of Berlin to piles of rubble. Adolf Hitler, Chancellor and Führer of the ever-diminishing Greater German Reich is in conference. His left arm shakes uncontrollably and from time to time he must pause to daub the drool that occasionally oozes from his mouth. His complexion is gray and pallid; his health, a shambles from the drugs his doctors inject in him. His glasses are perched on his nose as he squints at the map before him. 

Contributing yet another nuance to the end of the war Legend of Hitler's delusional insanity, some have proposed that the German dictator's doctors had diagnosed him with heart disease and/or Parkinson's disease, and were keeping him drugged at the behest of  Bormann, Göbbels, Himmler et al. in a desperate attempt to keep him functioning.

On 7 May 1945, the "Baltimore Sun" stated that according to Major Erwin Giesing (Hitler's brain, ear, nose and throat specialist, who had seen him on 15 February 1945), Hitler had been "in unusually good physical condition for a man of his age" and had certainly not died of a brain haemorrhage, as claimed by  Walter Schellenberg.

Reports pouring cold water on the theory that Hitler had been ill and had probably died a natural death or had been euthanized continued to be published whenever the opportunity arose. [For example, Field Marshal Kesselring, who had last seen Hitler in mid-April when "he appeared in excellent health"; Howard Cowan, 'Kesselring Most Surprised Hitler Remained In Berlin' - "Hamilton Spectator"', 10 May 1945 

In 1985 Ernst Günther Schenk, a physician in charge of nutrition for the German Army who was present at Hitler's last medical consultation in April 1945 and later wrote a book ("Patient A") about Hitler's relationship with his personal physician, was quoted in "American Medical News" to the effect that Hitler was neither clinically insane nor chemically dependent on drugs. Schenk says that  Hitler's regular injections consisted of vitamins mixed with glucose and caffeine. Hitler was not a regular user of any stronger drug, but was given them on occasion: codeine and cocaine for colds, strong painkillers and barbiturates for cramps and colitis (an intermittent condition in most people that suffer it). By the end of his life, Hitler showed obvious symptoms of Parkinson's disease, and also had a heart problem that was treated with nitroglycerin and digitalis. Schenk says that medically there was nothing unusual about Hitler. (AP, 10 October 1985)

In 2010 the book "War Hitler Krank?" by Henrik Eberle and Hans-Joachim Neumann (published in English in 2012 as "'Was Hitler Ill?"), offered generally the same assessment as Schenk. They write that "at no time did Hitler suffer from pathological delusions," ["Eine Besessenheit im Sinne eines krankheitsbedingten Wahns gab es bei Hitler zu keinem Zeitpunkt".] and they find no indication that Dr. Theodor Morell was anything other than a competent and ethical physician.

There is some controversy about Hitler's alleged use of methamphetamine (also known as methyl-amphetamine), which had been available in Germany as an over-the-counter drug under the brand-name Pervitin since 1938. The quantity of methamphetamine in the pills seems not to have been very great, because novelist Heinrich Böll, who used Pervitin during the war, has described the stimulation as equivalent to several cups of coffee. It is clear that Pervitin was not perceived as excessively dangerous at the time, 3 and even for several decades after the war, since it was only taken off the market in the 1970s.

The appeal of such drugs was not limited to Axis nations. In the United States, the use of Pervitin by German military men stimulated the U.S. Government's Office of Scientific Research and Development to work on an American equivalent (Alexander George, "Wide World Features", 22 August 1942).  The U.S. Army has contemplated the benefits of amphetamines at least as recently as 1988 (AP, 7 September 1988). As of 2014 methamphetamine in the United States is a prescription-drug, used for treatment of ADHD and for weight-loss.

In any case, Morell records administering that over-the-counter stimulant on only one occasion. (C. Gunkel, 'Hitlers Krankheiten: Therapie mit Rattengift' - "Der Spiegel" January 2010; there is also an abridged English translation)

To summarize, Hitler's physician gave him various strong drugs on occasion, but not on a regular basis, and there is no reason to believe that drugs adversely affected Hitler's judgment. The strongest drug that Hitler received on a regular basis was caffeine, taken with vitamins.

Generaloberst [Colonel General, the equivalent of a four-star American general] Gotthard Heinrici, commander of the vastly outnumbered Army Group Vistula that faces the massed armies of Marshal Zhukov poised less than sixty miles from Berlin, is pleading with his leader for more troops. The general is questioning the disposition of the forces he sees displayed on the battle map, for it is clear to him that some of Germany's finest and few remaining battle worthy formations are far south, facing Marshal Koniev's forces in Silesia. These forces were thus, incomprehensibly, poised to make a stiff defense of Breslau and Prague, not Berlin. The general pleads for Hitler to release some of these forces and transfer them north, but to no avail. "Prague," the Führer responds stubbornly, almost mystically, "is the key to winning the war". Generaloberst Heinrici's hard-pressed troops must "do without." [They did in fact "do without" and yet managed to put up a fierce resistance against overwhelming odds in the initial stages of Zhukov's final offensive on Berlin].

One may also perhaps imagine Heinrici and the other assembled generals perhaps casting a doleful glance at Norway on the situation map, where thousands of German troops are still stationed, occupying a country that had long since ceased to be of any strategic or operational value to the defense of the Reich. Why indeed did Hitler maintain so many German troops in Norway up to the very end of the war? [The standard versions, of course, are that he wished to maintain the supply line of iron ore from Sweden to Germany, and that he wished to continue to use the country as a base to interdict the lend-lease supply route to Russia. But by late 1944, with the huge losses of the German Kriegsmarine, these explanations no longer were militarily feasible, and hence do not make military sense. One must look for other reasons, if indeed there are any beyond Adolf Hitler's delusions].

These paradoxical German troops deployments are the first mystery of the badly written finale of the war in Europe. Both Allied and German generals would ponder it after the war, and both would write it off to Hitler's insanity, a conclusion that would become part of the "Allied Legend" of the end of the war. This interpretation does make sense, for if one assumed that Hitler were having a rare seizure of sanity when he ordered these deployments, what possibly could he have been thinking? Prague? Norway? There were no standard or conventional military reasons for the deployments. In other words, the deployments themselves attest his complete lack of touch with military reality. He therefore had to have been quite insane. But apparently his "delusional insanity" did not stop there. On more than one occasion during these end-of-the-war conferences with his generals in the Führerbunker, he boasted that Germany would soon be in the possession of weapons that would snatch victory from the jaws of defeat at "five minutes past midnight."

All the Wehrmacht had to do was hold out a bit longer. And above all, it must hold Prague and lower Silesia. Of course, the standard historical interpretation of these and similar utterances by the Nazi leadership near the end of the war explains them - or rather, explains them away - by one of two standard techniques. One school understands them to refer to the more advanced versions of the V-1 and V-2, and on rare occasions, the intercontinental A-9/10 rockets, the jet fighters, anti-aircraft heat-seeking missiles, and so on that the Germans were developing. Sir Roy Fedden, one of the British Specialists sent to Germany to investigate Nazi secret weapons research after the war, left no doubt as to the deadly potential these developments held:

"In these respects (the Nazis) were not entirely lying. In the course of two recent visits to Germany, as leader of a technical mission of the Ministry of Aircraft Production, I have seen enough of their designs and production plans to realize that if they had managed to prolong the war some months longer, we would have been confronted with a set of entirely new and deadly developments in air warfare."

-- Sir Roy Fedden, "The Nazis' V-Weapons Matured Too Late" (London: 1945), cited in Renato Vesco and David Hatcher Childress, "Man-Made UFOs: 1944-1994".

"The Germans were preparing rocket surprises for the whole world in general and England in particular which would have, it is believed, changed the course of the war if the invasion had been postponed for so short a time as half a year".

-- Lt. Col. Donald Leander Putt, Dep. Cmmd. Gen., AAF Intelligence, Air Technical Services Command

"To the German scientists, the V-2 was just a toy. The V-1, V-2 and Me 262 certainly high technology for the British and Americans, but compared with the Sänger bomber, the A9/A10 rocket (both ready or almost ready in 1945) or the flying discs, they were only toys".

-- Lt. Col. John A. Keck, 28 June 1945

The other standard school of interpretation explains such remarks of the Nazi leadership as the utterances of madmen desperate to prolong the war, and hence their lives, by stiffening the resistance of their exhausted armies. For example, to make the insanity gripping the Reich government complete, Hitler's ever-faithful toady and propaganda minister, Dr. Josef Göbbels also boasted in a speech near the end of the war that he had seen "weapons so frightening it would make your heart stand still." More delusional ravings of a Nazi madman. But on the Allied side of the Allied Legend, things are equally peculiar. In March and April of 1945, U.S. General George S. Patton's Third Army is literally racing across southern Bavaria, as fast as is operationally possible, making a beeline for:

(1) the huge Skoda munitions works at Pilsen, a complex all but blown off the map by Allied bombers;
(2) Prague; and
(3) A region of the Harz Mountains in Thuringia known to Germans as the Dreiecks or Three Corners," a region encompassed by the old mediaeval towns and villages of Arnstadt, Jonastal, Wechmar, and Ohrdruf.

Arnstadt is where the great German composer and organist Johann Sebastian Bach first began his career.

The "National Redoubt" [Alpenfestung] 1945
 adapted from a map included in Seventh Army's
"Report of Operations, France and Germany, 1944-1945" Vol. III
 

One is informed by countless history books that this maneuver was thought to be necessary by the Supreme Headquarters of the Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) because of reports that the Nazis were planning to make a last stand in the "Alpine National Redoubt", a network of fortified mountains stretching from the Alps to the Harz Mountains. The Third Army's movements, so the story goes, were designed to cut off the "escape route" of Nazis fleeing the carnage of Berlin. Maps are produced in old history books, accompanied in some cases by de-classified German plans-some dating from the Weimar Republic! - for just such a redoubt. Case settled. However, there is a problem with that explanation. Allied aerial reconnaissance would likely have told Eisenhower and SHAEF that there were precious few fortified strong points in the "National Redoubt". Indeed, it would have told them that the "Redoubt" was no redoubt at all. General Patton and his divisional commanders would most certainly have been privy to at least some of this information. So why the extraordinary and almost reckless speed of his advance, an advance the post-war Allied Legend would have us believe was to cut off the escape route of Nazis fleeing Berlin, who it turns out weren't fleeing, to a redoubt that didn't exist? The mystery deepens.

Then, remarkably, in a strange twist of fate, General Patton himself, America's most celebrated general, dies suddenly, and, some would say, suspiciously, as a result of complications from injuries he sustained in a freak automobile accident soon after the end of the war and the beginning of the Allied military occupation. For many, there is little doubt that Patton's death is suspicious. But what of the explanations offered for it by those who do not think it was accidental? Some propose he was eliminated because of his remarks about turning the Germans "right back around" and letting them lead an Allied invasion of Russia. Others believe he was eliminated because he knew about the Allies' knowledge of the Soviets' execution of British, American, and French prisoners of war, and threatened to make it public. In any case, while Patton's barbed tongue and occasional outbursts are well known, his sense of military duty and obligation were far too high for him to have entertained such notions. These theories play out best, perhaps, on the internet or in the movies. And neither seems a sufficient motivation for the murder of America's most celebrated general. But then, if he was murdered, what was sufficient motivation? Here too, the lone German pilot Hans Zinsser and his observations afford a speculative key as to the possibilities, if General Patton was murdered, of why he had to be silenced. Let us return, for a moment, to a less-well publicized explanation for his end-of-the war lightening-like strikes into south central Germany and into Bohemia: In "Top Secret", Ralph Ingersoll, an American liaison officer at S.H.A.E.F., gives a version of the facts much more in line with German intentions:

"(General Omar) Bradley was complete master of the situation.... in full command of the three armies that had broken through the Rhine defenses and were free to exploit their victories. Analyzing the whole situation, Bradley felt that to take battered Berlin would be an empty military victory.... The German War Department had long since moved out, leaving only a rear echelon. The main body of the German War Department, including its priceless archives, had been transferred to the Thuringian forest..." [Vesco and Childress, op. cit.]

But what exactly did Patton's divisions discover in Pilsen and the forests of Thuringia? Only with the recent German reunification and declassification of East German, British, and American documents are enough clues available to allow this fantastic story - and the reason for the post-war Allied Legend - to be outlined and its questions answered.

Thus, finally, one arrives at the main theme of the post-war Allied Legend. As the Allied forces penetrated ever deeper into the German Fatherland itself, teams of scientists and experts and their intelligence coordinators were sent in literally to scour the Reich for German patents, secret weapons research, and above all, to find out about the state of the German atomic bomb project. [9] Literally vacuuming the Reich of every conceivable technological development, this effort became the largest technology transfer in history. Even at this late stage of the war, as Allied armies advanced across western Europe, there was fear on the Allied side that the Germans were perilously close to the A-bomb, and might actually use one on London or other Allied targets. And Dr. Göbbels and his speeches about fearsome heart-stopping weaponry were doing nothing to alleviate their fears. It is here that the mystery of the Allied Legend only deepens. It is here that the badly written finale would be truly comical, were it not for the vast scale of human suffering involved with it, for the facts are clear enough if one examines them independently of the explanations we have become accustomed to apply to them. Indeed, one must wonder if we were not conditioned to think about them in a certain way, for as the Allied armies advanced deeper and deeper into the Reich, famous German scientists and engineers were either captured, or they surrendered themselves. Among them were first-class physicists, many of them Nobel laureates. And most of them were involved, at some level, with the various atomic bomb projects of Nazi Germany. ["Alsos" was the code name of this effort. "Alsos" is a Greek word meaning "Grove", an obvious pun on General Leslie Groves, chief of the Manhattan Project. It is the name of the book about the Manhattan Project by Dutch-Jewish physicist Samuel Goudsmit] Among these scientists were Werner Heisenberg, one of the founders of quantum mechanics, Kurt Diebner, a nuclear physicist, Paul Hartek, a nuclear chemist, Otto Hahn himself, the chemist who actually discovered nuclear fission, and curiously, Walter Gerlach, whose specialty was not nuclear, but gravitational physics. Gerlach had written esoteric papers before the war on such abstruse concepts as spin polarization and vorticular physics, hardly the basics of nuclear physics, and certainly not the sort of scientist one would expect to encounter working on atom bombs.

Nick Cook, "The Hunt for Zero Point", notes that these areas have little to do with nuclear physics, much less A-bomb design, but "much to do with the enigmatic properties of gravity. A student of Gerlach's at Munich, O.C. Hilgenberg, published a paper in 1931 entitled "About Gravitation, Vortices and Waves in Rotating Media".... And yet, after the war, Gerlach, who died in 1979, apparently never returned to these matters, nor did he make any references to them; almost as if he had been forbidden to do so. That, or something he had seen...had scared him beyond all reason."

Much to the Allies' puzzlement, their scientific teams found but crude attempts by Heisenberg to construct a functioning atomic reactor, attempts that were wholly unsatisfactory and unsuccessful, and almost unbelievably inept. This "German ineptitude" in basic bomb physics became, and remains, a central component of the Allied Legend. And yet, that itself raises yet another mystery of the badly written finale.

Top German scientists - Werner Heisenberg, Paul Hartek, Kurt Diebner, Erich Bagge, Otto Hahn, Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, Karl Wirtz, Horst Korsching, and Walter Gerlach - were carted off to Farm Hall, England, where they were kept in isolation, and their conversations recorded. The transcripts, the celebrated "Farm Hall Transcripts", were only declassified by the British government in 1992! [It was Manhattan project chief General Leslie Groves who, in fact, revealed in his 1962 book about the bomb, "Now It Can Be Told", that the German scientists' conversations had been recorded by the British. Apparently, however, not everything could be told in 1962]. If the Germans were so far behind and so incompetent, why keep them classified for so long? Bureaucratic oversight and inertia? Or did they contain things the Allies did not wish to be known even at that late date?

What a surface reading of the transcripts reveals only deepens the mystery considerably. In them, Heisenberg and company, after hearing of the a-bombing of Hiroshima by the Americans on the BBC, debate the endless moral issues of their own involvement in the atomic bomb projects of Nazi Germany.

But that is not all.

In the transcripts, Heisenberg and company, who had suffered some inexplicable mathematical and scientific dyslexia during the whole six years' course of the war, the same Heisenberg and company who could not even design and build a successful atomic reactor to produce plutonium for a bomb, suddenly become Nobel laureates and first rank physicists after the war. Indeed, Heisenberg himself within a matter of a few days of Hiroshima, gave a lecture to the assembled German scientists on the basic design of the bomb. In it, he defends his first assessment that the bomb would be about the size of a pineapple, and not the one or two ton monster he maintained throughout most of the war. And as we shall discover in the transcripts nuclear chemist Paul Hartek is close - perilously close - to the correct critical mass of uranium for the Hiroshima bomb.

According to Paul Lawrence Rose, "Heisenberg and the Nazi Atomic Bomb project: A Study in German Culture" (Berkeley: 1998), Heisenberg, in his 14 August 1945 "lecture" to the assembled German Farm Hall physicists, used a tone and phrasing that indicated that "he has only just now understood the solution" to a small critical mass for the bomb, since "others" reported a critical mass of about 4 kg. This too only deepens the mystery. For Rose, an adherent of the Legend - though now in its highly modified post-Farm Hall declassification mode - the "others" could be the Allied press reports themselves.

Thomas Powers, "Heisenberg's War: The Secret History of the German Bomb" (1993), notes of Heisenberg's lecture that "this was something of a scientific tour de force - to come up with a working theory of bomb design in so short a time, after years of laboring under fundamental misconceptions."

Samuel Goudsmit, of course, used the transcripts to construct his version of the Allied Legend: "That the German scientists were at odds with one another, that they didn't understand bomb physics, and that they concocted a false story of moral scruples to explain their scientific failures.... The sources of Goudsmit's conclusions are all obvious in the transcripts, but what leaps out at the reader now are the many statements which Goudsmit failed to notice, forgot, or deliberately overlooked.

In the years immediately after the war, the Dutch-Jewish Manhattan Project physicist Samuel Goudsmit explained the whole mystery, alone with many others, as being simply due to the Allies having been "better" nuclear scientists and engineers than the very Germans who had invented the whole discipline of quantum mechanics and nuclear physics. That explanation, in conjunction with Heisenberg's own sell-evidently clumsy attempts to construct a functioning reactor, served well enough until these transcripts were declassified.

With the appearance of the transcripts and their stunning revelations of Heisenberg's actual knowledge of atomic bomb design, and some of the other scientists' clear understanding of the means to enrich enough weapons grade uranium without having to have a functioning reactor, the Legend had to be "touched up" a bit. Thomas Powers' "Heisenberg's War" appeared, arguing somewhat persuasively that Heisenberg had actually sabotaged the German bomb program. And almost as soon as it appeared, Lawrence Rose countered with "Heisenberg and the Nazi Atomic Bomb Project", arguing even more persuasively that Heisenberg had remained a loyal German and had not sabotaged anything, but that he simply labored under massive misconceptions of the nature of nuclear fission, and consequently over-calculated the critical mass needed to make a bomb during the war. The Germans never obtained the bomb, so the new version goes, because they never had a functioning reactor by which to enrich uranium to plutonium to make a bomb. Besides, having grossly overestimated the critical mass, they had no real impetus to pursue it. Simple enough, case closed once again.

But again, neither Powers' nor Rose's books really go to the heart of the mystery, for the Legend still requires the belief that "brilliant nuclear physicists including Nobel prize winners before the war, apparently struck by some strange malady which turned them into incompetent bunglers during the...War," [Philip Henshall, "The Nuclear Axis: Germany, Japan, and the Atom Bomb Race 1939-45", 'Introduction'] were suddenly and quite inexplicably cured of the malady within a few days of the bombing of Hiroshima! Moreover, two such widely diverging contemporary interpretations of the same material - Rose's and Powers' - only highlights the ambiguity of their contents in general, and Heisenberg's knowledge - or lack of it - in particular.

Matters are not helped by events on the other side of the world in the Pacific theater, for there American investigators would uncover similarly strange goings on after the war ended.

There, after Nagasaki, the Emperor Hirohito, overriding his ministers who wanted to continue the war, decided that Japan would surrender unconditionally. But why would Hirohito's ministers urge continuance of the war in the face of overwhelming Allied conventional arms superiority, and, from their point of view, facing a potential rain of atomic bombs? After all, "two" bombs could just as easily have turned into twenty. One could, of course, attribute the ministers' objections to the Emperor's intentions to "proud Samurai traditions" and the Japanese sense of "honor" and so on. And that would indeed be a plausible explanation.

But another explanation is that Hirohito's cabinet ministers knew something.

What his ministers probably knew was what American intelligence would soon discover: that the Japanese, "just prior to their surrender, had developed and successfully test fired an atomic bomb. The project had been housed in or near Konan (Japanese name for Hungnam), Korea, in the peninsula's North." [Robert K. Wilcox, "Japan's Secret War"]

It was exploded, so the story goes, one day after the American plutonium bomb, "Fat Man", exploded over Nagasaki, i.e., on 10 August 1945. The war, in other words, depending on Hirohito's decision, could have "gone nuclear". By that time, of course it would have done Japan no good to prolong it, with no viable means of delivery of an atomic weapon to any worthwhile strategic American targets. The Emperor stood his ministers down.

The Japanese were, in fact, developing large cargo submarines to transport a bomb to West Coast American port cities to be detonated there, much like Einstein warned in his famous letter to President Roosevelt that initiated the Manhattan Project. Of course, Einstein was more worried about the Germans using such a method of ship-born delivery, than the Japanese.

These allegations constitute yet another difficulty for the Allied Legend, for where did Japan obtain the necessary uranium for its (alleged) A-bomb? And more importantly, the technology to enrich it? Where did it build and assemble such a weapon? Who was responsible for its development?

Yet even now, we have only begun to penetrate into the heart of this "badly written finale." There are also the "odd little, and little known, details" to consider.

Why, for example, in 1944, did a lone Junkers 390 Bomber, a massive six engine heavy-lift ultra long-range transport aircraft capable of round trip intercontinental flight from Europe to North America, fly to within less than twenty miles of New York City, photograph the skyline of Manhattan, and return to Europe? [Nick Cook, op. cit., Henshall, op. cit.] Germany launched several such top secret long-distance flights during the war, using these and other heavy-lift ultra-long range aircraft. But what was their purpose, and more importantly, the purpose of this unique flight? [Italy, as well, launched long-range air missions to Japan] That such a flight was extremely risky goes without saying. What were the Germans up to with this enormous aircraft, and why would they even risk such an operation just to take pictures, when they only ever had two of these enormous six engine monsters available?

Finally, and to round out the Legend, there are the odd details of the German surrender and the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunals. Why does former Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler, mass murderer and one of human history's most notorious criminals, try to negotiate a surrender to the Western Allies? Of course, one can dismiss this as delusion, and Himmler was certainly delusional. But what could he possibly have thought he had to offer the Allies in return for a surrender to the West, and the sparing of his own wretched life?

What of the strangeness around the Nuremberg Tribunals themselves? The Legend is well known: obvious war criminals like Reichmarschall Göring, Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, Army Chief of Operations Staff Colonel-General Alfred Jodl, are sent swinging from the gallows, or, in Göring's case, cheating the hangman by swallowing cyanide. Other Nazi bigwigs like Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz, mastermind of Germany's devastating U-boat campaign against Allied shipping, or Minister of Armaments Albert Speer, or Finance Minister and Reichsbank President Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht, were imprisoned. 

Missing from the docket of the accused, of course, were the Pennemünde rocket scientists headed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and General Walter Dornberger, already headed to America to take charge of America's ballistic missile and space programs along with a host of scientists, engineers and technicians under the then super secret Project Paperclip. [The best sources on the overall outlines of Operation Paperclip are Mark Aaron's and John Loftus' "Unholy Trinity: the Vatican, Nazis, and Soviet Intelligence" (New York: St Martin's Press. 1991), and Christopher Simpson's "Blowback: America's Recruitment of Nazis and Its Effects on the Cold War" (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 1988)]. They, like their nuclear physics counterparts in Germany, had seemingly suffered from a similar "bungler's malady", for once having produced the first successful V-1 and V-2 prototypes comparatively early in the war, they suffered a similar lack of inspiration and ingenuity and (so the Legend goes) managed to produce only "paper rockets" and theoretical study projects after that. [Henshall, op. cit.]

But perhaps most significantly, by joint agreement of the Allied and Soviet prosecutors at Nuremberg, missing from evidence in the tribunal was the vast amount of documentary evidence implicating the Nazi regime in occult belief systems and practice, a fact that has given rise to a whole "mythology, and one that has never been adequately explored in connection with its possible influence on the development of German secret weapons during the war.

Jean-Michel Angebert, "The Occult and the Third Reich" (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974); Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, "The Occult Roots of Nazism: Secret Aryan Cults and Their Influence on Nazi Ideology" (New York: New York University Press. 1992); Michael Howard, "The Occult Conspiracy: Secret Societies- Their Influence and Power in World History" (Rochester, Vermont: Destiny Books, 1989); Peter Levenda, "Unholy Alliance: A History of Nazi involvement with the Occult" (New York: Avon Books, 1995); Louis Pauwels and Jacques Bergier, "The Morning of the Magicians", trans from the French by Rollo Meyers (New York: Stein and Day, 1964); Dusty Sklar, "The Nazis and the Occult" (New York: Dorset Press, 1977); James Webb, "The Occult Establishment and The Occult Underground" (LaSalle, Illinois: Open Court.1968). 

It should be noted that the SS Ahnenerbedienst did come under the tribunal's scrutiny.

Finally, a curious fact, one of those obvious things that one lends to overlook unless attention is drawn to it: the atomic bomb test that took place at the Trinity site in New Mexico was a test of America's implosion-plutonium bomb, a test needed to see if the concept would actually work. It did, and magnificently. But what is immensely significant - a fact missing from almost all mainstream literature on the subject since the end of the war - is that the uranium bomb with its apparatus of a cannon shooting the critical mass of uranium together, the bomb that was actually first used in war, the bomb dropped on Hiroshima, was never tested.

As German author Friedrich Georg notes, this tears a rather gaping hole in the Allied Legend:

"Also another question is of great importance: Why was the uranium bomb of the USA, unlike the plutonium bomb, not tested prior to being hurled on Japan? Militarily this would appear to be extremely dangerous.... Did the Americans simply forget to test it, or did others already do it for them?" [Friedrich Georg, "Hitlers Siegeswaffen: Band 1: Luftwaffe und Marine: Geheime Nuklearwaffen des Dritten Reiches und ihre Trägersysteme" (Schleusingen: Amun Verlag, 200)]

The Allied Legend accounts for this in various ways, some ingenious, some not so ingenious, but basically they boil down to the assertion that it was never tested because it did not need to be, so confident were Allied engineers that it would work. So we have been asked to believe, by the post-war Allied spin, that the American military dropped an atomic bomb of untested design, based on concepts of physics that were very new and themselves very untested, on an enemy city, an enemy also known to be working on acquiring the atomic bomb as well!

It is indeed a badly written, truly incredible, finale to the world's most horrendous war.

So, what exactly did the German pilot Hans Zinsser see on that night of October, 1944, as he flew his Heinkel bomber over the twilight skies of northern Germany? Something that, had he known it, would require the previous badly written Wagnerian libretto to be almost completely revised.

His affidavit is contained in a Military Intelligence report of 19 August 1945, roll number A1007, filmed in 1973 at Maxwell Air Force Base in Alabama. Zinsser's statement is found on the last page of the report:

47. A man named ZINSSER, a Flak rocket expert, mentioned what he noticed one day: In the beginning of October 1944 I flew from Ludwigslust (south of Lübeck), about 12 to 15 km from an atomic bomb test station, when I noticed a strong, bright illumination of the whole atmosphere, lasting about 2 seconds.

48. The clearly visible pressure wave escaped the approaching and following cloud formed by the explosion. This wave had a diameter of about 1 km when it became visible and the color of the cloud changed frequently. It became dotted after a short period of darkness with all sorts of light spots, which were, in contrast to normal explosions, of a pale blue color.

49. After about 10 seconds the sharp outlines of the explosion cloud disappeared, then the cloud began to take on a lighter color against the sky covered with a gray overcast. The diameter of the still visible pressure wave was at least 9000 meters while remaining visible for at least 15 seconds.

50. Personal observations of the colors of the explosion cloud found an almost blue-violet shade. During this manifestation reddish-colored rims were to be seen, changing to a dirty-like shade in very rapid succession.

51. The combustion was lightly felt from my observation plane in the form of pulling and pushing.

52. About one hour later I started with an He-111 from the A/D [probably "aerodrome"] at Ludwigslust and flew in an easterly direction. Shortly after the start I passed through the almost complete overcast (between 3000 and 4000 meter altitude). A cloud shaped like a mushroom with turbulent, billowing sections (at about 7000 meter altitude) stood, without any seeming connections, over the spot where the explosion took place. Strong electrical disturbances and the impossibility to continue radio communication as by lightning, turned up.

53. Because of the P-38s operating in the area Wittenberg-Mersburg I had to turn to the north but observed a better visibility at the bottom of the cloud where the explosion occured (sic).

Note: It does not seem very clear to me why these experiments took place in such crowded areas.

The entire documentation of this report is as follows: "Investigations, Research, Developments and Practical use of the German Atomic Bomb," [A.P.I.U. (Ninth Air Force) 96/1945 APO 696, U.S. Army, 19 August 1945." The report is classified secret. Note that the report begins in no uncertain terms: "the following information was obtained from four German scientists: a chemist, two physical chemists, and a rocket specialist. All four men contributed a short story as to what they knew of the atomic bomb development."  Note also the suggestive title of the report.

In other words, a German pilot had observed the test of a weapon, having all the signatures of a nuclear bomb: electromagnetic pulse and resulting malfunction of his radio, mushroom cloud, continuing fire and combustion of nuclear material in the cloud and so on. And all this on territory clearly under German control, in October of 1944, fully eight months before the first American A-bomb test in New Mexico! Note the curious fact that Zinsser maintains that the test took place in a populated area.

There is yet another curiosity to be observed in Zinsser's statement, one that his American interrogators either did not pursue, or, if they did pursue it, the results remain classified still: How did Zinsser know it was a test? The answer is obvious: Zinsser knew, because he was somehow involved, for clearly the Allies would not have control over a test site deep in Nazi Germany.

Earlier in the same report, there are clues that unravel the mystery:

14. When Germany was at this stage of the game, the war broke out in Europe. At first investigations on this disintegrating of 235U (sic) were somewhat neglected because a practical application seemed too far off. Later, however, this research continued, especially in finding methods of separating isotopes. Needless to say that the center of gravity of Germany's war effort at that time lay in other tasks.

15. Nevertheless the atomic bomb was expected to be ready toward the end of 1944, if it had not been for the effective air attacks on laboratories engaged in this uranium research, especially on the one in Ryukon in Norway, where heavy water was produced. It is mainly for this reason that Germany did not succeed in using the atomic bomb in this war.

These two paragraphs are quite revealing for several reasons.

First, what is the source for the assertion that the Germans expected the bomb to be ready in late 1944, well ahead of the Manhattan Project, and a statement in flat contradiction to the post-war Allied spin that the Germans were actually far behind? Indeed, during the war, Manhattan Project estimates consistently placed the Germans ahead of the Allies, and project chief General Leslie Groves also thought they were. But after the war, everything suddenly changed. Not only was America ahead, but according to the Legend, it had been consistently far ahead throughout the war.

Zinsser's account raises a disturbing possibility -besides completely contradicting the Allied Legend - and that is, did the Allies learn of a German A-bomb test during the war? If so, then we may look for certain types of corroborating evidence, for the other Statements of the post-war report containing Zinsser's affidavit would seem to indicate that the Allied Legend is already beginning to take tenuous shape. The intelligence report talks, for example, only of laboratories being the facilities conducting isotope enrichment and separation research. But mere laboratories would simply be incapable of development of an actual functioning atom bomb. So one component of the Legend emerges in this early report: the German effort was lackadaisical, being confined to laboratories.

Secondly, note the clear assertion that Germany did not succeed in "using the atomic bomb in this war." The language of the report is very clear. Yet it would also appear to be designed to obfuscate in aid of the then emerging Allied Legend, for the statement does not say that the Germans never tested a bomb, only that they did not use one. The language of the report is oddly careful, deliberate, and for that reason, all the more thought provoking.

Thirdly, note how much is actually -and inadvertently it would seem- revealed about German atomic bomb research and development, for the statements make it clear that the Germans were after a uranium based A-bomb. A plutonium bomb is never mentioned. The theory of plutonium development and the possibility of a plutonium based A-bomb were clearly known to the Germans, as a Top Secret memorandum to the Heereswaffenamt (Army Ordnance Bureau) in early 1942 makes abundantly clear.

This memorandum obviously constitutes another sore spot for the Allied Legend that emerged after the war, namely, that the Germans never knew the correct amount of the critical mass of a uranium fission bomb, but that it had been grossly overestimated by several orders of magnitude, hence rendering the project "unfeasible" within the span of the war. The problem of the HWA memorandum is that the Germans had a good ball-park estimate as early as January-February of 1942. And if they knew it was so small, then the resulting "decision" of the German High Command as to the impracticality of its development becomes immensely problematical. On the contrary, because of this memorandum -most likely prepared by Dr. Kurt Diebner or Dr. Fritz Houtermans - they knew that the undertaking was not only practical but feasible within the span of the war.

So it is the absence of plutonium from this report that affords us a first significant clue into what was probably the real nature of German atom bomb research. It is this absence that explains why the Germans never placed much emphasis on achieving a functioning reactor in order to enrich uranium to make weapons grade plutonium for an atom bomb: they did not need to do so, since there were other methods of enriching and separating enough U-235 to weapons grade purity and a stockpile of critical mass. In a nutshell: the Allied Legend about the German failure to obtain the atom bomb because they never had a functioning reactor is simply utter scientific nonsense, because a reactor is needed only it one wants to produce plutonium. It is an unneeded, and expensive, development, if one only wants to make a uranium A-bomb. Thus, there is sufficient reason, due to the science of bomb- making and the political and military realities of the war after America's entry, that the Germans took the decision to develop only a uranium bomb, since that afforded the best, most direct, and technologically least complicated route to acquisition of a bomb.

Let us pause a moment to put the indications of the German project in the context of the Manhattan Project taking place in the United States. There, with a production capacity larger than Germany's, and with an industrial base not being targeted by enemy bombing, the American project decided to concentrate on development of all available means to production of working atom bombs, i.e., uranium and plutonium bombs. But the production of plutonium could only be achieved in the construction of a functioning reactor. No reactor, no plutonium bomb.

But it should also be noted that the Manhattan Project also constructed the giant Oak Ridge facility in Tennessee to enrich uranium to weapons grade by gaseous diffusion and Lawrence's mass spectrometer processes, a facility that at no stage of its operation relied upon a functioning reactor in order to enrich uranium.

So, if the Germans were pursuing a similar approach to that employed at Oak Ridge, then we must find indicators to corroborate it. First, to enrich uranium by the same or similar methods as employed in Tennessee, the Reich would have had to build a similarly huge facility, or smaller facilities scattered throughout Germany, transporting the various levels of dangerous uranium isotope from one point to another as feedstock until the desired level of purity and enrichment was achieved. The material would then have to be assembled in a bomb, and tested. So one must first look for a facilities or facilities. And given the Oak Ridge operation and its massive size, we know exactly what to look for: enormous size, close proximity to water, an adequate transportation infrastructure, enormous electrical power consumption, and finally, two other significant factors: an enormous labor pool, and enormous cost.

Secondly, in order to verify or corroborate Zinsser's astonishing affidavit, we must look for corroborating evidence. We must look for indications that the Germans had stockpiled enough weapons grade uranium to constitute a critical mass for an atom bomb. And then we must hunt for the test site or sites and see if it (or they) bear(s) the signature(s) of an atomic blast.

Fortunately, the information is now slowly coming available with the recent declassification of documents by Great Britain, the United States, the former Soviet Union, and as the archives of the former East Germany are being opened by the German government itself. This allows us to examine each of these aspects of the problem in a detail not possible until the last few years. The answers are disturbing, and horrifying.

ELECTRICITY, SLAVES, AND "BUNA"

"Assertions made by General Groves after the war... were probably designed to divert attention from the German isotope separation program. The idea being that if the existence of the German uranium enrichment program could be hidden, then the cover story could be established that Germany's atomic bomb effort consisted only of failed attempts to create a reactor pile to breed plutonium"

-- Carter P. Hydrick: "Critical Mass: the Real Story of the Birth of the Atomic Bomb and the Nuclear Age"

Hydrick's research, in his Internet published manuscript, is painstaking and meticulous, and his speculative reconstructions of the detailed history of the war's end merit close attention. It is earnestly hoped he will eventually publish this important work in book form.

"The men who interrogated Heisenberg and other German scientists, read their reports, and gaped at the primitive reactor vessel in a cave in southern Germany were hard put to explain what had gone wrong. Germany had begun the war with every advantage: able scientists, material resources, and the support and interest of the highest military officials. How could they have achieved so little?" [Thomas Powers, "Heisenberg's War"]

These are the basic facts, and the central question, that have plagued every researcher into the subject of German secret weapons research since the end of World War Two. How indeed could Germany have not obtained the atom bomb?

The thesis of this book, among many others, is radical, namely, that Germany did acquire atomic bombs during the war. What must be explained, rather, is why Germany apparently did not use this and other dreadful weapons available to her, or, if she did, why we have not heard about it. But of course, to maintain such a radical thesis, one must argue persuasively that Germany had the bomb to begin with.

This implies a relatively easy set of corroborative evidence to search for. If Germany had an uranium based atom bomb, one must look for the following things:

(1) A method or methods of separating and enriching uranium-235 isotope, the necessary isotope for an uranium atom bomb, to weapons grade quality, and in sufficient quantity to stockpile enough material for the critical mass, without the use of a functioning atomic reactor.
(2) An actual facility or facilities where such technologies are used en masse; This implies in turn

(a) enormous electrical power consumption;
(b) adequate water and transportation supplies;
(c) an enormous labor pool;
(d) a physically large facility or facilities that are relatively shielded from Allied and/or Russian bombing;

(3) The necessary basic theory for the design of a uranium bomb;
(4) Available and adequate supplies of uranium for use in enrichment;
(5) A site or sites to assemble and test the bomb

Fortunately, all these aspects of the investigation afford the researcher several clues, all of which corroborate the existence, at the minimum, of a very large and successful German uranium refinement and enrichment program during the war.

We begin by looking in a very unlikely spot: Nuremberg.

At the War Crimes Tribunal after the war, several formerly elegantly attired business executives and senior managers of the huge, enormously powerful, and quite notorious German chemicals cartel, I.G. Farben A.G., had their time in the dock. They story of this early "global corporation", its bankrolling of the Nazi regime and its central role in its "military-industrial complex", as well as its role in producing the deadly Zyklon-B poison gas for the death camps has been chronicled elsewhere. [Joseph Borkin, "The Crime and Punishment of I. G. Farben"; Anthony C. Sutton, "Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler"]

I.G. Farben had been more than just complicit in Nazi atrocities by its construction of a large Buna, or synthetic rubber, production plant at Auschwitz in the Polish part of Silesia during the war, committing atrocities against the concentration camp victims during its construction and operation.

For Farben, the choice of Auschwitz as the site for the Buna plant was logical, and made for "sound business reasons". The concentration camp nearby the site selected for the enormous facility guaranteed an endless supply of slave labor for its construction, and, conveniently, when the slaves had exhausted themselves in its secret construction and operation, they could be permanently "laid off". Farben director Carl Krauch assigned one of its top Buna synthetic rubber experts, Otto Ambros, to investigate the sites for the proposed plant and make a recommendation.

The site eventually selected - Auschwitz - was "particularly suited for the installation" over a competing site in Norway for very important reason: A coal mine was nearby and three rivers converged to provide a vital requirement, a large source of water. Together with these three rivers, the Reich railroad and Autobahn afforded excellent transportation to and from the area. These were not decisive advantages, however, over the Norwegian site. But the Silesian location had one advantage that was overwhelming: the S.S. had plans to expand enormously a concentration camp nearby. The promise of an inexhaustible supply of slave labor was an attraction that could not be resisted. [Borkin, op. cit.]

The selection having been approved by the Farben board, Krauch then wrote a top secret letter to Ambros:

"In the new arrangement of priority stages ordered by Field Marshal Keitel, your building project has first priority.... At my request, (Goring) issued special decrees a few days ago to the supreme Reich authorities concerned.... In these decrees, the Reich Marshal obligated the offices concerned to meet your requirements in skilled workers and laborers at once, even at the expense of other important building projects or plans which are essential to the war economy". [Ibid]

With the Wehrmacht poised to blast its way into Russia soon, and sensing enormous profits to be made in the effort, the Farben directors decided to finance the enormous plant privately, rather than in concert with the Nazi regime, earmarking 900,000,000 Reichsmarks - nearly $250,000,000 in 1945 dollars or over $2 billion in contemporary dollars - to the project. It was to be the Buna plant to dwarf all other Buna plants.

However, as the testimony at the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal unfolded, the Auschwitz Buna factory emerged as one of the big mysteries of the war, for in spite of the enormous sum of money set aside for its construction, in spite of the personal blessings of Hitler, Himmler, Göring, and Keitel, and in spite of an endless supply both of skilled company contract laborers and an endless supply of slave labor from Auschwitz, "the project was continually disrupted by shortages, breakdowns, and delays.... Some malign influence seemed to be affecting the entire operation" to such an extent that Farben appeared to be faced with the first failure in its long corporate history of technological success. [Ibid] By 1942, the whole effort was viewed by many directors not only as a failure, but as a near disaster. [Ibid] 

Disaster notwithstanding, the huge synthetic rubber and gasoline plants were completed, after 300,000 concentration camp workers had passed through the corporations construction mills. 25,000 of these inmates were simply and cruelly worked to death from exhaustion. The plants themselves were nothing less than gigantic. So gigantic, in fact, that "they used more electricity than the entire city of Berlin." [Ibid]

During the war crimes tribunals, however, it was not this gruesome catalogue of facts about the plant that puzzled the Allied prosecutors. What puzzled them was that, in spite of such an enormous investment of lives, money, and material, "not a single pound of Buna was ever produced" [Ibid, emphasis added] The Farben directors and managers in the docks were almost obsessively insistent on this point. More electricity than the entire city of Berlin - the eighth largest in the world at that time - to produce absolutely nothing?

If this was true, then the enormous outlay of capital and labor and the huge electrical consumption contributed nothing significant to the German war effort whatsoever. Needless to say, there is something very wrong with this picture.

None of it made sense then, none of it makes sense now, unless of course the plant was not a Buna plant at all...

The facility has all of the characteristics of a uranium enrichment plant....the various components of the German atomic bomb efforts could have been implemented with a high degree of secrecy, even from other high-level Nazis, given Bormann’s close-knit relationships with Ohnesorge; Schmitz, who was chief of I.G. Farben; [Rudolf ] Höss, the commandant of Auschwitz; and Heinrich Müller, who, among his many other duties as head of the Gestapo, oversaw the supplying of forced laborers to Auschwitz."

"A theory has been offered that, late in the war, certain Nazis arranged the transfer of enriched uranium to the United States in exchange for immunity from prosecution. At the heart of this transfer theory lies the saga of a Nazi submarine - the U-234".

 --- -Carter P. Hydick, op. cit.

When I.G. Farben began its construction of the "Buna" plant at Auschwitz, one of the more unusual events to being the process was the removal of over 10,000 Polish inhabitants from their homes to make way for the thousands of German scientists, technicians, contract works and their families who were moved into the area. The parallel with the Manhattan Project in this respect is obvious. It is simply unbelievable in the extreme that, with such a technical and scientific effort on the part of the corporation with the most successful track record in advanced technologies and production facilities, and a plant consuming more electricity than Berlin, that nothing whatsoever was ever accomplished or produced. [Carter P. Hydick, op. cit.]

One contemporary researcher who is also mystified by the whole "Buna plant affair" is Carter P. Hydrick. Contacting Ed Landry, an expert in the field of synthetic rubber production from Houston, Texas, and informing him of the I.G. Farben plant, its huge electrical consumption, and the directors' claims that it produced no Buna at all, Landry responded: "That was not a rubber plant - you can bet your bottom dollar on that." Landry simply does not believe the primary purpose of the "Buna plant" was the production of rubber at all. [Hydick, op. cit.

How then to account for the enormous electrical consumption and post-war insistence of Farben directors that the plant never produced any synthetic rubber at all? What other technology would require such enormous electrical power consumption, such an enormous technical and unskilled labor staff, and such close proximity to plentiful water supplies? At that time, there was only one other technological process that could conceivably require all these things. Hydrick puts the case this way:

"Certainly there is something wrong with this picture. A compilation of the three central and readily known facts just outlined - electrical consumption, construction costs, and I.G. Farben's previous record - does not readily form a picture that a Buna processing plant was the type of project being constructed at Auschwitz. Such a compilation does sketch a picture, however, of another important wartime production process, though secret at the time. The process is uranium enrichment". [Ibid]

So why call it a Buna plant? And why protest so vociferously to the Allied prosecutors that the plant never produced any Buna at all? One answer is that with so much labor being provided by the slave labor from the SS concentration camp nearby, the plant fell under SS security jurisdiction, and an effective "cover" would therefore been at the head of the list of Farben's and the SS' concerns. In the unlikely event, for example, of an escape by one or more inmates, the "Buna" plant would have offered a plausible cover story should the Allies ever learn of it. Since isotope separation would have been such a secret and costly process, "it becomes hard to imagine the so-called Buna installation being anything but a cover for a uranium enrichment facility." [Hydick, op. cit.; Indeed, there is odd corroboration as we shall see from the Farm Hall transcripts. The "Buna plant" became the cover story to explain the construction to the laborers - in the event that explanations were offered at all! - and to the Farben company contract employees who were "out of the loop."

In this respect, the delays in its construction and the difficulties Farben encountered are also best explained by its being a huge isotope separation facility, not unlike those the Manhattan Project encountered when constructing its own similarly sized plant at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Like its American counterpart, shortages and delays and technical difficulties dogged the project from its inception, and like its American counterpart, these delays were experienced in spite of its enjoying a similarly privileged position in the hierarchy of Nazi priorities as Oak Ridge.[Ibid]

So the strange assertions and behavior of the Farben directors on trial after the war begins to make sense. Faced already with an emerging "Allied Legend" about German incompetence in nuclear matters, the Farben directors and managers were perhaps trying in a subtle way to "set the record straight" in the only way that would not overtly challenge that Legend. They were attempting, perhaps, to provide a clue as to the real nature and achievements of the German bomb program that would only be noticed over time and with careful scrutiny.

The selection of the site - near the concentration camp at Auschwitz and its hundreds of thousands of hapless victims - also makes strategic, if not gruesome, sense. Much like dictators of more recent times, it would appear that the Nazi regime had placed the facility near the camp in a deliberate attempt to use "human shields" to protect the facility from Allied bombing. If so, the decision was a correct one, as no Allied bombs ever fell on Auschwitz. The plant was dismantled only in the face of the approaching Russian armies in 1944.

To establish that the "Buna plant" was most likely an isotope separation facility, however, requires that one prove the Germans possessed the technological means for isotope separation. Additionally, if such technology was employed at the "Buna plant", then it implies that there was more than one atom bomb project in Germany, for the "Heisenberg" wing of the project, and all the subsequent debates that surround it, are well known. So in addition to ascertaining whether or not Germany possessed the technology to separate isotopes, one must also attempt a broad reconstruction of the actual outlines and relationships of the various German atom bomb projects.

By stating the problem in this fashion, one is again confronted by the post-war Allied Legend:

"In the traditional history of the bomb, (Manhattan project chief General Leslie) Groves has positioned the German plutonium effort as the only nuclear initiative Germany ever pursued. And he has magnified this misinformation, couched in a cushion of half-truths, to immense proportions - large enough to hide what appears to be a huge German uranium enrichment project behind it - and thus he has shielded the Nazi near-success from the view of the world". [Hydrick, op. cit. Obviously, Hydrick himself does not appear ready to go all the way and acknowledge that the Germans actually successfully tested an atom bomb before its American Manhattan project counterpart produced and tested one].

Did Germany have isotope enrichment technology available? And could it have employed that technology in sufficient quantity to make significant amounts of enriched uranium available for a bomb program?

There can be no doubt that Germany certainly had a sufficient supply of uranium ore, for the region of the Sudetenland - annexed by Germany after the infamous Munich conference in 1938 - is a region known for its rich deposits of some of the highest grade uranium ore in the world. The region, coincidentally, lies close to the "Three Corners" region of Thuringia in south central Germany, and therefore close to Silesia and the various installations that will be examined later. So the Farben directors may have had another reason for choosing Auschwitz as the site for an enrichment facility. Auschwitz was close not only to water, an adequate transportation network, and abundant labor, it was conveniently close to the uranium fields of the German-Czech Sudentenland.

These facts raise a speculative possibility. It is well-known that the announcement by nuclear chemist Otto Hahn of his discovery of nuclear fission did not occur until after the Munich conference and the surrender of the Sudetenland to the Third Reich by Chamberlain and Daladier. But might the reality have been something different? Might, in fact, the discovery of fission have taken place before the conference, and its results withheld by the Reich until after Europe's only uranium supply was firmly in Nazi hands? It is perhaps significant that Adolf Hitler was prepared to go to war over the matter.

In any case, before we investigate the question of the technology available to the Germans, we must first answer the question of why they apparently concentrated almost exclusively on obtaining a uranium atom bomb in their program. After all, the American Manhattan Project had elected to pursue both a uranium and a plutonium bomb. The theoretical possibility of plutonium bombs - "element 94" as it was officially called in German documents of the period - was certainly known to the Nazis. And, as the early 1942 memorandum to the Heereswaffenamt also makes clear, the Germans also knew that this element could only be synthesized in an atomic reactor.

So why did they apparently concentrate only on a uranium bomb and isotope separation and enrichment almost exclusively? With the destruction of the Norwegian heavy water plant at Ryukon in 1942 by Allied commandos, and German failures in obtaining sufficient purity of graphite for use as a moderator in a reactor, the only other moderator available to them - heavy water - was now in critically short supply. Thus, according to the Legend, a functioning reactor leading to a critical mass supply of "element 94" was not feasible to them in the projected span of the war.

But let us, for a moment, assume that the Allied commando raid had not taken place. The German failures with graphite moderated reactors were already a matter of record, and it was obvious to them that there were significant technological and engineering hurdles to be surmounted before a reactor came into production. On the other hand, the Germans already had the necessary technology to enrich U-235 for a bomb, and thus uranium enrichment constituted the best, most direct, and technologically feasible route to the acquisition of a bomb within the expected span of the war for the Germans. More on that technology in a moment.

One now has to deal with yet another component of the Allied Legend. American progress in the plutonium bomb, from the moment Fermi successfully completed and tested a functioning reactor in the squash court at the University of Chicago, appeared to be running fairly smoothly, until fairly late in the war, when it was discovered that in order to make a bomb from plutonium, the critical mass would have to be assembled much faster than any existing Allied fuse technologies could accomplish. Moreover, there was so little margin of error, since the fuses in an implosion device would have to fire as close to simultaneously as possible, that Allied engineers began to despair of making a plutonium bomb work.


Thus one is confronted with a rather interesting scientific picture, one directly in contradiction to the traditional history of the bomb. If the Germans indeed had a successful and large scale uranium enrichment project running ca. 1941-1944, and if their bomb project was devoted almost exclusively on acquiring a uranium atom bomb, and if at the same time Allied engineers were coming to realize the problems inherent in plutonium bomb design, then this means, in one respect at least, that the Germans have not wasted time or effort on what is admittedly a more difficult task, namely, the plutonium bomb. This fact gives rise to serious doubts about the state of "success" in the Manhattan Project in late 1944 and early 1945.

So what were the actual technologies available to Nazi Germany for isotope enrichment and separation, and how did it compare to similar technologies employed at Oak Ridge for efficiency and output?

Difficult as it seems to accept, the fact of the matter is that Nazi Germany had "at least five, and possibly as many as seven, serious isotope separation development programs underway." [Hydrick, op. cit.] One of these, an "isotope sluice" developed by Drs. Bagge and Korsching, two of the scientists interred at Farm Hall, was brought to such a state of efficiency by mid-1944 that a single pass of uranium through it would enrich it to four times that produced by a single pass through the gaseous diffusion gates at Oak Ridge! [Ibid]

Contrast this with the end-of-war difficulties being faced by the Manhattan Project. Even with the enormous gaseous diffusion plant at Oak Ridge, stocks of fissionable uranium were still woefully short of critical mass requirements as late as March 1945. Passes through the Oak Ridge facility would enrich uranium from approximately a .7 percent concentration in around 10-12 percent, and thus the decision was taken to use the Oak Ridge production as feedstock for Earnest O. Lawrence's far more efficient and effective "beta calutrons," which were essentially a cyclotron with separation tanks, using electromagnetic means to enrich and separate isotope via mass spectrography. [Hydrick, op. cit.] Consequently, one may assume that if a similar quantity of Bagge and Korsching's "isotope sluices" were used en masse, the result would have been a more rapid build-up of enriched uranium feedstock. Similarly, the more efficient German technology may also have allowed for relatively smaller separation facilities.

Good as it was, however, the isotope sluice was not Germany's most efficient or technologically advanced means of uranium enrichment. This was the centrifuge, and its progeny - designed by nuclear chemist Paul Hartek - the ultracentrifuge.

The same technology was captured by the Soviet Union and further perfected in its own bomb program. On the post-war German side, such ultra-centrifuges were provided by the Siemens company and other German firms first to South Africa in its own bomb program [Rogers and Cervenka, "The Nuclear Axis: West Germany and South Africa"]. In other words, the technology is not only originally German, but is advanced enough to be employed today. It should be noted that, as of the mid-1970s, several of the Germans involved in the corporate development of centrifuge enrichment facilities for the Federal Republic (West Germany) had ties to the Third Reich's bomb project, among them Prof. Karl Winnacker, a former member of the I.G. Farben board.

American engineers, of course, knew of this possibility, but there was a significant drawback they had to face: the highly corrosive uranium gases used in this technology made it unfeasible to rely on centrifuges as a means of enrichment. On the German side, however, this was a solved problem. A special alloy called Bondur was developed precisely for use in centrifuges. [Hydrick, op. cit.]. But even centrifuge technology was not, however, the best available method the Germans had.

Baron Manfred von Ardenne, a rich eccentric and self-taught nuclear physicist and inventor, and his close associate, physicist Fritz Houtermanns, both correctly calculated the critical mass for a U-235 atom bomb in 1941, and with funds from Dr. Ing. Ohnesorge's money-rich Deutsche Reichspost, constructed a huge underground laboratory in his baronial manor in Lichterfelde, outside eastern Berlin. This laboratory included a 2,000,000 volt electrostatic generator and the only other cyclotron known to exist in the Third Reich besides that of the Curies in France. It is the only cyclotron acknowledged by the post-war Allied Legend. [Hydrick, op. cit.] 

At thus juncture it is necessary to pause to examine the German bomb program more closely, for we now have evidence of at least three different, and seemingly separate, technological efforts:

(1) The Heisenberg-Army program, centered around Heisenberg himself and various associates at the Kaiser Wilhelm and Max Planck institutes, a purely "small laboratory" effort concentrating, or rather, dibbling and dabbling in the construction of a reactor. This is the "program" the Allied Legend focuses on, and the one most people think of when they think of the German atom bomb effort. It is the program deliberately inculcated by that Legend as proof of German nuclear incompetence and bungling;

It should be noted again, however, that the German Army's Ordnance Bureau was in possession of essentially correct estimations of the critical mass for a uranium bomb in early 1942, and that Heisenberg himself after the war suddenly reassumed his commanding position by detailing the construction of the Hiroshima bomb along essentially correct principles, and allegedly from information gleaned only from the BBC!

(2) The I.G. Farben "Buna plant" at Auschwitz, whose relationship to the other programs, and to the SS, is not entirely clear;
(3) The Bagge-Korsching-von Ardenne-Houtermanns circle, developing an array of advanced separation technologies, and apparently, via von Ardenne, tied somehow to, of all things, the German postal service!

Why the Reichspost? For one thing, it afforded an effective cover for the program, which, like its American counterpart, appears to have been compartmentalized under a number of government agencies, many having no plausible connection with a large secret weapons research effort. Secondly, and more significantly, the Reichspost was awash with money, and could therefore have provided some of the massive funding necessary to the project, a true "black budget" operation in every sense. And finally, the head of the Reichspost was, perhaps not coincidentally, an engineer: Dr. Ing. Ohnesorge. It is, from the German point of view, a logical choice. Even his last name, "Ohnesorge", meaning "without sorrow or regret", is an ironic twist to the story.

The Uranium 235 needed to fuel the Atomic Bomb was separated from the more plentiful Uranium 238 using "Calutrons" at Y-12. The word "Calutron" comes from CALifornia University CycloTRON to recognize that it was designed by E. O. Lawrence. The picture shows six of the original "D-Coil" magnets. These magnets were placed on either side of a vacuum chamber where the unique and scarce material was collected.

What was the method of separation and enrichment developed by von Ardenne and Houtermanns? Very simply, it was the cyclotron itself. Von Ardenne had invented a modification of the cyclotron - electromagnetic separation tanks- very similar to Ernst O. Lawrence's "beta calutrons" in the United States. It is to be noted, however, that von Ardenne had completed his modifications in April of 1942, whereas General Groves in the Manhattan Project would not have Lawrence's beta calutron at Oak Ridge for fully a year and a half after that! [Hydrick, op. cit.] "In addition, the ion plasma source Ardenne had designed for his isotope separator to sublime the uranium compound was far superior to that provided for the calutrons." So efficient, in fact, was von Ardenne's version as a source for emitting particle rays, that to this day it is known as "the Ardenne source." [Hydrick, op. cit.] 

Von Ardenne himself is a mysterious figure, for after the war he was one of the few German scientists to deliberately opt to cooperate with the Soviet Union rather than the Western Allies. His contribution to the Soviet acquisition of the atomic bomb in 1949 was to earn him the "Stalin Prize" in 1955, the Soviet equivalent to the Nobel Prize. He was the only non-Russian and non-Soviet ever to win the prize. [Henshall, op. cit.]

In any case, von Ardenne's work, plus that of the other German scientists working on separation and enrichment - Bagge, Korsching, Harteck and Houtermanns - indicates one thing: that there was a sound and solid basis Allied wartime estimations of German progress and capabilities, for they were, in mid-1942, running a dead heat with the Manhattan Project, and were not "far behind" as the post-war Allied Legend would subsequently have us believe.

So what is the likely scenario, as it has emerged thus far? What conclusions may be drawn?

(1) There were several German bomb and enrichment projects, compartmentalized to maintain security, perhaps being coordinated by some as yet or hitherto unknown entity. In any case, it appears that one such serious program was at least nominally being coordinated by the Deutsche Reichspost under its chief, Dr. Ing. Wilhelm Ohnesorge;
(2) The most significant enrichment and separation projects were not being conducted by Heisenberg or his circle, or for that matter, by any of the more "high profile" German scientists, save perhaps Harteck and Diebner. This suggests that perhaps the more famous scientists were being used as "fronts" and being kept out of the loop of the most serious and significant technological achievements as a matter of security. Had they been involved in such efforts and then subsequently kidnapped or assassinated by the Allies - a thought that certainly occurred to the OSS [Powers, op. cit., Samuel Goudsmit was at one point being considered as a member of the team that would attempt to kidnap or assassinate Heisenberg] - then the German program would have been severely crippled and exposed;
(3) At least three German technologies were arguably more efficient and technologically advanced than their American counterparts:

(a) Bagge and Korsching's "isotope sluice";
(b) Harteck's centrifuges and ultra-centrifuges;
(c) Von Ardenne's modified cyclotrons, the "Ardenne source";

(4) At least one known facility was large enough in terms of its physical size, labor requirements, and electrical consumption, to have conceivably been used as a large separation facility, the I.G. Farben "Buna plant" at Auschwitz. The case is strong because:

(a) No Buna was ever produced there in spite of thousands of scientists, technicians, engineers, contract and slave laborers working there; 
(b) The site was close to the uranium ore fields of the Czech and German Sudentenland, being located in Polish Silesia;
(c) The site was close to plentiful water supplies, also needed in isotope enrichment;
(d) It was close to rail and road networks;
(e) It was close to plentiful (slave) labor;
(f) And finally -though not yet discussed - it was close to several large underground secret weapons production and research facilities in lower Silesia, and was close to one of the two alleged test sites of German atom bomb tests during the war;

(5) it may reasonably be assumed, in addition to the "Buna factory", that the Germans constructed smaller facilities in the area for separation and enrichment of isotope, using the Buna plant's production as feedstock for these other facilities.

[Powers, op. cit.] Powers also mentions another problematical fact concerning the Clusius-Dickel method of thermal diffusion: "One pound of U-235 was not a daunting figure, and Frisch calculated that 1,000,000 Clusius-Dickel tubes for thermal diffusion of uranium isotopes could produce it in a matter of weeks. Such a large industrial effort would not be cheap, but the two men concluded, 'Even if this plant costs as much as a battleship, it would be worth having.'"

To round out this unpleasant picture, one must also mention two further interesting facts: Von Ardenne's close associate and theoretical mentor, Dr. Fritz Houtermanns' specialty was thermonuclear fusion, indeed as an astrophysicist, he had staked his claim to fame in physics by describing precisely the type of nuclear process at work in stars. Interestingly enough, there does exist, from 1938, an Austrian patent for a device known as a "Molecular Bomb," a bomb that upon examination is an early version of a hydrogen bomb. Atomic bombs, of course, supply the necessary heat to get hydrogen atoms to collide and produce the much more enormous and terrible energies of thermonuclear hydrogen fusion bombs.

Secondly, it may now clearly be seen why, of all the German scientists working on the atom bomb, that Manfred von Ardenne was the one nuclear scientist that Adolf Hitler most often went personally to visit. 

[Hydrick, op. cit.] Rose notes that von Ardenne had written him and stated that he had never tried to persuade the Nazis to develop his process and employ it in large quantities. He then notes that the Siemens company did not develop it (Rose, op. cit.,). This would appear to be pure obfuscation on von Ardenne's part, for it was not Siemens, but I.G. Farben, that had developed the processes and employed them in large amounts at Auschwitz.

In any case, all the evidence points to the conclusion that there was a large, very well-funded, and very secret German isotope enrichment program during the war, a program successfully disguised during the war by the Nazis, and covered-up after war by the Allied Legend. But this too raises its own questions. How close was that program to acquiring sufficient stocks of weapons grade uranium to make a bomb (or bombs). And secondly, why did the Allies after the war go to such stupendous lengths to cover it up?


 Nazi A-Bomb strike at Kursk was intended to be 30 KT, twice the yield of the Hiroshima A-Bomb. Atomic cannon test shows 15 KT burst from 7 miles away.
Image credit: Wikimedia Commons via DOE.

As a final note to this chapter, and a tantalizing indication of further mysteries that will be investigated subsequently, there is a report, declassified by the National Security Agency only in 1978; the report is apparently a decoded intercept from the Japanese embassy in Stockholm to Tokyo. It is entitled simply "Reports on the Atom-Splitting Bomb." It is best to cite its amazing contents in their entirety, with their original breaks where they occurred in the text for transmission:  

1. This bomb is revolutionary in its results, and it will completely upset all ordinary precepts of warfare hitherto established. I am sending you, in one group, all those reports on what is called the atom-splitting bomb:

It is a fact that in June of 1943 the German Army tried out an utterly new type of weapon against the Russians at a location 150 kilometers southeast of Kursk. Although it was the entire 19th Infantry Regiment of the Russians which was thus attacked, only a few bombs (each round up to 5 kilograms) sufficed to utterly wipe them out to the last man.

Part 2. The following is according to a statement by Lieutenant-Colonel UE(?) I KENJI, advisor to the attaché' in Hungary and formerly (?on duty?) in this country, who by chance saw the actual scene immediately after the above took place:

"All the men and the horses (?within the area of?) the explosion of the shells were charred black and even their ammunition had all been detonated."

Moreover, it is a fact that the same type of war material was tried out in the Crimea, too. At that time the Russians claimed that this was poison-gas, and protested that if Germany were ever again to use it, Russia, too, would use poison-gas.

Part 3. There is also the fact that recently in London - in the period between October and the 15th of November - the loss of life and the damage to business buildings through fires of unknown origin was great. It is clear, judging especially by the articles about a new weapon of this type, which have appeared from time to time recently in British and American magazines - that even our enemy has already begun to study this type.

To generalize on the basis of all these reports: I am convinced that the most important technical advance in the present great war is in the realization of the atom-splitting bomb. Therefore, the central authorities are planning, through research on this type of weapon, to speed up the matter of rendering the weapon practical. And for my part, I am convinced of the necessity for taking urgent steps to effect this end.

Part 4. The following are the facts I have learned regarding its technical data:

Recently the British authorities warned their people of the possibility that they might undergo attacks by German atom-splitting bombs. The American military authorities have likewise warned that the American east coast might be the area chosen for a blind attack by some sort of flying bomb. It was called the German V-3. To be specific, this device is based on the principle of the explosion of the nuclei of the atoms in heavy hydrogen derived from heavy water. (Germany has a large plant (?for this?) in the vicinity of Rjukan, Norway, which has from time to time been bombed by English planes.). Naturally, there have been plenty of examples even before this of successful attempts at smashing individual atoms. However,

Part 5. As far as the demonstration of any practical results is concerned, they seem not to have been able to split large numbers of atoms in a single group. That is, they require for the splitting of each single atom a force that will disintegrate the electron orbit.

On the other hand, the stuff that the Germans are using has, apparently, a very much greater specific gravity than anything heretofore used. In this connection, allusions have been made to SIRIUS and stars of the "White Dwarf" group. (Their specific gravity is (?6?) 1 thousand, and the weight of one cubic inch is 1 ton.)

In general, atoms cannot be compressed into the nuclear density. However, the terrific pressures and extremes of temperature in the "White Dwarfs" cause the bursting of the atoms; and

Part 6. There are, moreover, radiations from the exterior of these stars composed of what is left of the atoms which are only the nuclei, very small in volume.

According to the English newspaper accounts, the German atom- splitting device is the NEUMAN disintegrator. Enormous energy is directed into the central part of the atom and this generates at atomic pressure of several tons of thousands of tons (sic) per square inch. This device can split the relatively unstable atoms of such elements as uranium. Moreover, it brings into being a store of explosive atomic energy.

A-GENSHI HAKAI DAN. That is, a bomb deriving its force from the release of atomic energy.

The end of this amazing intercept then reads "Inter 12 Dec 44 (1,2) Japanese; Rec'd 12 Dec 44; Trans 14 Dec 44 (3020-B)" apparently references to when the message was intercepted by American intelligence, its original language (Japanese), when the message was received, when it was translated (14 Dec 44), and by whom (3020-B). [Edgar Mayer and Thomas Mehner, "Hitler und die Bombe" (Rottenburg: Kopp Verlag, 2002), citing "Stockholm to Tokyo, No. 232.9 December 1944 (War Department), National Archives, RG 457, SRA 14628-32, declassified October 1, 1978].

The date of this document - after the test allegedly seen by Hans Zinsser and two days before the beginning of the Battle of the Bulge -must have set off alarm bells in the offices of Allied Intelligence personnel both during and after the war.
While it is certainly clear that the Japanese attaché in Stockholm seems to be somewhat confused bout the nature of nuclear fission, a number of startling things stand out in the document:

(1) The Germans were, according to the report, using weapons of mass destruction of some type on the Eastern Front, but had apparently for some reason refrained from using them on the Western Allies;

(a) The areas specifically mentioned were Kursk, in the approximate location of the southern pincer of the German offensive, which took place in July, and not June, of 1943, and the Crimean peninsula;
(b) The time mentioned was 1943, though since the only major action to have occurred in the Crimea was in 1942 with the massive German artillery bombardment, one must also conclude that the time frame stretched back into 1942; [At this juncture is it worth pausing to consider briefly the German siege of the Russian fortress of Sevastopol, scene of the most colossal artillery bombardment of the war, as it bears directly on the interpretation of this intercept}.

The siege was led by Colonel-General (later Field Marshal) Erich Von Manstein's 11th Army. Von Manstein assembled 1,300 artillery pieces - the largest concentration of heavy and super-heavy artillery deployed by any Power during the war - and pounded Sevastopol with this mighty arsenal twenty-four hours a day for five clays. These were no ordinary heavy field pieces.

Two mortar regiments - the 1st Heavy Mortar Regiment and the 70th Mortar Regiment -as well as the 1st and 4th Mortar Battalions, had been concentrated in front of the fortress under the special command of Colonel Nieman - altogether 21 batteries with 576 barrels, including the batteries of the 1st Heavy Mortar regiment with the 11- and 12 1/2 inch high explosive and incendiary oil shells...

Even these monsters were not the largest pieces deployed at Sevastopol. Several of the 16 1/2-inch "Big Bertha" Krupp cannon and their old Austrian Skoda counterparts were massed against the Russian positions, along with the even more colossal "Karl" and "Thor" mortars, gigantic self-propelled 24-inch mortars firing shells that weighed over two tons.

But even "Karl" was not quite the last word in gunnery. That last word was stationed at Bakhchisary, in the "Palace of Gardens" of the ancient residence of the Tartar Khans, and was called "Dora," or occasionally "Heavy Gustav" It was the heaviest gun of the last war. Its caliber was 31 1/2-inches. Sixty railway carriages were needed to transport the parts of the monster. Its 107-foot barrel ejected high-explosive projectiles of 4800 kg - i.e., nearly five tons - over a distance of 29 miles. Or it could hurl even heavier armor-piercing missiles, weighing seven tons, at targets nearly 24 miles away. The missile together with its cartridge measured nearly twenty-six feet in length. Erect that would be about (the) height of a two-story house.... Were they Conventional Rounds, or Fuel-Air Bombs?

These data are sufficient to show that here the conventional gun had been enlarged to gigantic, almost super-dimensional scale - indeed, to a point where one might question the economic return obtained from such a weapon. Yet one single round from "Dora" destroyed an ammunition dump in Severnaya Bay at Sevastopol although it was situated 100 feet below ground.

"So horrendous was the bombardment from this massed heavy and super-heavy artillery that the German General Staff estimated that over 500 rounds fell on Russian positions per second during the five days' artillery and aerial bombardment, a massive expenditure of ammunition. The rain of steel on the Russian positions pulverized Russian morale and was often so thunderous that eardrums burst. At the end of the battle, the city and environs of Sevastopol were ruined, two entire Soviet armies had been obliterated, and over 90,000 prisoners were taken".

-- Paul Carrell, "Hitler Moves East, 1941-1943" (Ballantine Books, 1971)


Why are these details significant? First, note the reference to "incendiary oil shells." These shells are the indication that unusual weaponry was deployed by the Germans at Sevastopol and delivered through conventional - though quite large - artillery pieces. The German Army did possess such shells and deployed the frequently and with no little effectiveness on the Eastern Front.

Might there have been an even more fearsome weapon? Subsequently we will present evidence that the Germans indeed developed an early version of a modern "fuel-air" bomb, a conventional explosive with the explosive power of a tactical nuclear weapon. Given the great weight of such projectiles, and the German lack of sufficient heavy-lift aircraft to deliver them, it is possible if not likely that super-heavy artillery was used to deploy them. This would also explain another curiosity in the Japanese military attaché's statement: the Germans apparently did not deploy weapons of mass destruction against cities, but only against military targets that would have been within the range of such weapons. We may now resume with the analysis of the Japanese statement.

(1) The Germans may have been seriously pursuing the hydrogen bomb, since reactions of the nuclei of heavy water atoms - containing deuterium and tritium - are essential in thermonuclear fusion reactions, a point highlighted by the Japanese delegate (though he confuses these reactions with fission reactions of atom bombs), and corroborated by Fritz Houtermans' pre-war work in the thermonuclear fusion process at work in stars; massed heavy and super-heavy artillery that the German General Staff estimated that over 500 rounds fell on Russian positions per second during the five days' artillery and aerial bombardment, a massive expenditure of ammunition. The rain of steel on the Russian positions pulverized Russian morale and was often so thunderous that eardrums burst. At the end of the battle, the city and environs of Sevastopol were ruined, two entire Soviet armies had been obliterated, and over 90,000 prisoners were taken;
(2) The enormous temperatures of atom bombs are used as detonators in conventional hydrogen bombs;
(3) In desperation the Russians appeal to have been ready to resort to the use of poison gas against the Germans if they did not "cease and desist";
(4) The Russians believe the weapons to have been "poison gas" of some sort, either a cover story put out by the Russians, or a result of field reports being made by Russian Soldiers who were ignorant of the type of weapon deployed against them;

The detail of "charred bodies" and exploded ammunition certainly point to non-conventional weaponry. A fuel-air device would at least account for the charring. The tremendous heat produced by such a bomb could also conceivably detonate ammunition. Likewise, radioactive burns with its characteristic blistering effects might well have been misunderstood by Russian field Soldiers and officers, who would most likely not have been familiar with nuclear energy, as the effects of poison gas.

and finally, and most sensationally,

(5) According to the Japanese cable, the Germans appeared to have gained their specialized knowledge via some connection to the star system of Sirius and that knowledge involved some exotic form of very dense matter, a statement that strains credulity even today.

It is this last point that directs our attention to the most fantastic and arcane recesses of wartime German secret weapons research, for if the allegation has even a partial basis in truth, then it indicates that at some highly secret level, physics, and the esoteric, were being pursued by the Nazi regime in some very extraordinary ways.[To anyone familiar with the wealth of material on alternative research into the Giza compound in Egypt, the reference to Sirius will immediately conjure images of Egyptian religion, its preoccupation with death, with the Osiris myth, and to the Sirian star system].

In this regard it is important to note that the extreme density of the material described by the Japanese envoy resembles nothing so much as a construct of modern post-war theoretical physics called "dark matter". In all likelihood his report greatly overestimates the mass of this material - if it existed at all - but nonetheless it is crucial to observe that it is material far beyond the ordinary density of matter.

Strangely, the German-Sirian connection pops up again, long alter the war, in an unusual context. In my previous book, "The Giza Death Star Deployed", Kempton, Illinois: Adventures Unlimited Press, 2003] I mentioned the research of Robert Temple into the mysterious African Dogon tribe, a tribe of primitive peoples that nonetheless appears to have preserved an accurate knowledge of the Sirian star system for many generations, from a period long before modern astronomy knew anything about it.

In that book, I noted that Temple also alleges serious Soviet KGB and American CIA and NSA interest in his book.... An odd mention, perhaps significant in the light of our later discussion of possible German involvement in scalar physics research during World War Two and after, is Temple's allegation that Baron Jesco von Puttkamer wrote him a denunciatory letter on NASA stationary, only later to retract that, stating that it did not represent an official NASA position. Temple believes that Puttkamer was one of the Germans brought to the USA during the notorious Operation Paper Clip in the days immediately following the Nazi surrender.

As I then go on to observe in that book, Karl Jesco von Puttkamer was no ordinary German, being a member of Adolf Hitler's military staff throughout the war as his naval adjutant to staff, beginning the war with the rank of captain and ending with the rank of Admiral. Puttkamer was subsequently employed by NASA.

So the investigation of the German atom bomb, via this recently declassified Japanese cable, has already led us far afield, into a realm of frightening potentialities, into a world of fuel-air bombs, gigantic artillery delivery systems, super-dense matter, the hydrogen bomb, and what seems to be a curious blend of mystical esotericism and Egyptology, and physics.

Was there a German bomb? In the above context, the question seems almost plain and ordinary. If so, then given the extraordinary reports that leaked out from time to time from the Eastern Front, what other even more secret research lay behind their atom bomb projects, for evidently such research there was?

But exotic super dense matter or not, according to some versions of the Allied Legend, the Germans never had enough fissile weapons grade uranium to begin with. We will now investigate the problem of the "missing uranium."

U-234, U-235, AND THE STRANGE CASE OF THE MISSING URANIUM

"The traditional history denies, however, that the uranium on board U-234 was enriched and therefore easily usable in an atomic bomb. The accepted theory asserts there is no evidence that the uranium stocks of U-234 were transferred into the Manhattan Project... And the traditional history asserts that the bomb components on board (the) U-234 arrived too late to be included in the atomic bombs that were dropped on Japan. The documentation indicates quite differently on all accounts."

-- Carter P. Hydrick, "Critical Mass: The Real Story of the Atomic Bomb and the Birth of the Nuclear Age" 

December of 1944, an unhappy report is made to some unhappy people:

"A study of the shipment of (bomb grade uranium) for the past three months shows the following: At present rate we will have 10 kilos about 7 February  and 15 kilos about 1 May." [Ibid]

This was bad news indeed, for a uranium based atom bomb required between 10-100 kilograms by the earliest estimates (ca. 1942), and, by the time this memo was written, about 50 kilos, the more accurate calculation of critical mass needed to make an atom bomb from uranium.

One may imagine the consternation this memo must have caused at headquarters. The was, perhaps, a considerable degree of yelling and screaming and finger pointing and other histrionics, interlarded with desperate orders to re-double efforts amid the fire-tinged skies of the war's Wagnerian Götterdämmerung.

The problem, however, is that the memo is not German at all. It originates within the Manhattan Project on 28 December 1944, from Eric Jette, the chief metallurgist at Los Alamos. One may imagine the desperation it must have triggered, however, since the Manhattan Project had consumed two billion dollars all in the pursuit of plutonium and uranium atom bombs. By this time it was of course apparent that there were significant and seemingly insurmountable problems in designing a plutonium bomb, for the fuses available to the Allies were simply far too slow to achieve the uniform compression of a plutonium core within the very short span of time needed to initiate uncontrolled nuclear fission.

That left the uranium bomb as the more immediately feasible alternative - as the Germans had discovered years earlier - to the acquisition of a functioning weapon within the projected span of the war. Yet, after a veritable hemorrhage of dollars in pursuit of the latter objective, the Manhattan Project was far short of the necessary critical mass for a uranium bomb. And with the inevitability of an invasion of Japan looming, the pressure on General Leslie Groves to produce results was immense.

The lack of a sufficient stockpile, after years of concentrated all-out effort, was in part explainable, for two years earlier Fermi had been successful in construction of the first functioning atomic reactor. That success had spurred the American project to commit more seriously to the pursuit of a plutonium bomb. Accordingly, some of the precious and scarce refined and enriched uranium 235 coming out of Oak Ridge and Lawrence's beta calutrons was being siphoned off as feedstock for enrichment and transmutation into plutonium in the breeder reactors constructed at Handford, Washington for the purpose. Thus, some of the fissionable uranium stockpile had been deliberately diverted for plutonium production. [Hydrick, op. cit.] The decision was a logical one and the Manhattan Project decision- makers cannot be faulted to taking it. The reason is simple. Pound for weapons grade pound, a pound of plutonium will produce more bombs than a pound of uranium. It thus made economic sense to convert enriched uranium to plutonium, for more bombs would be possible with the same amount of material.

 Typhoons of 440 Squadron, R.C.A.F. make a low pass to identify
a formidable German King Tiger Tank in the Ardennes
during the 'Battle of the Bulge'

But in December of 1944, having pursued both options, General Leslie Groves now stood on the verge of losing both gambles. And let us not forget what had just happened in Europe to sour the mood of "those in the know" in the United States even further. There, six months after the Allied landings in Normandy and the headlong dash across France, Allied armies had stalled on the borders of the Reich. Allied intelligence analysts confidently reassured the generals that no further significant German military offensive was possible, and their optimism was reflected in the general mood of the citizenry in France, Britain, and the United States. The mood was brutally shattered when, on 16 December 1944, the German Army and Luftwaffe mounted one last, desperate offensive with secretly husbanded reserves in the Ardennes forest, scene of their 1940 triumph against France. Within a matter of hours, the offensive had broken through American lines, surrounded, captured, or otherwise decimated the entire 116th American infantry division, and days later, surrounded the 101st Airborne division at Bastogne, and appeared well on the way to crossing the Meuse River at Namur. On 28 December 1944, when the memo was written, the German offensive had been stalled, but not stopped.

For the Allied officers privy to intelligence reports and "in-the-loop" on the Manhattan Project, the offensive was possibly seen as confirmation of their worst fears: the Germans were close to a bomb, and were trying to buy time. The horrible thought in the back of every Allied scientist's and engineer's head must have been that after all the Allied military successes of the previous years, the race for the bomb could still be won by the Germans. And if they were able to produce enough of them to put unbearable pressure on any one of the Western Allies, the outcome of the war itself was still in doubt. If, for example, the Germans had a-bombed British and French cities, it is unlikely that a continuance of the would have been politically feasible for Churchill's wartime coalition government. In all likelihood it would have collapsed. A similar result would have likely occurred in France. And without British and French bases available for supply and forward deployment, the American military situation on the continent would have become untenable, if not disastrous.

In any case, word of the Manhattan Project's difficulties apparently leaked in the Washington D.C. political community, for United States Senator James F. Byrnes got in on the act, writing a memorandum to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and confirming that the Manhattan Project was perceived - at least by some in the know - as being in danger of failure:

   Memorandum of U.S. Senator James F. Byrnes to President Frankliin D. Roosevelt, 3 March 1945, cited in Harald Fath, "Geheime Kommandosache - S III Jonastal und die Siegeswaffenproduktion: Weitere Spurensuche nach Thüringens Manhattan Project" (Schleusingen: Amun Verlag, 2000)

SECRET March 3, 1945

MEMORANDUM FOR THE PRESIDENT

FROM: JAMES F. BYRNES

"I understand that the expenditures for the Manhattan project are approaching 2 billion dollars with no definite assurance yet of production.

"We have succeeded to date in obtaining the cooperation of Congressional Committees in secret meetings. Perhaps we can continue to do so while the war lasts.

"However, if the project proves a failure, it will be subjected to relentless criticism".

Senator Brynes' memorandum highlights the real problem in the Manhattan Project, and the real, though certainly not publicly known, military situation of the Allies ca. late 1944 and early 1945: that in spite of tremendous conventional military success against the Third Reich, the Western Allies and Soviet Russia could conceivably still be forced to a "draw" if Germany deployed and used atom bombs in sufficient numbers to affect the political situation of the Western Allies. With its stockpile of enriched uranium already depleted by the decision to develop more plutonium for a bomb (which as it turned out was un-detonatible with existing British and American fuse technology anyway) and far below that needed for a uranium-based atom bomb, "the entire enterprise appeared destined for defeat." [Hydrick, op. cit] Not only defeat, but for "those in the know" in late 1944 and early 1945, the possibility was one of ignominious defeat and horrible carnage.

If the stocks of weapons grade Uranium ca. late 1944 - early 1945 were about half of what they needed to be after two years of research and production, and if this in turn was the cause of Senator Byrnes' concern, how then did the Manhattan Project acquire the large remaining amount or uranium 235 needed in the few months from March to the dropping of the Little Boy bomb on Hiroshima in August, only five months away?

How did it accomplish this feat, if in feet after some three years of production it had only produced less than half of the needed supply of critical mass weapons grade uranium? Where did its missing uranium 235 come from? And how did it solve the pressing problem of the fuses for a plutonium bomb?

Of course the answer if that if the Manhattan Project was incapable of producing enough enriched uranium in that short amount of time-months rather than years - then its stocks had to have been supplemented from external sources, and there is only one viable place with the necessary technology to enrich uranium on that scale, as seen in the previous chapter. That source was Nazi Germany. But the Manhattan Project is not the only atom bomb project with some missing uranium.

Germany too appears to have suffered the "missing uranium syndrome" in the final days prior to and immediately after the end of the war. But the problem in Germany's case is that the missing uranium it not a few tens of kilos, but several hundred tons. At this juncture, it is worth citing Carter Hydrick's excellent research at length, in order to exhibit the full ramifications of this problem:

"From June of 1940 to the end of the war, Germany seized 3,500 tons of uranium compounds from Belgium - almost three times the amount Groves had purchased.... and stored it in salt mines in Strassfurt, Germany. Groves brags that on 17 April, 1945, as the war was winding down, Alsos recovered some 1,100 tons of uranium ore from Strassfurt and an additional 31 tons in Toulouse, France ..... And he claims that the amount recovered was all that Germany had ever held, asserting, therefore, that Germany had never had enough raw material to process the uranium either for a plutonium reactor pile or through magnetic separation techniques. Obviously, if Strassfurt once held 3,500 tons and only 1,130 were recovered, some 2,370 tons of uranium ore was unaccounted for - still twice the amount the Manhattan Project possessed and is assumed to have used throughout its entire wartime effort.... The material has not been accounted for to this day....

"As early as the summer of 1941, according to historian Margaret Gowing, Germany had already refined 600 tons of uranium to its oxide form, the form required for ionizing the material into a gas, in which form the uranium isotopes could then be magnetically or thermally separated or the oxide could be reduced to a metal for a reactor pile. In fact, Professor Dr. Riehl, who was responsible for all uranium throughout Germany during the course of the war, says the figure was actually much higher....

"To create either a uranium or plutonium bomb, at some point uranium must be reduced to metal. In the case of plutonium, U-238 is metalicized; for a uranium bomb, U-235 is metalicized. Because of uranium's difficult characteristics, however, this metallurgical process is a tricky one. The United States struggled with the problem early and still was not successful reducing uranium to its metallic form in large production quantities until late in 1942. The German technicians, however,... by the end of 1940, had already processed 280 kilograms into metal, over a quarter of a ton" [Hydrick, op. cit].

These observations require some additional commentary.

First, it is to be noted that Nazi Germany, by the best available evidence, was missing approximately two thousand tons of unrefined uranium ore by the war's end. Where did this ore go?

Second, it is clear that Nazi Germany was enriching uranium on a massive scale, having refined 600 tons to oxide form for potential metalicization as early as 1940. This would require a large and dedicated effort, with thousands of technicians, and a commensurately large facility or facilties to accomplish the enrichment. The figures, in other words, tend to corroborate the hypothesis outlined that the I.G. Farben "Buna" factory at Auschwitz was not a Buna factory at all, but a huge uranium enrichment facility. However, the date would imply another such facility, located elsewhere, since the Auschwitz facility did not really begin production until sometime in 1942.

Finally, it also seems clear that the Germans possessed an enormous stock of metallic uranium. But what was the isotope? Was it U-238 for further enrichment and separation into U-235, was it intended perhaps as feedstock for a reactor to be transmuted into plutonium, or was it already U-235, the necessary material for a uranium atom bomb? Given the statements of the Japanese military attaché' in Stockholm cited at the end of the previous chapter - that the Germans may have used an atomic or some other weapon of mass destruction on the Eastern Front ca. 1942-43, and given Zinsser's affidavit cited in the first chapter of an atom bomb test in October of 1944, it cannot be conclusively denied that some of this enormous stockpile may also have been U-235, the essential component for a bomb.

In any case, these figures strongly suggest that the Germans, ca. 1940-1942 were significantly ahead of the Allies in one very important aspect of atom bomb production: the enrichment of uranium, and therefore, this suggests also that they were demonstrably ahead in the race for an actual functioning atom bomb during this period. But the figures also raise another disturbing question: where did this uranium go?

One answer lies in the mysterious case of a U-boat, the U-234, captured by the Americans in 1945.

***

The case of the U-234 is well-known in literature about the Nazi atom bomb, and of course the Allied Legend is that none of the material on board the U-boat found its way into the American atom bomb project.

None of this could be further from the truth.

The U-234 was a very large mine-laying U-boat that had been adapted as an undersea freighter to carry large cargoes. Consider then the following "cargo manifest" of the U-234's very odd cargo:

(1) Two Japanese officers

The two officers were Air Force Colonel Genzo Shosi, an engineer, and Navy Captain Hideo Tomonaga. When the captain of the U-234 made known his intentions to surrender the submarine, which was then en route to Japan after the German surrender, the two Japanese officers committed hari-kiri, and were buried at sea with full military honors by the Germans.  

(2) 80 gold-lined cylinders containing 560 kilograms of uranium oxide

Hydrick's comment on the U-234's cargo manifest explains why the U- 234 was off limits to the American press following its surrender: "Whoever first read the entry and understood the frightening capabilities and potential purpose of uranium must have been stunned by the entry." (op. cit)


(3) Several wooden cases or barrels full of "water"

(4) Infrared proximity fuses

(5) Dr. Heinz Schlicke, inventor of the fuses

When the U-234 was being loaded with its cargo in Germany for the outward voyage, its radio operator, Wolfgang Hirschfeld observed the two Japanese officers writing "U235" on the paper wrapping of the cylinders prior to their being loaded into the submarine. [Hydrick, op. cit] Needless to say, this observation has called forth the full range of debunking techniques normally applied by skeptics to UFO sightings: low sun angles, poor lighting, distance was to great to see clearly, etc. etc. This is no surprise, for if Hirschfeld saw what he saw, then the enormous implications were obvious.

The use of gold lined cylinders is explainable by the fact that uranium, a highly corrosive metal, is easily contaminated if it comes into contact with other unstable elements. Gold, whose radioactive shielding properties are as great as lead, is also, unlike lead, a highly pure and stable element, and is therefore the element of choice when storing or shipping highly enriched and pure uranium for long periods of time, such as a voyage. [Ibid]            

Thus, the uranium oxide on board the U-234 was highly enriched uranium, and most likely, highly enriched U235, the last stage, perhaps, before being reduced to weapons grade or to metallization for a bomb (if it was already in weapons grade purity).

Indeed, if the Japanese officers' labels on the cylinders were accurate, it is likely that it was at the final stage of purity before metallization.

The cargo of the U-234 was so sensitive, in fact, that when the U.S. Navy prepared its own cargo manifest for the German submarine on 16 June 1945, the uranium oxide had entirely disappeared from the list. [Hydrick, op. cit]  Significantly, within a week of the appearance of the U.S. Navy's version of the U-234's cargo manifest, Oak Ridge's output of enriched uranium very nearly doubled. [Ibid] This in itself is highly suspect, since as late as March of 1945, as we have already seen, a U.S. Senator is worried about the failure of the Manhattan Project, so much so that he writes President Roosevelt a memorandum on the subject, and of course, we have also already seen that the chief metallurgist of Los Alamos laboratory indicates the stock of fissile U235 is far short of the needed critical mass, and would remain so for several months.

The conclusion is therefore simple, but frightening: the missing uranium used in the Manhattan Project was German, and that means that Nazi Germany's atom bomb project was much further along that the post-war Allied Legend would have us believe.

But what of the other two items in the U-234's strange cargo manifest, the fuses and their inventor, Dr. Heinz Schllcke? We have already noted that by late 1944 and early 1945, the American plutonium bomb project had run afoul of some nasty mathematics: the critical mass of a plutonium bomb, "imploded" or compressed by surrounding conventional explosives, would have to be assembled within 1/3000th of a second, otherwise the bomb would fail, and only produce a kind of "atomic fizzling firecracker", a "radiological" bomb producing very little explosion but a great deal of deadly radiation. This was a speed far in excess of the capabilities of conventional wire cabling and the ordinary fuses available to the Allied engineers.

It is known that late in the timetable of events leading to the Trinity test of the plutonium bomb in New Mexico that a design modification was introduced to the implosion device that incorporated "radiation venting channels", allowing radiation from the plutonium core to escape and reflect off the surrounding reflectors as the detonator was fired, within billionths of a second after the beginning of compression. There is no possible way to explain this modification other than by the incorporation of Dr. Schlicke's infrared proximity fuses into the final design of the American bomb, since they enabled the fuses to react and fire are the speed of light. [This issue poses historical problems for the Allied Legend].

In support of this historical reconstruction, there is a communication from 251 May 1945 from the chief of Naval Operations, to Portsmouth where the U-234 was brought after its surrender, indicating that Dr. Schlicke, now a prisoner of war, would be accompanied by three naval officers, to secure the fuses and bring them to Washington. [Ibid] 

There Dr. Schlicke was apparently to give a lecture on the fuses under the auspices of a "Mr. Alvarez," [Ibid] who would appear to be none other than well-known Manhattan Project scientist Dr. Luis Alvarez, the very man who, according to the Allied Legend, "solved" the fusing problem for the plutonium bomb!

As I observed in my previous book, "The Giza Death Star Deployed", Dr. Luis Alvarez also had some other strange distinctions to his credit, being one of the scientists allegedly involved with the alleged Roswell "UFO" crash, the CIA's subsequent "Robertson Panel" in the 1950s on UFOs and government policy, and subsequent cosmic ray experiments inside the 2nd Pyramid at Giza.

So it would appear that the surrender of the U-234 to the Americans in 1945 solved the Manhattan Project's two biggest outstanding problems: lack of sufficient supplies of weapons grade uranium, and lack of adequate fusing technology to make a plutonium bomb work. And this means that in the final analysis the Allied Legend about the Germans having been "far behind" the Allies in the race for the atom bomb is simply incorrect in the extreme in the best case, or a deliberate lie in the worst. But the fuses raise another frightening specter: What were the Germans developing such highly sophisticated fuses for? Infrared heat-seeking rockets, which they had developed, would be one answer, and of course an implosion device to compress critical mass would be another.

A "Harper's Magazine" article of October 1946 makes clear that Germany had developed the making of fuses to a level unknown elsewhere in the world. Some fuse designs had never even been thought of by the Americans.

The suggested fuse to detonate the plutonium bomb was the Exploding Bridge Wire device provided to Professor Alvarez by a German infra-red and electronics specialist travelling as a passenger aboard U-234 from Kiel to Tokyo which surrendered to the US Navy at sea in mid-May 1945.

But what about the other missing German uranium mentioned previously? The mission of the U-234 and its precious cargo thus raises certain other questions, and highlights other possibilities in this regard. It is a fact that throughout the war Germany and Japan both conducted long-range exchanges of officers and technology via aircraft and submarine - the exchange of technology being mostly a one-sided affair from Germany to Japan. It is conceivable that many of these voyages - just as with the U-234 - would have included similar transfers of uranium stocks and high technology to Japan. Some of the missing uranium must therefore surely be looked for in the Far East, in the Japanese atom bomb program. [Ibid]

Similarly, during the war both Germany and Italy undertook long-range flights to Japan, the Germans using their special long- range heavy lift transport aircraft such as the Ju-290 for polar flights. It is conceivable that these flights and their Italian counterparts also involved the exchange of officers and technology, if not a small amount of raw material as well. Some of the missing uranium probably also fell into the hands of the Soviets as the Russian armies steamrollered into Eastern Europe and finally into what would become the Soviet "eastern" zone of occupation in Germany.

But why, after traveling under radio silence from Germany, did the U-234 finally surrender its precious uranium, fuses, and "water", when its obvious destination was Japan? This is an intriguing question, and one that unfortunately cannot be answered here except briefly. Again, Carter Hydrick's superb research elaborates one highly probable hypothesis: U-234 was handed over to the US authorities on the orders of none other than Martin Bormann, in  a maneuver designed to secure his and others' freedom after the war, and as part of a deliberate plan to continue Nazism and its agendas and research underground.

Atomic Bombs Dropped On Japan By U.S. Used Components Bartered From Nazi Germany, Researcher Says Components Were Originally Shipping For Germany’s Ally Japan 

Carter Hydrick, a researcher who has spent eight years investigating the events, has announced findings that the American atomic bomb program credited with developing the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan to end World War Two, and which resulted in the United States emerging from the war as the most powerful nation on earth, used components developed by Nazi Germany, including enriched uranium, to fabricate the bombs. The revelation counters important aspects of the traditional history of the American bomb project, known as the Manhattan Project. The commonly accepted version of atomic bomb history states the bombs were created entirely by the United States, at a cost of $2 billion and five years of work by a battalion of top scientists, with assistance from Great Britain. While the new evidence does not refute American success initially enriching uranium — the key component of one of the bombs — strong documentary evidence indicates time pressures, technological delays, and a surprise opportunity to obtain from Germany the needed components that were in short supply in America, allowed the Manhattan Project to complete its bombs in time for the mid-August 1945 delivery deadline.

“What I suspect will shock people the most is it appears the possession of the enriched uranium and other components fell into our hands not by capture, but as part of what may have been clandestine negotiations between top Nazis and key United States military and governmental leaders,” said Carter Hydrick, the researcher who has spent eight years investigating the events. “The agreement appears to have been made in exchange for allowing these fugitives to escape from Europe and receive United States protection while they lived in semi-seclusion for decades after the war,” he stated. Hydrick displayed several documents from the United States National Archives and elsewhere to support his historical revision, as well as drawing from previously enigmatic events in the traditional history he contends have long been misunderstood, to show that Nazi Germany was an important source of nuclear bomb components used in the attacks on Japan.

Among the documents are captured Navy cargo manifests from German submarine U-234 that lists 580 kilograms, or 1120 pounds, of uranium oxide, as well as most of the Nazis’ latest, and most secret, war-making technologies; including, two fully disassembled Messerschmidt 262 jet fighters, the first jet aircraft used in combat and the only such planes employed in World War Two; the newest silent electric torpedoes; and plans and material to build Germany's feared V-2 rockets. The existence of U-234 and its cargo have long been known, and have been the subject of discussions over whether the uranium or any other components found on the vessel were used in the war against Japan, but, until now, no connection has ever been proved.

“The first big break was finding a secret dispatch from the Commander of Naval Operations in Washington indicating the uranium was stored for the journey in cylinders lined with gold,” explained Mr. Hydrick. “Further research showed that gold, which is a very stable substance, was only used to handle uranium that had already been enriched in order to protect it from contamination by corrosion.” Only enriched uranium is fissile enough to make a uranium bomb. Hydrick explained that, at $100,000 per ounce in 1945 dollars, the enriched uranium was well worth the investment in gold to protect it. According to Hydrick's sources, gold would not have been used to ship uranium that had not yet been enriched, since the value of raw uranium did not justify such expense. He cites instances in the United States program when uranium that had not been enriched was shipped in cloth bags and steel drums with no protection from corrosion whatsoever.

A second, stronger, validation that the uranium on board U-234 was enriched uranium came from eye-witness accounts of a crew member of the submarine, who was present at both the loading and unloading of the boat. The crew member reported in two memoirs that the uranium containers had the label “U235” painted on them just before they were lowered into the submarine. U235 is the scientific designation for enriched uranium. The same crew member reported that United States Navy personnel later tested the supply tubes of the submarine with Geiger counters after it was turned over to the United States and the instruments registered a very high level of radioactivity. Without understanding the import of the U235 designation, the crew member assumed the uranium was left over from Germany's failed, but later highly publicized, plutonium breeding reactor experiments.

“The evidence seems very strong that the uranium on board U-234 was bomb-grade, enriched uranium,” said Hydrick.

Even if the uranium was enriched, that does not prove it was used in the Manhattan Project, concedes Hydrick. To prove the two events were related, he presented copies of documents held in the United States National Archives that show relationships between the Manhattan Project and the U-boat. One of the documents is a secret cable, again from the Commander of Naval Operations, directing that a three-man party had been dispatched to take possession of the cargo from U-234. According to the document, accompanying two Naval officers in an otherwise all-Navy operation was Major John E. Vance of the Army Corps of Engineers, the department of the Army under which the Manhattan Project operated. Additional documents show that a few days following Vance’s arrival, when another accounting of the cargo was made, the uranium had disappeared from the materials in Navy possession. Transcripts of telephone conversations that occurred approximately one week later between two Manhattan Project intelligence officers identify a captured shipment of uranium powder as being in control of, and being tested by, a person identified only as “Vance.” “It would be an improbable coincidence if they were not talking about the same “Vance” as the officer who visited U-234, and the same uranium powder captured from that vessel,” suggested Hydrick.

A second connection is also documented between the Manhattan Project and U-234 — which carried eight high-profile military and scientific passengers who were not crew members, along with its deadly cargo, says Mr. Hydrick. “Two of the captured passengers on U-234 had contact with an alleged United States Naval Intelligence officer identified in separate documents by the prisoners, as ‘Mr. Alvarez’ and as ‘Commander Alvarez’,” Hydrick said. The alleged “Commander Alvarez” appears to have been the personal handler of Dr. Heinz Schlicke, one of the scientific passengers on board U-234, who had now become a prisoner of war. Dr. Schlicke was an expert on high frequency technology such as radar and infra-red technology.

Upon researching the Navy officers and alumni rosters of 1943 and 1945, Hydrick found no entry in the name of Alvarez was recorded in either document. “General Groves, who headed the Manhattan Project, is well documented as having frequently provided military identification to scientists within the Manhattan Project in order for them to operate unimpeded, when necessary, within the military establishment,” said Hydrick. The researcher then points to one of the heroes of the Manhattan Project, Luis W. Alvarez, as the probable identity of “Commander Alvarez,” who he suggests was dressed incognito in Navy uniform to surreptitiously cull information and technological expertise from Dr. Schlicke.

“Luis Alvarez was the scientist on the Manhattan Project who is credited with coming up with, at the last minute, the successful solution for simultaneously detonating the 32 fuses that exploded the second, or plutonium bomb, which was the bomb dropped on Nagasaki,” the researcher said. Before a solution was found for this problem, according to Hydrick, the Manhattan Project had struggled for a year and a half with the dilemma. Hydrick points to documentation from the National Archives showing that Alvarez was the head of a three-man committee tasked with solving the fusing problem.

“Dr. Schlicke had in his personal care while on the U-boat, a supply of Germany’s newly developed infra-red fuses,” Hydrick continued. “In the national archives there is a secret cable recounting how Schlicke was flown back to the U-234 site by two United States Navy personnel expressly to retrieve those infra-red fuses. These fuses work on the basis of light, and at the speed of light. The evidence strongly suggests, in my view, that Luis Alvarez and “Commander Alvarez” were one and the same person and that Luis Alvarez used Dr. Schlicke’s infra-red fuses to ignite all 32 detonation points on the American plutonium bomb simultaneously at the speed of light, solving the plutonium bomb detonation problem.”

As substantiating evidence of the link, Hydrick cites the fact that prior to his assignment in the Manhattan Project, Alvarez worked on high-frequency technology, including radar, the same field in which Schlicke was an expert. “Based on their backgrounds, of all the people in the Manhattan Project who would be expected to interface with Schlicke, if there was an interface, it would be Luis Alvarez,” Hydrick claims. “It is interesting that Alvarez is the one name that shows up as the United States’ counterpart to Dr. Schlicke.”

Following the war, Schlicke joined the United States military as a contract worker in the top-secret project, “Operation Paperclip.” Luis Alvarez went on to win the Nobel Prize for Physics relating to his high-frequency work, and was one of the original proponents for the now widely accepted theory — though greatly maligned at the time of its introduction — that a large meteorite struck the earth eons ago, causing the extinction of the dinosaurs and other profound events in the history of pre-Homo Sapien Earth.

While Hydrick’s revelations regarding the uses of U-234's cargo and passengers will probably cause widespread controversy among historians and World War Two enthusiasts, his proposition that U-234 was intentionally surrendered to United States forces according to a prearranged agreement with top Nazi leaders is certain to bring a storm of debate. “The evidence is not of the compelling, ‘smoking gun’ nature of the documentation proving the link between U-234 and the Manhattan Project. But there is a significant body of circumstantial evidence suggesting some of Hitler’s top men made a deal with our leading intelligence and military people to hand over the U-boat in return for their freedom and protection. This evidence needs to be further explored,” Hydrick says.

That body of circumstantial evidence, according to Hydrick, suggests that Martin Bormann, chief of the Nazi Party, Hitler’s personal manager and secretary, and arguably the most powerful man in the German Reich outside of Hitler, at the end of the war negotiated the control of the U-boat and its passengers and cargo over to the United States prior to the fall of Berlin in late April 1945. Historians have long argued the claim that Bormann died trying to escape from Berlin on 1 May 1945. The main evidence given for his death was based on eye-witness accounts by Hitler's chauffeur and Artur Axmann, head of the Hitler Youth organization, both of whom maintained strong Nazi convictions and connections until their deaths and, therefore, their motives have been considered suspect. Although neither witness categorically stated they were certain they saw Bormann dead, their account has become the traditional version of Bormann's end. Despite this finding, Bormann was convicted of war crimes in absentia at the Nuremberg trials and a warrant was placed for his arrest that remained in effect for many years, as did a later warrant issued in West Germany in 1967 based on new evidence of his continued survival. Many sightings of Bormann, alive and well, were reported over the three decades following the war. The supposed grave of Bormann's escape partner, Gestapo Chief Heinrich Müller, was also disinterred in 1963 and found to contain the skeletal remains of three men, none of them Müller.

The traditional history has many holes in it, according to Hydrick. “The presently accepted account says Bormann and Gestapo chief Heinrich Müller attempted their escape together, traveling partially through the subway tunnels around the Reichs Chancellery before they met their deaths in the street fighting. It’s fairly certain they escaped together, but the problem with the rest of the story is that the subway had been flooded by the SS — which, by the way, killed thousands of German women and children who were forced there for shelter when their homes were bombed out. The SS flooded the subway to keep Russian troops from secretly approaching and attacking Hitler’s bunker through the underground,” explained Hydrick. “The subway escape legend appears to be a cover story devised beforehand for later dissemination. It did not take into account the unforeseen flooding by the SS.”

A more logical, objective and credible version of the Bormann escape, according to Hydrick, was reported by Josef Stalin’s intelligence agents. Stalin stated to Harry Hopkins, political consultant and confidant of Presidents Roosevelt and Truman, and later secretary of state, that Soviet agents reported Bormann's escape from Berlin late the night of April 29 in a small plane and in the company of three men — one heavily bandaged — and a woman. From there, Stalin insisted, his agents traced Bormann to Hamburg, where he boarded a large U-boat and departed Germany.

Several details of these events ring true to Hydrick. For example, it is a well-known fact that while Berlin was being bombed and the Nazi leadership fell into panic or fled, Martin Bormann maintained secret radio negotiations with Admiral Karl Dönitz, the commander of all of Germany’s U-boats, and had made plans to escape to Dönitz's submarine headquarters. Dönitz at first resisted this effort but ultimately was ordered by Hitler (presumably at Bormann's bidding) to accept Bormann at his headquarters. From this point on, Hydrick concedes, details become sketchy and many disparate accounts are given of Bormann's escape or possible end. But parallels from various, otherwise unconnected, Führer bunker escape stories seem to indicate a probable scenario, according to the researcher.

First, Hitler's good friend Hanna Reitsch, the famous German aviatrix and counterpart to Amelia Earhart, tells in her autobiography how she flew seriously injured German Air Force General Ritter von Greim, whom Hitler had just made Commander of the Luftwaffe, out of Berlin late one night in the last days of the war. Other accounts confirm the flight was made 29 April 1945, the same night Stalin's agents reported Bormann's escape by small aircraft. Reitsch recounts how they flew to Dönitz's headquarters “to make our last visit and farewell to Grand Admiral Dönitz” before flying south to the Austrian/Swiss border — an odd and seemingly careless detour of several hundred dangerous miles with the badly injured and very important General von Greim. “There was something more to that trip than fond good-byes,” insists Hydrick.

Second, a separate, independent account purportedly of Gestapo Chief Heinrich Müller's escape follows a somewhat similar path, though in it he was flown out of Berlin alone. In this account, Mueller was flown out of the German capital late the same night as in Reitsch's tale, in a Fieseler Storch airplane, the same aircraft used in Reitsch's story, under exactly the same conditions Reitsch describes. Müller makes no account of flying to meet Dönitz, but tells a story about flying to the Austrian/Swiss border that is decidedly similar to Reitsch's version.

There are obviously discrepencies in these stories, as there are in virtually all accounts of these events; and it is hard to know what is true and what is disinformation, according to Hydrick. But the similarities of the independent accounts set against the observations of Stalin’s informants that three men, one injured, and a woman, flying out of Berlin in a small airplane, seem to paint a compelling scenario. “The description of that little group of night flyers is explicit and unique in its observations,” argued Hydrick, “and yet it adheres in its details, even the unusual ones, with the Stalin account. It identifies Bormann and Müller by name; also a heavily bandaged man, which fits the description of von Greim at the time; and a woman, which would be Hanna Reitsch, probably the only woman in the world one could have expected to see in that circumstance, at that place, at that time. The three accounts just seem to interlock too well not to be connected,” insists Hydrick.

Hydrick adds other proof to his escape proposition, as well. The chief radio operator of U-234 describes how, in mid-April, he received at least one message on a high-priority frequency (and probably at least one other coded communique) directly from Hitler's Bunker in Berlin while the U-boat was stationed in Kristiansand, Norway. The order read: “U-234. Only sail on the orders of the highest level. Führer HQ.”

"There are many implications here, the main ones being there was some kind of connection and an arrangement made between U-234 and someone at Hitler's headquarters," Hydrick asserted. An order sent to the U-boat a short time later by Admiral Dönitz seems to be an effort to keep the U-boat under his command. It reads: “U-234. Sail only on my order. Sail at once on your own initiative.” U-234, the largest U-boat in the German navy, set sail within hours, leaving Kristiansand bearing due south, exactly toward Hamburg, where Stalin's observers reported Bormann boarded the “large” U-boat in the early hours of May 1.

There appear to be discrepancies between these accounts, too,” said Hydrick, “like the fact it would normally take a U-boat only a day to sail from Kristiansand to Hamburg and according to our accounts U-234 left Kristiansand in mid-April and would not have picked up Bormann until May 1.” But U-234 was not heard from again after leaving Kristiansand until May 12, almost a full month. By then, the U-boat was only 500 miles northeast of Newfoundland. If the boat was following the course its captain and traditional history said it took headed for Japan, then it was traveling at only 1 1/2 miles per hour. “That is slower than a man walks and far slower than a fleeing U-boat is likely to have traveled,” Hydrick argued.

Hydrick contends that U-234 silently patrolled the North Sea according to prearranged plans with Bormann at Hitler's headquarters, until Bormann was able to negotiate an agreement with Dönitz. As the end of the war drew near, the boat slid into Hamburg harbor under cover of night and picked up Martin Bormann and Heinrich Müller, then continued its voyage, by way of a rendezvous off the coast of Spain to off-load Bormann, and then on to its surrender to United States forces at sea, again under mysterious conditions.

Hydrick asserts that a successful negotiation between Bormann and Dönitz would explain not only the radio transmissions, but it would explain why Dönitz, with no political experience and virtually no political following, and quite to the surprise and puzzlement of leaders worldwide, became Hitler's successor. He also believes that a series of enigmatic events leading up to U-234’s surrender point to an intentional secret capitulation of the boat outside of the parameters of the general surrender orders given on VE Day.

Lastly, he contends a photo taken by a local newspaper photographer at the time U-234 docked on United States shores, shows a mysterious, unidentified civilian prisoner with a remarkable physical resemblance to Heinrich Müller disembarking the Navy ship that carried U-234 passengers from the U-boat to shore. Hydrick believes the subject of the photo is, in fact, the former head of the Gestapo stepping onto American soil. According to Hydrick, Müller’s mission was to oversee the transferal of the atomic bomb components and other war materials from Germany to the United States and that, in return, Müller, Bormann and many other Nazis received American protection for decades, and continue to receive such protection even up to the present day.

One of World War II's greatest unsolved mysteries is who ended up with the uranium from the U-234?

Strategically, the Japanese would have wanted to level important Pacific Coast naval port cities like Seattle, San Francisco, Los Angeles, and San Diego. Had the mission of U-234 gone as planned, Japan might have been able to delay her defeat and change the course of history. As it happens, it is quite likely that the secret cargo of U-234, and its unknown end, affected history in ways that may never be fully understood.

Did the uranium from the U-234 end up in a U.S. depot? Was it part of the bombs dropped on Hiroshima? Most provocatively--with the help of Stalin's enormous spy apparatus in the U.S.--could it have been shipped across Siberia on the secret U.S.-Soviet Air Bridge. If the latter scenario were true, it would have given the Soviet Union the materials for their first atomic bomb--in any case, the U.S.S.R. had atomic weapons by 1949, or about 48 months after the Hiroshima bombing.

Perhaps one fact above all gives a clear indication of how utterly and thoroughly Stalin's espionage apparatus had infiltrated much of the U.S. infrastructure. During the ceremonies and delirium surrounding the founding of the U.N. in San Francisco, and in the years immediately after, as Stalin successfully followed up on his Yalta Conference victories and created what President Ronald Reagan termed The Evil Empire.

What wasn't clear at the time was that the first Secretary General of the United Nations was a full-blown Soviet spy, a deep cover mole whose betrayal of the West tilted the balance in favor of the Soviets for decades to come. His name was Alger Hiss--one of those names that will live in infamy, to borrow FDR's phrase describing the bombing of Pearl Harbor.

The Soviets not only received vast amounts of U.S. materiel via the famed Arctic convoys running to Russia's few ice-free ports like Murmansk. Because of the long journeys involved, and the heavy losses, the U.S. provided an air bridge as well. This air bridge extended from Malmstrom Air Base near Sioux Falls, South Dakota. It began naturally, as a way for U.S. pilots to fly Lend-Lease aircraft northwest along what was called the Alaska-Siberia Air Bridge. Either in Alaska (because Stalin was paranoid about allowing foreign pilots on Soviet soil, even his U.S. allies) or in eastern Siberia, Soviet pilots would typically take over and fly the war planes west to the Eastern Front where Hitler's armies were being ground up at Stalingrad and Leningrad.

Notoriously, Soviet diplomats, under total immunity, shipped countless sensitive documents, industrial components, and any other intelligence-worthy materials they could steal, back to Russia along this air bridge.

It is thus, on this view, the first visible, and crucial, element of the emerging Operation Paperclip, the transfer of technology amid scientists from the collapsing Third Reich to the United States. There, the German scientists and engineers could, would, and did continue their lines of esoteric research and development of high technology and sophisticated weaponry, with a similar moral and ideological effect on the culture at large as occurred in Nazi Germany.

And finally, of course, as we have already seen, some of the missing uranium ended up in the German atom bomb program itself, enriched, and refined, and probably assembled and tested - if not used - in actual bombs themselves.

"MEIN HUT DER HAT DREI ECKEN" - THE TEST SITES .

A. An Unusual Exchange at Nuremberg

At the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunals after the war, an amazing exchange occurred between former architect cum Nazi minister of armaments, Albert Speer, and Mr. Robert H. Jackson, the chief American prosecutor.

JACKSON: Now, I have certain information, which was placed in my hands, of an experiment which was carried out near Auschwitz and I would like to ask you if you heard about it or knew about it.

The purpose of the experiment was to find a quick and complete way of destroying people without the delay and trouble of shooting and gassing and burning, as it had been carried out, and this is the experiment, as I am advised.

A village, a small village was provisionally erected, with temporary structures, and in it approximately 20,000 Jews were put. By means of this newly invented weapon of destruction, these 20,000 people were eradicated almost instantaneously, and in such a way that there was no trace left of them; that is developed, the explosive developed, temperatures of from 400 degrees to 500 degrees Centigrade and destroyed them without leaving any trace at all.

Do you know about that experiment?

SPEER: No, and I consider it utterly improbable. If we had had such a weapon under preparation, I should have known about it. But we did not have such a weapon. It is clear that in chemical warfare attempts were made on both sides to carry out research on all the weapons one could think of, because one did not know which party would start chemical warfare first...

-- Cited in Harald Fath, "Geheime Kommandosache-S III Jonastal und die Siegeswaffenproduktion: Weitere Spürensuche nach Thüringens Manhattan Project" (Schleusingen: Amun Verlag, 1999), pp. 82-83. Original text cited in English.

This exchange is remarkable in several respects, not the least of which is that its "explosive contents" are almost entirely overlooked in standard histories of the war and its aftermath.

In "The Memoirs of Felix Kersten" (1947) Kersten recorded that one of the last conversations he had with Himmler was about a "secret weapon," more powerful than the V-1 and V-2 rockets, that was to end the war. "One or two shots and cities like New York or London will simply vanish from the earth". He was told of a village built near Auschwitz where the new weapon was tried out. Twenty thousand Jewish men, women, and children were brought to live there. A single shell according to Himmler caused 6,000 degrees of heat and everything and everybody there was burned to ashes. Kersten assumed that the Germans had nearly completed constructing an atomic bomb.

[Himmler's startling revelations are unconfirmed]

Previously, evidence has been presented  that there was a large, and very secret, uranium enrichment program inside Nazi Germany, beginning sometime ca. late 1940 or early 1941, and continuing, apparently unabated - as the surrender of the U-234 would imply - right up to the end of the war. Zinsser's affidavit goes further, and alleges an actual atom bomb test, complete with descriptions of all the signatures of an atom bomb: mushroom cloud, electromagnetic pulse effects, and continued combustion of nuclear materials in the cloud. The Japanese military attache in Stockholm further corroborated the story with undeniably fantastic allegations of the German use of some type of weapon of mass destruction [WMD) on the Eastern Front ca. 1942 (the siege of Sevastopol in the Crimea), to 1943, just days prior to the massive German offensive at Kursk.

Now, at Nuremberg, we have a third corroboration of the use of some type of weapon of awesome explosive power in the east by the Germans, this time from no less an individual than the chief American prosecutor at the Tribunal. And in his case, it is apparent that he is relating information gathered by intelligence. It is worth pausing to consider the implications of the exchange between Jackson and former armaments Reichminister Speer.

We shall begin with Speer. Albert Speer was successor to Dr. Fritz Todt as minister of armaments and production for the entire Third Reich. Speer's accomplishments are not to be gainsaid, it was largely owing to his efforts to organize the huge Nazi industrial capacity and streamline its efficiency that the wartime production of Germany increased dramatically under his oversight. In fact, in all pertinent areas of German industrial war production, Speer managed to achieve peak production levels in all categories during the same precise period that Allied strategic bombing also was at its height.

His methods in achieving this feat were simple but effective: German industry was decentralized and dispersed into smaller plants, and, to the extent possible, moved into underground bomb-proof factories. "Modular" construction techniques were employed wherever possible. For example, German U-boats were produced in modular fashion, in sections, far inland in such factories, and transported to ports for final assembly. The deadly Type XXI U-boats with their exotic and revolutionary underwater propulsion systems - allowing an underwater cruising speed in excess of 21 knots, an unheard of speed for that time - were produced in this fashion at the end of the war.

But notably absent from Speer's comments is any indication that he was even aware of the huge extent of the German atom-bomb project and its enormous uranium enrichment program. Lofty as his position in the Nazi hierarchy was, it would appear that Speer was entirely in the dark on the programs and totally oblivious to any progress that had been made. The German government, like its American counterpart, had rigidly "compartmentalized" its atom bomb production program and placed it under the tightest security. But clearly, by the time of the exchange between Jackson and him, Speer and the whole world had heard of the atom bomb. So Speer appears to obfuscate his answer somewhat by redirecting the topic to chemical warfare.

The question of a revolutionary chemical explosive is not, however, as far-fetched as it might at first seem, for Jackson's comments suggest it by referring to temperatures of 400 to 500 degrees centigrade, far below the enormous temperatures produced by an atomic explosion. Was Speer obfuscating his answer, or was Jackson his question?

The prosecutor's statements and question also corroborate in loose fashion another component of our developing story, for he clearly alludes to the use of some type of weapon of mass destruction, possessed of enormous explosive power, in the east, and significantly, at or near Auschwitz, site of the I.G. Farben "Buna factory". It is to be noted that the Nazis had apparently gone so far as to build an entire mock town and placed concentration camp inmates in it, an obvious though barbaric move to study the effects of the weapon on structures and people. His statements, along with those of the Japanese military attaché in Stockholm, afford a serious clue - and one often overlooked even by researchers into this "alternative history" of the war - into the nature of the Nazi's secret weapons development and use, for it would appear that insofar as the third Reich possessed weapons of mass destruction of extraordinary power, atomic or otherwise, they were tested and used against enemies consider by the Nazi ideology to be racially inferior, and that means, in effect, they were used on the Eastern Front theater of the Reich's military operations.

Thus we are also afforded a speculative answer to the all-important question: If the Germans had the bomb, why didn't they use it? And the answer is, if they had it, they were far more likely to use it on Russia than on the Western allies, since the war in the East was conceived and intended by Hitler to be a genocidal war from the outset. And it certainly was that: fully one half of the approximately fifty million fatalities of World War Two were inflicted by the efficient Nazi war machine on Soviet Russia.

The use of such weapons on the Eastern Front by the Germans would also tentatively explain why more is not known about it, for it is highly unlikely that Stalin's Russia would have publicly acknowledged the fact. To do so would have been a propaganda disaster for Stalin's government. Faced with an enemy of superior tactical and operational competence in conventional arms, the Red Army often had to resort to threats of execution against its own soldiers just to maintain order and discipline in its ranks and prevent mass desertion. Acknowledgment of the existence and use of such weapons by the mortal enemy of Communist Russia could conceivably have ruined Russian morale and cost Stalin the war, and perhaps even toppled his government.

For now, however, we note the strangely ambiguous quality of Mr. Jackson's remarks. "Now I have," he begins, "certain" information, which was placed in my hands, of an experiment which was carried out near Auschwitz..." By the time Mr. Jackson uttered these remarks, Hans Zinsser's statements were almost a year old, raising the possibility that Zinsser's affidavit may itself have been the "certain information" alluded to by Jackson, who may have intentionally altered its correct location. In this regard, it is significant that Zinsser expressed mystification that the test took place so close to a populated area. If Jackson deliberately altered the location of the test, he did not alter the nature of its victims. But another possibility is that the event took place where he says it did, "near" Auschwitz. 

A Marshal, Mussolini, and the First Alleged Test Site at Rügen Island

The question of the location of a possible German atom bomb test comes from five very unlikely sources: an Italian officer, a Russian marshal's translator, and Benito Mussolini himself, an American heavy cruiser, and an island off the coast of northern Germany in the Baltic Sea.

Before he and his mistress Clara Petacci were murdered by Communist partisans, and then later hung from meat hooks in Milan to be pelted with rocks from an angry mob. Benito Mussolini, by the end of the war reduced to a mere puppet of Hitler and governing a "Fascist republic" in German-controlled northern Italy, spoke often of the German "wonder weapons":

"The wonder weapons are the hope. It is laughable and senseless for us to threaten at this moment, without a basis in reality for these threats.

"The well-known mass destruction bombs are nearly ready. In only a few days, with the utmost meticulous intelligence, Hitler will probably execute this fearful blow, because he will have full confidence.... It appear, that there are three bombs-and each has an astonishing operation. The construction of each unit is fearfully complex and of a lengthy time of completion".

[Benito Mussolini, "Political Testament - 22 April 1945", cited in Edgar Meyer and Thomas Mehner, "Hitler und die Bombe: Welchen Stand erreichte die deutsche Atomforschung und Geheimwaffenentwicklung wirklich?" (Rottenburg: Kopp Verlag, 2002)]

It would be easy to dismiss Mussolini's statements as more delusional and insane ravings of a fascist dictator facing defeat, clinging desperately to forlorn hopes and tattered dreams. It would be easy, were it but for the weird corroboration supplied by one Piotr Ivanovitch Titarenko, a former military translator on the staff of Marshal Rodion Malinovsky, who handled the Japanese capitulation to Russia at the end of the war. As reported in the German magazine "Der Spiegel" in 1992, Titarenko wrote a letter to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In it, he reported that there were actually three bombs dropped on Japan, one of which, dropped on Nagasaki prior to its actual bombing, did not explode. This bomb was handed over by Japan to the Soviet Union. [Edgar Meyer and Thomas Mehner, "Das Geheimnis der deutschen Atombombe: Gewann Hitlers Wissenschaftler den nuklearen Wettlauf doch? Die Geheimprojekte bei Innsbruck, im Raum Jonastal bei Arnstadt und in Prag" (Rottenburg: Kopp Verlag, 2001)]

The world's first operational atomic bomb was delivered by the Indianapolis, (CA-35) to the island of Tinian on 26 July 1945. The Indianapolis then reported to CINCPAC (Commander-In-Chief, Pacific) Headquarters at Guam for further orders. She was directed to join the battleship USS Idaho (BB-42) at Leyte Gulf in the Philippines to prepare for the invasion of Japan. The Indianapolis, unescorted, departed Guam on a course of 262 degrees making about 17 knots.



At 14 minutes past midnight, on 30 July 1945, midway between Guam and Leyte Gulf, she was hit by two torpedoes out of six fired by the I-58, a Japanese submarine. The first blew away the bow, the second struck near midship on the starboard side adjacent to a fuel tank and a powder magazine. The resulting explosion split the ship to the keel, knocking out all electric power. Within minutes she went down rapidly by the bow, rolling to starboard. Of the 1,196 aboard, about 900 made it into the water in the twelve minutes before she sank. Few life rafts were released. Most survivors wore the standard kapok life jacket. Shark attacks began with sunrise of the first day and continued until the men were physically removed from the water, almost five days later. 

Only 317 remained alive, after almost five days of constant shark attacks, starvation, terrible thirst, suffering from exposure and their wounds.

Mussolini and a Soviet marshal's military translator are not the only ones corroborating the strange number of "three bombs", for yet a fourth bomb may actually have been in play at one point, being transported to the Far East on board the U.S. heavy cruiser Indianapolis (CA-35), when the latter sank in 1945. [Fath, op. cit.]

These strange testimonies call into question once again the Allied Legend, for as has been seen, the Manhattan Project in late 1944 and early 1945 faced critical shortages of weapons grade uranium, and had yet to solve the fusing problem for the plutonium bomb. So the question is, if these reports are true, where did the extra bomb(s) come from? That three, and possibly four, bombs were ready for use on Japan so quickly would seem to stretch credulity, unless these bombs were war booty, brought from Europe.

But the strangest evidence of all comes from the German island of Rügen, and the testimony of Italian officer Luigi Romersa, an eyewitness to the test of a German atom bomb on the island on the night of 11-12 October, 1944, approximately the same time frame as indicated in Zinsser's affidavit, and it is also the same approximate area as Zinsser indicated.

In this context it is also extremely curious that this time frame in 1944 was, for the Allies, a banner year for atomic bomb scares. On Saturday, 11 August 1945, an article in the "London Daily Telegraph" reported British preparations for German atom bomb attack on London the previous year:

NAZIS' ATOM BOMB PLANS BRITAIN READY A YEAR AGO

Britain prepared for the possibility of an atomic attack on this country by Germany in August, 1944.

It can now be disclosed that details of the expected effect of such a bomb were revealed in a highly secret memorandum which was sent that summer to the chiefs of Scotland Yard, chief constables of provincial forces and senior officials of the defense services.

An elaborate scheme was drawn up by the Ministry of Home Security for prompt and adequate measures to cope with the widespread devastation and heavy casualties if the Germans succeeded in launching atomic bombs on this country.

Reports received from our agents on the Continent early last year indicated that German scientists were experimenting with an atomic bomb in Norway. According to these reports the bomb was launched by catapult, and had an explosive radius of more than two miles.

In view of our own progress in devising an 'atomic' bomb the Government gave the reports serious consideration. Thousands of men and women of the police and defense services were held in readiness for several months until reliable agents in Germany reported that the bomb had been tested and proved a failure.

[cited in Edgar Meyer and Thomas Mehner, "Hitler und die Bombe"]

This article, coming as it does a mere two days after the bombing of Nagasaki, and almost a year since the actual alert in Britain was called, deserves careful scrutiny.

First, and most obviously, the alert in Britain was apparently conducted entirely in secret, as law enforcement, defense, and medical personnel were placed on high alert. The reason for security is obvious, since to have signaled a public alert would have notified the Germans that there were Allied spies close enough to the German bomb program to know about its tests.

Second, the site of the alleged test - Norway - is unusual in that the timing of the test would place it a full two years after the British commando raid on the Norsk heavy water plant at Ryukon. This might indicate two things:

(1) It might indicate that Hitler's interest in maintaining troops in Norway had more to do with the German atom bomb project than anything else, since, if the report was accurate to begin with, it would indicate a large scale German atom bomb effort was underway there;
(2) Conversely, the report may have been deliberately inaccurate, i.e., there may really have been a test, but one that took place somewhere else.

Third, the presumed "alert" continued from August 1944 "for several months," that is, the alert could conceivably have stretched into October, i.e., into the time frame of the test mentioned in Zinsser's affidavit. Thus, the news account indicates something else: Allied intelligence was aware, and genuinely fearful, of German atom bomb testing.

Fourth, the article mentions that the test concerned a bomb launched from a "catapult". The V-1 "buzz bomb", the first generation of the cruise missile, was launched from large steam-driven catapults. Putting two and two together, then the "Norway" test may have been a test of an atom bomb delivery system based on the V-1, or of an atom bomb itself, or possibly both an atom bomb and its delivery system.

With these thoughts in mind, we come to the final point. The alert was canceled when the test was proven a failure. The question is, what failed? Was it the bomb itself? The delivery system? Or both?

An answer lies, perhaps, in another curious news article that appeared in the British press almost a year earlier, on Wednesday, 11 October 1944, by Walter Farr in the "London Daily Mail":

BERLIN IS 'SILENT' 60 HOURS STILL NO PHONES

STOCKHOLM, Tuesday

Berlin is still cut off from the rest of Europe to-night. The 60-hours silence began on Sunday morning - and still there is no explanation for the hold-up, which has now lasted longer than on any previous occasion.

The Swedish Foreign Office is unable to ring up its Berlin Legation.

Unconfirmed reports suggest that the major crisis between the Wehrmacht and the Nazi Party has come to a head and that "tremendous events may be expected".

To-day's plane from Berlin to Stockholm arrived four hours late. It carried only Germans, two of whom appeared to be high officials. They looked drawn and pale, and when Swedish reporters approached them they angrily thrust their way out of the Swedish Aero-Transport offices, muttering: "Nothing we can say".

German papers arriving here on to-day's plane seem extraordinarily subdued, with very small headlines.

It is pointed out, however, in responsible quarters that if the stoppage were purely the technical result of bomb damage, as the Germans claimed, it should have been repaired by now.

[cited in Meyer and Mehner, "Hitler und die Bombe"]

Of course we now know what was not known in October of 1944: when an atomic or thermonuclear bomb is detonated, the extreme electromagnetic pulse knocks out or interferes with electrical equipment for miles from the detonation site, depending on the size of the blast, the proximity of such equipment to it, and the degree of "shielding" such equipment has. For the normal, non-military phone lines in Berlin, the strange disruption of phone service is explainable precisely as the result of such an electromagnetic pulse. But this would imply that such a pulse, if the result of an atom bomb test, be considerably closer to Berlin than Norway. Presumably if telephone service in Berlin was affected by an atom bomb test in Norway, similar disruptions would have occurred in large cities that were much closer to the test, such as Oslo, Copenhagen, or Stockholm. Yet, not such disruptions are mentioned; only Berlin appears to have been affected. [There is another possibly, though extremely unlikely explanation, for the lack of reports in other cities. Very simply, it may reflect a lack of intelligence from those areas].

Most communications lines in Berlin were laid underground by the Deutsche Reichspost before the war for the express purpose of mitigating phone service disruption during bombing attacks. If the phone service disruption was therefore a result of EMP from a nuclear detonation, then the size of the detonation would have to have been rather large to cause this lengthy disruption of the entire city's telephone service for that length of time, shielded as the lines were by being underground. The other alternative, a second coup attempt, may be a possible explanation, but there is no mention of such an attempt in any literature.

Thus, if the atom bomb test mentioned in the 1945 "London Daily Telegraph" article occurred, then one must look for a site considerably closer to Berlin than Norway. The "Daily Mail" phone service disruption article stands as clear corroboration of the probable test of a German atom bomb sometime in October of 1944, the same time frame as Zinsser's affidavit, and within the time frame mentioned in the "Daily Telegraph" article about a secret alert in Britain from August of 1944, and continuing for "several months".

But the Daily Mail's phone service disruption article does more: it suggests why the Germans may have considered the test a failure. At that time the effects of nuclear explosions -electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and disruption of electrical equipment, radioactivity and fallout - were still largely unknown and not well understood. The Berlin telephone service was one of the finest, if not the finest, in the world at the time. [Up to the very end of the war, for example, the cable lines between Berlin and Tokyo remained open, allowing the Japanese to send condolences to the Nazi government even as Russian tanks were rolling over the streets of the city].

The Nazis may very well have been shocked at this curious result of their alleged test of an atomic "wonder weapon", and therefore considered it a "failure" until more tests could be done and the phenomenon of electro-magnetic pulse more fully understood. After all, it would do no good, so to speak, to deploy the "ultimate weapon" only to be unable to receive the telephone call of surrender after having used it! And to the totalitarian and paranoid Nazi state, a disruption of communications from its capital city to its provinces, armed forces, and occupied territories was literally an unthinkable nightmare, being the perfect opportunity for a coup d'etat.

Finally, to round out the newspaper scavenger hunt, a curious series of articles from the "London Times" between May 15 and May 25, 1945, covered a story about German troops on the Danish Baltic Sea island of Bornholm that refused to surrender to attacking Russian forces. [Meyer and Mehner, "Das Geheimnis der deutschen Atombombe"] Bornholm was within one hundred miles of the German rocket site at Peenemünde, and quite close to an alleged atom bomb test site on the small island of Rügen on the Baltic coast close to the port city of Kiel.

It is here on this island that Italian officer Luigi Romersa, a war reporter for a Milan newspaper, "Corriere della Sera", was the guest and eyewitness to a German "wonder weapon" test on the night of October 11-12, 1944. After journeying by a night drive for two hours in the rain from Berlin, Romersa reached the island by motorboat. According to his statements to German atom bomb researchers Edgar Meyer and Thomas Mehner, the island was guarded by a special elite unit, which we can only presume was an SS unit, and that admission to the island was only granted by special passes issued directly by the OberKommando der Wehrmacht (OKW). [Meyer and Mehner, "Hitler und die Bombe"] At this point, it is best to cite Romersa's own words:

"There were four of us: my two attendants, a man with worker's clothes, and I. 'We will see a test of the disintegration bomb. [Auflösungsbombe] It is the most powerful explosive that has yet been developed. Nothing can withstand it,' said one of them. He hardly breathed. He glanced at his watch and waited until noon, the hour for the experiment. Our observation post was a kilometer from the point of the explosion. 'We must wait here,' the man with the worker's clothes ordered, 'until this evening. When it is dark we may leave. The bomb gives off deathly rays, of utmost toxicity. its effective area is much larger than the most powerful conventional bomb. Around 1.5 kilometers....'

"Around 4:00 PM, in the twilight, shadows appeared, running toward our Bunker. They were soldiers, and they had on a strange type of 'diving suit'. They entered and quickly shut the door. 'Everything is kaput,' one of them said, as he removed his protective clothing. We also eventually had to put on white, coarse, fibrous cloaks. I cannot say what material this cloak was made of, but I had the impression that it could have been asbestos, the headgear had a piece of mica-glass [Glimmerglas in front of the eyes".

Having donned this clothing, the observation party then left the Bunker and made its way to ground zero:

"The houses that I had seen only an hour earlier had disappeared, broken into little pebbles of debris, as we drew nearer ground zero, [Explosionspunkt] the more fearsome was the devastation. The grass had the same color as leather, the few trees that still stood upright had no more leaves". [Luigi Romersa, private telephone interview with Edgar Meyer and Thomas Mehner, "Hitler und die Bombe"]

There are peculiarities of Romersa's account that one must mention, if this were the test of nuclear bomb. First, some of the blast damage described is typical for a nuclear weapon: sheering of trees, obliteration of structures, and so on. The protective clothing worn by the German technicians as well as the polarized glasses also are typical. And the test does appear to have involved use in a "populated area" with houses and so on, in similar fashion to prosecutor Jackson's exchange with Speer, and Zinsser's own comments in his affidavit. However, Romersa, apparently a careful observer, fails to make any mention of a fusion of soil into silicate glassy material that also normally accompanies a nuclear blast close to the ground.

But whatever was tested at Rügen, it does have enough of the signatures of an atom bomb to suggest that this is, in fact, what it was. Most importantly it is to be noted that it coincides with the time frame of Zinsser's affidavit and the phone service outage in Berlin, and the timing of the British alert. [One significant difference that does emerge is that Zinsser's affidavit places the test close to the hours of twilight, whereas Romersa has it taking place in full daylight. The latter would make sense, from a security point of view, since daylight would tend to mask the visibility of the blast more effectively from prying eyes in the distance].

Finally, it is perhaps quite significant that during this same time frame, Adolf Hitler finally signed an order for the development of the atom bomb. In context, this can only mean that he has given approval to develop more of a weapon already tested. [Rose, op. cit., notes that Hitler actually gave a formal order in October of 1944 for the immediate development of the atom bomb]

The Three Corners (Dreiecken) and the Alleged Test at the Troop Parade Ground at Ohrdruf

A more controversial allegation, however, concerns the alleged test of a high yield atom bomb by the SS at the troop parade ground and barracks at Orhdruf, in south central Thuringia in March of 1945. As we shall see, this date too is significant. Shortly after the German reunification in 1989, old rumors of an atom bomb test conducted by the SS late in the war in south central Germany, in what was formerly East Germany, again surfaced. The test is alleged to have taken place on 4 March 1945. [Meyer and Mehner, "Hitler und die Bombe"] However, as  we shall soon see, there is an additional problem associated with the allegation of this test near the Three Corners.

The Three Corners part of the story begins with a component of the Allied Legend. According to former East German sources, one plausible reason for the swift advance of us General Patton's divisions on this region of Thuringia was that the last Führer Headquarters [Führerhauptquartier], a facility code-named "Jasmine" by the Germans, was located in the vast underground facilities at Jonastal. [Meyer and Mehner, "Das Geheimnis der deutschen Atombombe"]. "There exists an American document, under point number four, that informs us that the last (Führer Headquarters) was not at the Obersalzburg, but in the region of Ohrdruf," [Meyer and Mehner, "Das Geheimnis"] that is, in the region of the Three Corners. Thus, the Legend is elaborated: Patton's drive was to cut off the escape route of fleeing Nazis and seize Hitler's last secret underground headquarters, and, presumably, the Grand Prize himself. This entire facility was part of a vast complex of underground sites under the command structure of the SS, and named "S-III" - a designation not without its own suggestive possibilities - and the Führer Headquarters was but one component of this complex. [Ibid., "Report of Mr. Oskar Mühlheim, Bad Dürenberg'].

The problem with the view that this complex was simply a headquarters complex is that SS Obergruppenfuhrer Hans Kammler was directly involved in the construction of all facilities in the region since 1942, thus making it unlikely that they were constructed merely for Hitler's last headquarters, since Kammler was directly involved with the most sensitive areas of the Reich's secret weapons research and development. It is therefore more likely that they were a part of Kammler's vast SS Secret weapons black projects empire. [Ibid]

There is no mention of any of these facilities in surviving German archives, or, seemingly, any where else for that matter, and yet, they are definitely there for all to see. [Ibid]

So what were these facilities researching? Almost nothing was known about them until witnesses and relatives of witnesses began to talk after German reunification. One such man was Adolf Bernd Freier who, before his death in Argentina, wrote German researchers Edgar Meyer and Thomas Mehner a letter detailing his knowledge of the facilities gained while he was on the construction staff. There were, Freier alleged, facilities dedicated to special circular aircraft(!), to the "Amerika Rakete", the intercontinental ballistic missile capable of reaching the United States, and research facilities of atomic experiments under the direction of Dr. Kurt Diebner, and a complete underground factory for the production of heavy water! [Meyer and Mehner, "Das Geheimnis"]

But most importantly, Freier alleges that the "atomic weapon" was ready on 2 July 1944! [Ibid. According to Freier's allegations, the bomb was ready on 2 July 1944, but not its delivery system, meaning presumably the "Amerikarakete"]

What type of atomic weapon is meant here? A "dirty" radiological bomb, designed to spray a vast area with deadly radioactive material but far short of an actual nuclear fission bomb? Or an actual atom bomb itself? Freier's choice of words is not clear. But one thing does stand out, and that is the date of 2 July 1944, the same month as the attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler in the - very aptly named - "Bomb Plot" approximately two weeks later. The consequence of a successful German development of even a radiological bomb might thus be one of the primary motivations for the anti-Hitler conspirators to attempt to remove the Führer when they did, and might explain their hidden logic in assuming that the Allies would negotiate with an anti-Nazi (or at least un-Nazi) provisional German government in spite of the Allies' own demands for an unconditional surrender, for the possession of such a weapon would have given the conspirators considerable negotiation leverage. And if the conspirators knew of the existence of the weapon, and of Hitler's plans to deploy it in actual use, it may have been the final moral compulsion for them to act.

In any case, the most problematical aspect of the alleged test of an atom bomb by the Nazis in the Ohrdruf-Three Corners region of Thuringia comes from a rather specific, and rather startling, assertion. According to Freier, the test took place on 4 March 1945 at the old troop parade ground at Orhdruf. There, a small scaffold about 6 meters high had been erected, a the top of which a small "atomic weapon" ["A-Waffe", the wording again is not "Atombombe" but only A-waffe, or "A-weapon"] was placed. The weapon, according to Freier, was "100 g", a mere one hundred grams! This is one of the most significant, and highly problematical, allegations regarding the real nature of the Nazi atom bomb project, made by someone supposedly involved in it, for as will be immediately obvious, 100 grams is far short of the 50 or so kilograms of critical mass reportedly needed for a uranium-based atom bomb, as has been seen, and it is still well below the amount needed for the critical mass for a typical plutonium bomb.

Yet, Freier is insistent upon this point, and moreover alleges that all the "slaves", the luckless concentration camp victims that were forced to take part in the test, within a circle of 500-600 meters from ground zero were killed.[Meyer and Mehner, "Das Geheimnis"] This would give an area of approximately 1 to 1.2 kilometers of blast damage, roughly the effect of a modern tactical nuclear bomb. Such a blast radius would require an enormous amount of the then available conventional explosives, and that amount would far exceed the mere 100 grams Freier alleges for the device. These points indicates that the "A- Waffe" or "atomic weapon" was in fact a fully fledged atom bomb. So how does one explain the extraordinarily small critical mass, especially since the Manhattan Project was aiming for a uranium critical mass of around 50 kilograms?

This question deserve serious consideration, for it affords yet another possible clue - if the allegation is to be credited with accuracy - into the real nature of the Nazi atom bomb project. We have seen already that the project was developed under several different and discreet groups for reasons partly due to security, and for reasons partly due to the practical nature of the German program. For security reason, I believe the "Heisenberg" group and the high-profile names associated with it were deliberately used by the Nazis as the "front" group for public, namely Allied, consumption. The SS security and intelligence apparatus would have undoubtedly concluded, correctly, that these high profile scientists would be high priority targets for Allied intelligence for kidnapping and assassination. Accordingly, it is highly unlikely that the Nazis would have concentrated any genuine atomic bomb secrets or development exclusively in the hands of this group. The very existence of the Allied Legend for so many years after the war is direct testimony to the success of this plan. The real atom bomb development occurred far from the prying eyes of Allied intelligence, under the auspices of the Reichspost and more importantly, under the direct auspices of the SS.

The second facet of the German atom bomb program we have likewise previously encountered: its emphasis on what was practically achievable during the war. Hence, while the Germans knew of the possibilities of plutonium and a plutonium-based atom bomb, and therefore knew that a functioning reactor used to produce plutonium for bombs would thereby enable Germany to develop more bombs for the same investment of fissile material, they also knew that a major technical hurdle lay across the path: the development of a successful reactor in the first place. Thus, as has been previously argued, they opted to develop a uranium-based bomb only, since uranium could be enriched to weapons grade purity without the necessity of the development of a reactor, and since they already possessed the necessary technologies to do so, if employed en masse. Like its American Manhattan Project counterpart, the SS-run program relied on massive numbers of enrichment units to separate and purify isotope.

Now let us extend this line of reasoning further. Germany was also seeking to be able to deploy such bombs as warheads on its rockets. And that meant, given their limited lift capabilities, that the weight of the warheads had somehow to be reduced by several orders of magnitude for the rockets to be able to carry them. And there is an economic factor. Knowing that their industrial capacity would be stained by the effort, even with the help of tens of thousands of slave laborers from the camp, another problem may have presented itself to the Germans, a problem illuminated for them by their own knowledge of the possibilities offered by plutonium-based bombs: How does one get more-bang-for-the-Reichsmark without the use of plutonium? Is there a way to rely on less uranium in a critical mass assembly than is conventionally thought?

And so we return to Freier's statement of a remarkably small 100 g atom bomb test at Ohrdruf on 4 March 1945. There does exist a method by which much smaller critical masses of fissile material can be used to make a bomb: boosted fission. Essentially, boosted fission simply relies on the introduction of some neutron- producing material - polonium, or heavy hydrogen: deuterium, or even tritium - to release more neutrons into the chain reaction than is actually released by the fissile critical mass assembly by itself. This raises the amount of free neutrons initiating chain reactions in the critical mass, and therefore allows two very important things:

(1) It allows slightly lower purity of fissile material - materially not considered of sufficient purity to be weapons grade without boosted fission - to be used for an actual atom bomb; and,
(2) it requires less actual fissile material for the critical mass assembly to make a bomb.

Thus, "boosted fission" would have afforded the German bomb program a practical way to increase the number of bombs available to them, and a reliable method for achieving an uncontrolled nuclear fission reaction with lower purity of enriched material. [Meyer and Mehner, "Hitler"] it is perhaps quite significant, then, that Freier's testimony concerning the Three Corners underground weapons factories also mentions the existence of an underground heavy water plant in the facilities, for heavy water, of course, contains atoms of deuterium and tritium (heavy hydrogen atoms with one and two extra neutrons in the nucleus respectively).

In any case, the test of a small critical mass, boosted fission device of high yield at Ohrdruf on 4 March 1945, is at least consistent with the parameters of the German bomb program and its practical needs. But there are interesting, and intriguingly suggestive, corroborations of the test. According to Freier, Hitler himself was indeed in the Three Corners headquarters for a brief period at the end of March 1945. [Meyer and Mehner, "Das Geheimnis"] It is known that Hitler did personally visit and address the officers of the German Ninth Army, operating in that precise area, in March of 1945., and stated to them that there were still things that needed to be "finished", an interesting comment if seen in the light of Freier's allegations that it was not the bomb that Germany needed, but the delivery systems. It does make sense that if there were such a test, that Hitler would have been present as an observer to witness the final success of German science in delivering to him the "ultimate weapon".

"We have invisible aircraft, submarines, colossal tanks and cannon, unbelievably powerful rockets, and a bomb with a working that will astonish the whole world. The enemy knows this, and besieges and attempts to destroy us. But we will answer this destruction with a storm and that without unleashing a bacteriological war, for which we are also prepared.... All my words are the purest truth. That you will see. We still have things that need to be finished, and when they are finished, they will turn the tide". 

--Adolf Hitler, 13 March 1945, addressing officers of the German Ninth Army

But perhaps the most persuasive bit of evidence that there is far more about the end of World War Two than we have been told can be found in two exceedingly odd facts that emerge from the Three Corners region of Thuringia in south central Germany. In a statement made on 20 March 1968, former German General Erich Andress was in the Three Corners region at the end of the war, when suddenly, more American military personnel (who were already occupying the area), arrived with jeeps and heavy transports, and immediately ordered all the buildings and houses in the area to have their windows totally blacked out, leaving one to conclude that the Americans were removing something from the area of great value to them, something they wished no one to see. The second odd fact is even more curious, for it is a fact that, of all the areas in modern Germany, the region of Thuringia, precisely in the area of Jonastal and Ohrdruf, is the region of Germany with the highest concentration of background gamma radiation. [Meyer and Mehner, "Das Geheimnis"]

So, what is really signified by the unique exchange of remarks between former Reich Minister of Armaments Albert Speer, and Chief American Prosecutor Jackson at Nuremberg? That Jackson is privy to information similar in nature to reports only recently de-classified is clear from his question. That this information concerns the real nature of German atom bomb research and its-what appear to be astounding achievements completely at variance with the post-war Allied Legend - would also seem to be indicated. And that Albert Speer seems either unwilling to talk about them candidly, or is simply entirely ignorant of them, also seems indisputable. Thus Jackson's question would seem to imply a test of the extent of Speer's knowledge of the program and his complicity in the two tests at Rügen and Ohrdruf. If the Minister if Armaments for the entire Third Reich knew nothing of it, then indeed, we are dealing with a Black Reich within the Black Reich, a beast in the belly of the beast, of which even high-ranking Nazis such as Speer knew very little, if anything. The great secret of World War Two, one which the victorious Allies and Russians wish to keep secret to this day, was that Nazi Germany was indisputably first to reach the atom bomb, and was indisputably for a very brief period before the end of the war, the world's very first nuclear power. But why is the Allied and Russian secrecy continued even to the present day? But why didn't the Nazis use their bombs if they had them? The answer to that question has already been partly addressed: if they used any weapons of mass destruction, nuclear or Otherwise, they would have been far more likely to have used them in a fashion consistent with their racist and genocidal ideology, as well as against the enemy that was their largest military threat: on the Eastern Front, against the Soviet Union, where a paranoid Stalinist regime would have been loathe to admit to the world or to its own war-savaged people that they faced an enemy with overwhelming technological superiority.

Such an admission would likely have so demoralized the Russians, already forced to spend rivers of their own blood in every engagement with the Wehrmacht, that Stalin's regime itself may not have survived such an admission. But why not use them against the Western Allies in the last stages of the war, as the military situation grew increasingly desperate? There is every indication that the Nazi leadership contemplated just such an operation....

Located near Ohrdruf, Thuringia was located the S-III Führer Headquarters. Constructed by approximately 15 - to 18,000 inmates of the nearby Ohrdruf, Espenfeld and Crawinkel concentration camps, from autumn 1944 to spring 1945, was a tunnel system over 1,5 miles in length.

Ohrdruf was reached by General Patton about 11 April 1945. Colonel R. Allen accompanying him described the installations extensively in his book:

"The underground installations were amazing. They were literally subterranean towns. There were four in and around Ohrdruf: one near the horror camp, one under the Schloss, and two west of the town. Others were reported in near-by villages. None were natural caves or mines. All were man-made military installations. The horror camp had provided the labour. An interesting feature of the construction was the absence of any spoil. It had been carefully scattered in hills miles away. The only communication shelter, which is known, is a two floor deep shelter, with the code "AMT 10".

"Over 50 feet underground, the installations consisted of two and three stories several miles in length and extending like the spokes of a wheel. The entire hull structure was of massive reinforced concrete. Purpose of the installations was to house the High Command after it was bombed out of Berlin. This places also had paneled and carpeted offices, scores of large work and store rooms, tiled bathrooms with bath tubs and showers, flush toilets, electrically equipped kitchens, decorated dining rooms and mess halls, giant refrigerators, extensive sleeping quarters, recreation rooms, separate bars for officers and enlisted personnel, a moving picture theatre, and air-conditioning and sewage systems".

--"Lucky Forward: The History of Patton's 3rd US Army", Col. Robert S. Allen, published by Vanguard Press, New York, 1947


 

Sources and Reference Material

a. The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW, High Command) and Luftwaffe war diaries and all copies of them for the period March 1945 have disappeared and are suspected to be in American keeping.

b. On 17 April 1945, the United States Atomic Energy Commission inspected various underground workings at Ohrdruf, and removed technical equipment before dynamiting surface entrances. The US authorities have classified all 1945 documents relating to Ohrdruf for a minimum period of 100 years.

Fortunately for researchers, in 1962 a quasi-judicial tribunal sat at Arnstadt in the then DDR, to take depositions from local residents for an enquiry entitled "Befragung von Bürgern zu Ereignissen zur örtlichen Geschichte". The enquiry was principally interested in what went on at the Ohrdruf Truppenübungsplatz (TÜP) in the latter years of the war. The depositions became common property in 1989 upon the reunification of Germany and may be viewed at Arnstadt town hall.

The Ohrdruf military training ground

There had been a military training ground at Ohrdruf since imperial times. It was a large, rugged area of upland, nowadays disused and strewn with shells and other military scrap. Its perimeter can be circumnavigated by Land Rover in about three hours. Through binoculars, small parts of the ruins of Amt 10, described below, can be made out but not visited.

During 1936-1938, an Army underground telephone/telex exchange known as Amt 10 was built in the limestone strata below the Ohrdruf Truppenübungsplatz. Its entrances were disguised as chalets. The Bunker was 50 feet down and measured 70 by 20 metres. Both floors had a central corridor about 3 metres wide with rooms either side, and 2 WCs. End-doors were gas-proofed, the installation had central heating, air was supplied under pressure, water drawn from a spring 600 feet below. A 475 hp ship's diesel was on hand as the emergency electrical generator, and this piece of equipment plays an important role in understanding the Ohrdruf mystery.

One of the three full-time Reichspost maintenance engineers employed there from 1938 to 1945 stated that Amt 10 was never used until the last few months of the war when it was "more than it seemed" and "its clandestine purpose was fairly obvious."

Col Robert S Allen, a Staff officer with General Patton's Third Army described in his book a completed underground reinforced-concrete metropolis 50 feet down "to house the High Command". It was on two or three levels and consisted of galleries several miles in length and "extending like the spokes of a wheel." The location of Hitler's Führer headquarters was not stated and Amt 10 was described misleadingly as "a two-floor deep concrete shelter."

If the structure was built like a wheel, the Führer headquarters would logically be at the hub, and Amt 10 was at the hub. Allen's description of Amt 10 as having two floors on April 1945 conflicts with the evidence of two persons who worked there: one hinted that there were more than two floors, the other testified there were three. The latter witness also stated that Amt 10 was two great bunkers of the same size, each of three floors, but not connected except by underground piping. Each Bunker was guarded on each level by an SS sentry and passes for each entrance were not common to both. The most likely explanation is that the second Bunker was constructed in 1944 at the same time as a third level was added to the first Amt 10 Bunker as the Führer-suite.

As regards the second Bunker, a witness stated that in 1944 there was an installation below the Ohrdruf Truppenübungsplatz which created an electro-magnetic field capable of stopping the engines of a conventional aircraft at seven miles. During the war, the Allies never photographed Ohrdruf from the air, nor bombed it, even though their spies must have assured them it was crawling with SS and scientific groups. A German electro-magnetic field which interfered with their aircraft at altitudes of up to seven miles is admitted by a 1945 United States Air Force Intelligence document. The USAF suspected that it was a device to bring down their bombers, but it obviously had some other purpose, or it would have been operating below Berlin.

Many Arnstadt witnesses described occasions when electrical equipment and automobile engines cut out. They always knew when this was about to happen, for the ship's Diesel engine at Amt 10 would smoke. A Diesel motor is not affected by an electro-magnetic field. In 1980, Russians scientists were still able to measure the field on their equipment, but they were never able to identify the source.

The Führer headquarters at Ohrdruf

The Führer headquarters at Ohrdruf is not admitted by academic historians. The evidence for it, however, is strong:

a. S-III was an SS military factory complex below Jonastal near Ohrdruf where 1,000 Buchenwald inmates began digging in June 1944. No decision had been taken to build a Führer headquarters in Thuringia before 24 August 1944.

b. In September 1944, a geologist consulted by SS-WVHA regarding the suitability of Jonastal for a Führer headquarters suggested the Ohrdruf Truppenübungsplatz instead.

c. In October 1944, General von Gockl, Ohrdruf Truppenübungsplatz commandant, evacuated all Wehrmacht personnel from the plain. Within a fortnight the notorious Ohrdruf-KZ had been set up while SS-Führungsstab S-III, in charge of the Führer headquarters project, occupied a school at nearby Luisenthal. Firms working on building projects in Poland were ordered immediately to Ohrdruf.

d. At the end of 1944, Hauptsturmführer Karl Sommer, deputy head of WVHA-DH (forced labour) assembled a workforce at Buchenwald to build a secret Führer headquarters named S-III at Ohrdruf. S-III had a fully-equipped telephone-telex exchange before work started, thus identifying it as around Amt 10.

e. Hitler's Luftwaffe aid Nikolaus von Below stated in his memoirs that in early 1945 he visited the location of the new Thuringian Führer headquarters and it was at the Ohrdruf Truppenübungsplatz.

f. In late January 1945, Hitler spoke openly of evacuating Ministry staff from Berlin "perhaps to Oberhof in Thuringia".

g. In compliance with order 71/45 and the communique from Führer headquarters Berlin issued by Wehrmacht ADC General Burgdorf on 9 March 1945, General Krebs of the Army General Staff reported that between 12 February and 29 March 1945 a substantial proportion of OKW Staff had transferred to the Ohrdruf area.

h. On the nights of 4 and 12 March 1945, "a small explosive of terrific destructive power" was tested on the Ohrdruf Truppenübungsplatz. 200 KZ inmates and 20 SS guards were scorched to death on the first test due to a miscalculation of the extent of the effect. The bodies were immolated on a common pyre, the ashes being scattered across central-Germany from aircraft. In mid-March, a 30-metre long rocket was reported test fired into the night sky from a weapons site within five miles of the Truppenübungsplatz. The Amt 10 telephone engineer gave evidence that "200 so-called female signals auxiliaries" arrived to staff the second Bunker in this period. Why they were "so-called" is not explained.

On 4 March 1945, Clare Werner, throughout the war custodian of the Wachsenburg watch-tower, who was standing on a nearby hillside, witnessed an explosion in a military training area near the town of Ohrdruf.

"It was about 9:30 when I suddenly saw something ... it was as bright as hundreds of bolts of lightning, red on the inside and yellow on the outside, so bright you could've read the newspaper. It all happened so quickly, and then we couldn't see anything at all. We just noticed there was a powerful wind..." The woman complained of "nose bleeds, headaches and pressure in the ears."

The next day Heinz Wachsmut, a man who worked for a local excavating company, was ordered to help the SS build wooden platforms on which the corpses of prisoners were cremated. The bodies, according to Wachsmut, were covered with horrific burn wounds. Like Werner, Wachsmut reports that local residents complained of headaches, some even spitting up blood.

In Wachsmut's account, higher-ranking SS officers told people that something new had been tested, something the entire world would soon be talking about. Of course, there was no mention of nuclear weapons.

A further interesting set of depositions from the 1962 Arnstadt DDR enquiry refer to the test of a rocket apparently the size of an A9/10 "Amerika" rocket.

Witness 1 was Clare Werner, throughout the war custodian of the Wachsenburg watch-tower. She stated that a rocket with a huge tail-fire was fired after 21.00 hours on the night of 16 March 1945 while she was looking through binoculars towards Ichtershausen. She had been informed earlier by a friend working for the Reichspost Sonderbauvorhaben at Arnstadt that a tremendous achievement was to be celebrated in the sky that night.

Witness 2 was a former KZ-inmate who gave evidence to the DDR tribunal that he helped erect staging for "an enormously long rocket" at MUNA Rudisleben. From the Wachsenburg watch tower, Rudisleben is close to Ichtershausen.

Witnesses 3 and 4 were a technician and fuel system engineer respectively who all stated that they worked on the construction of a huge rocket over 30 metres in length which was fired on the night of 16 March 1945 at Polte II underground facility, one kilometer from Rudisleben.

The first of the rocket series successfully tested that night may have been intended as the carrier for the mysterious explosive, and intended to bring New York under attack, as had been promised by Hitler in his references to a miracle weapon in "Hitlers Tischgespräche" (Picker's version).

Following this successful launch, at what stage the rocket could have entered series production is an interesting question.

i. In early March 1945, Organization Todt began work on the Brandleite railway tunnel at Oberhof to accommodate the special trains of Hitler and Göring, installed a telephone exchange in the station-master's house and positioned flak batteries on surrounding peaks.

j. A witness stated that the Führer-Sperrkreis at Ohrdruf was called Burg and alleged that Hitler spent at least one day there in late March 1945.

k. In late March a Luftwaffe mutiny occurred in which General Barber and over three hundred pilots and air base command personnel were executed for refusing to obey an unknown order (the Luftwaffe War Diaries for March and first part April 1945 have vanished).

l. Upon his arrest in May 1945, Göring told his captors that he had engineered the mutiny thus saving the world by "refusing to deploy bombs that could have destroyed all civilisation". It was freely reported at the time, since nobody knew what he meant.

The Magnetic Ray

A similar device to the one operating below Ohrdruf finds a place in declassified literature as follows: On 6 December 1944, the US Military Intelligence Service commenced Research Project 1217 "Investigation into German Possible Use of Rays to Neutralize Allied Aircraft Motors". This resulted from "recent interference phenomena occasionally experienced on operations over Germany in the Frankfurt/Main area." It was usually described as "freakish interference to engines and electrical instruments" over the north bank of the Main River, about ten miles from Führer headquarters Adlerhorst.

In a top secret report entitled "Engine Interference Counter-Measures" addressed to the Director, Air Technical Service Command, Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, reference was made to OSS discussions about a German unit somewhere near Frankfurt/Main operating:

"...an influence interfering with conventional aircraft... however incredible it may appear to project from the ground to a height of 30,000 feet sufficient magnetic energy to interfere with the functioning of the ignition system of an airplane, it must be concluded that the enemy not only intends to interfere with our aircraft by some immaterial means, but has also succeeded in accomplishing this intention..."

The Miracle Explosive

The four items of literature appearing to relate to the explosive tested at Ohrdruf in March 1945 are as follows:

a. British Security Coordination (BSC) was the largest integrated intelligence network enterprise in history. Its Director was Sir William Stevenson, a Canadian industrialist. His code-name was "Intrepid". In his autobiography, "A Man Called Intrepid", Sphere Books, 1977, Stevenson relates: "One of the BSC agents submitted a report, sealed and stamped THIS IS OF PARTICULAR SECRECY which told of "...liquid air bombs being developed in Germany... of terrific destructive effect".

The reader should not be misled into thinking that these were modern common-or-garden "liquid air bombs": Stevenson noted that they were "as powerful as rockets with atomic warheads".

b. The book "German Secret Weapons", Ballantyne Press, UK, also Libr. Edit. San Martin, Madrid, 1975, was authored by Brian Ford (military scientist), Barrie Pitt (academic historian) and Captain Sir Basil Liddell Hart (military historian). At page 28, the text states:

"The Whirlwind Bomb produced an artificial hurricane of fire and is absolutely authentic even though it may seem improbable. The explosive was developed and tested by Dr. Zippermayr at Lofer, an experimental Luftwaffe institute in the Tyrol. The explosive was pulverized coal dust and liquid air. Its effect was sufficient to create an artificial typhoon and was intended initially as an anti-aircraft weapon able to destroy aircraft by excessive turbulence. The effective radius of action was 914 metres..."

c. This is a 4-page declassified US Intelligence document of the Salzburg Detachment of the US Forces Austria Counter-Intelligence Corps, describing Dr. Zippermayr interrogated at Lofer on 3 August  1945. His laboratories were established at Lofer with head office at Weimarerstrasse 87, Vienna. Staff was 35, work financed by RLM and under direction of Chef der Technischen Luftrüstung.

--US Forces Austria Counter-Intelligence Corps, Salzburg Detachment, Zell am See report 4 August 1945, Case No S/Z/55 Dr Mario Zippermayr; NARA RG 319 Entry 82a Reports and messages, ALSOS Mission.

Zippermayr worked on three projects of which one was the Enzian/Schmetterling anti-aircraft rockets "charged with a coal dust explosive so strong that the concussion could break the wings of a bomber". This item "was proved successful by August 1943, but orders for its production were not issued until March 9, 1945..."

d. This item is an extract from BIOS (British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee) Final Report 142(g) "Information Obtained from Targets of Opportunity in the Sonthofen Area, (HMSO London).

The report states that during 1944, an explosive mixture of 60% liquid air and 40% finely powdered coal dust invented by Dr. Mario Zippermayr was tested at Döberitz explosives ground near Berlin, and was found to be very destructive over a radius of up to 600 metres.

Waffen-SS scientists then became involved and added some kind of waxy substance to the explosive. The bombs had to be filled immediately prior to the aircraft taking off. Bombs of 25 and 50 kgs were dropped on Starnberger See and photos taken. Standartenführer Klemm showed these to Brandt (Himmler's scientific adviser). The intensive explosion covered an area up to 4.5 kms radius.

This waxy substance was a reagent of some kind which was said to interact with air during the development of the explosion, causing it to change its composition and so create meteorological change in the atmosphere. A lightning storm at ground level consumes all the available oxygen. Göring's statement upon his arrest in May 1945 is significant: he claimed to have led a revolt against Luftwaffe use of a bomb "which could have destroyed all civilisation." The bomb was not a nuclear weapon, and it appears to have been a conventional explosive which used a reagent or catalyst produced by Tesla methodology or similar for its inexplicable effect.

Conclusion

The suggestion at this point is that by late 1944, Waffen-SS scientists in Germany had developed a catalyst or reagent, apparently a waxy substance, maybe a plasmoid of some kind, which when added to a conventional explosive containing liquid air vastly magnified the effect, killing everything within a three mile radius by blast, tremendous heat and suffocation. It appears also to have had undesirable meteorological effects.

On 16 April 1945 the Type XB submarine U-234 (KL Fehler) departed Kristiansand, Norway for Japan direct. She had loaded at Kiel in January and February, and besides a strategic cargo in the region of 260 tonnes carried ten German and two Japanese passengers, all of whom were specialists in the military field or scientists.

On 17 May 1945, against his express orders, Kptlt. Fehler decided to surrender his submarine to the US Navy, and arrived two days later at Portsmouth Navy Yard, New Hampshire.

What is principally of interest is the cargo, and in particular ten cases of "uranium oxide" of 560 kilograms weight, and several items which were not included on the Unloading Manifest.

The Unloading Manifest (US NAT Arch, College Park MD, Box RG38, Box 13, Document OP-20-3-G1-A (Unloading Manifest) dated 24 May 1945) is a falsified document purporting to show the entire cargo aboard U-234. The true Manifests, both American and German, have never been declassified. In the normal course of events, a Manifest upon declassification would bear the censor's deletions where it was intended that certain items should not be displayed. The USN alleged Unloading Manifest is clean of any deletions and purports to be the true Unloading Manifest. From a declassified cable, it is evident that 80 cases of Uranium Powder have been omitted, as was also, from the statements of the U-boat crew members and Kptlt. Fehler, a two-seater Me 262 bomber aircraft brought from Rechlin and stowed in its component parts.

Germany had 1,200 tonnes of uranium oxide on hand at Oolen in Belgium throughout the war, but made no strides towards making an atom bomb. Nevertheless, many commentators fantasize an embryonic atom bomb in the 560 kilos of "uranium oxide" aboard U-234. It is a fantasy, for such evidence as exists points to this being a cover word for something else.

Two official documents address the ten cases of "uranium oxide" directly.

a. A report headed "Regarding 'URANIUM OXIDE' and other CARGO aboard U-234" on the interrogation of Geschwaderrichter Kay Nieschling, U-234 passenger by USN Intelligence Officer Lt Best states that "Lt Pfaff was the man responsible for loading the U-boat" and that "the meaning behind the ore" - peculiar phrase suggesting that the ore was not the ore - would be known by Kptlt. Falk (or Falck) who took some secret courses before he boarded the U-boat. Kptlt. Fehler should also know something about the ore."

It does not appear that Kptlt. Falk or Falck survived his interrogation, for there is no record of his return to Germany, and the US authorities have not been able to account for his movements in their custody after interrogating him on 26 May 1945. There are other indications that the "uranium ore" was extraordinary. Lt. Col. John Lansdale, chief of security for the Manhattan Project, wrote in a 1996 newspaper article published in Britain and Germany that he had personally handled the disposal of the ten cases. He stated that the American military authorities "reacted with panic" when they learned what the cases contained.

b. The second document was found by researcher Joseph Mark Scalia, a former 12-year US Navy man, during a rummage through old boxes at the Portsmouth Navy Yard. It is a secret cable from CNO to NYPORT on the subject "MINE TUBES, UNLOADING OF" and states: "Interrogation Lt. Pfaff IIWO U-234 discloses he was in charge of cargo and personally supervised loading all mine tubes. Pfaff prepared Manifest List and knows kind cargo in each tube. Uranium Oxide loaded in gold-lined cylinders and as long as cylinders not opened can be handled like crude TNT. These containers should not be opened as substance will become sensitive and dangerous..."

The so-called "Uranium Oxide" would become sensitive and dangerous if exposed to air. The so-called "Uranium Oxide" was perfectly safe in its cylinders provided one respected it as one would dynamite. The so-called "Uranium Oxide" was sealed in a cylinder lined with gold.

In nuclear physics gold is used to absorb fission fragments plus gamma rays in containers, and is particularly efficient at capturing neutron radiation as well. From this it is evident that the material in the ten cylinders was not just highly radioactive - it was extraordinarily dangerous and behaving as if it were itself a nuclear reactor. No atomic physicist who has examined the evidence about these ten cases has been able to deliver an opinion as to what substance kept within a lead case might have required these extraordinary precautions.

On 24 May 1945, when the US Navy began to unload U-234, it is clear from the US State papers that no decision regarding the atom bomb had been taken by the US government. On 30 May 1945, both Secretary of State Stimson and President Truman were agreed that no alternative existed to deploying America's atomic arsenal against Japan.

They had no alternative to using the atom bomb, and no satisfactory reason has ever been forthcoming why that decision was made. So what could have caused these two decent men to decide that such a course of action was unavoidable?

What was aboard U-234 might also be aboard other Japan-bound U-boats. The Japanese had at least two submarines with a range of 30,000 miles, that were capable of being used as aircraft launchers. The Japanese had a plan of mixing the uranium from U-234 with standard explosives, and loading them in bombs or planes which were to take off the submarines and attack San Francisco. The target date was August 1945; they were ready, only waiting for the shipment of uranium to arrive.

That would make no sense unless the "uranium" from U-234 was the waxy substance which when mixed with conventional explosives turned the material into the miracle weapon. These two Japanese submarines would be very close to San Francisco, and the pilots of the bomber aircraft would have to be kamikazes, for proximity to the waxy substance meant certain death.

If the Japanese were indeed in the process of being supplied with this material by German U-boats for use against the United States west coast, then this was the reason for the nuclear attacks against Japan.


The miracle explosive known nowadays as R-Waffe was not based on uranium, although uranium was used in the creation of the plasmoid. The plasmoid worked as a catalyst on a conventional coal-dust/liquid air mixture to vastly expand the explosion.


Additional sources: US Nat Archive NARA/US Strategic Air Forces in Europe - Air Intelligence Summaries, January 1945 et seq. 6 February 1945, Subject: Engine Interference Counter-measures. To: The Director, Air Technical Service Command, Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, Engineering Division. From: Taylor Drysdale, Director Technical Services, HQ European Theatre of Operations, PoW and X Detachment, Military Intelligence Service, US

STRANGE MAPS, STRANGE FLIGHTS, AND UNKNOWN CARGOES

"Gerlach goes on to explain that the Nazi party seemed to think that they were working on a bomb and relates how the Party people in Munich were going around from house to house on the 27th or 28th of April last telling everyone that the atomic bomb would be used the following day."

--Jeremy Bernstein, "Hitler's Uranium Club: The Secret Recordings at Farm Hall" (Copernicus, 2001)

The United States was in a unique position among all the powers nvolved in World War Two. For the last time in its history, it was able to undertake military operations on a global scale relatively free of the fear of enemy reprisal. Its cities and factories were beyond the reach of any known enemy bomber. Moreover, much of its industrial capacity was located in its interior, far from the northeastern Atlantic States or the Pacific coast. According to conventional wisdom that has been reiterated countless times in numerous standard histories of the war, there was absolutely nothing the United States had to fear from Nazi Germany with its "tactical mission-oriented Luftwaffe" or its puny Navy. To this day, many Americans, even ones relatively familiar with the operational details of Word War Two, believe that Germany had no aircraft even capable of reaching the United States and returning to Europe, much less of carrying a heavy enough payload, or being available in sufficient numbers, to be of any military significance.

All that changes, however, if Germany had the atomic bomb and if she possessed aircraft capable of delivering one and of returning successfully to Europe. In that case, only one bomber need be used to strike a significant military and psychological blow against the United States. Was such an operation feasible? Did Germany have such aircraft at least capable of being modified to carry an atom bomb? Are there indications that such studies and operations were contemplated by the Nazis?

The Oberkommando der Luftwaffe's Unusual Map

In 1943 the Supreme Command of the Luftwaffe (Oberkommando der Luftwaffe) conducted a highly unusual study. The study consisted of a map, a map of lower Manhattan Island. On the map are concentric circles detailing the blast and heat damage- radii of an atomic bomb detonation over New York City. But the most unusual aspect of this "study" is that it shows the detonation of an atom bomb in the 15-17 kiloton range, approximately the same yield as the Little Boy uranium bomb dropped on Hiroshima, an odd "coincidence" in the series of "odd coincidences" we have-already encountered.

The Luftwaffe's intentions are quite obvious and clear. The destruction of the financial and business center of New York City would alone have been an unparalleled military and psychological blow against the American war effort. Beyond this, given the fact that New York City was an important point of embarkation for American shipping and troops, as well as a naval base, and a transportation hub for the entire American northeast, such a blow would have been incalculable.

For the Nazi leadership, such a blow would have made military and political sense. It would have demonstrated conclusively to the United States that Germany was capable of mounting significant military operations against the American mainland, and at levels of destructive capability that were militarily, economically, and psychologically devastating. From their point of view, such a blow would arguably been seen as weakening American resolve and perhaps, after a succession of similar such blows against prominent targets such as Boston, Philadelphia, Washington DC or Norfolk, would conceivably have led to America's exit from the war, leaving Britain to follow not far behind. The war against the Soviet Union could then either have been prosecuted without mercy until the inevitable Soviet capitulation, or at the minimum, a negotiated peace highly favorable to the Reich.

In October of 1943, then, such a study was a tempting prospect. But is there any indication that the OKL's "study map" was anything more than a study? From the evidence presented thus far, the answer is clearly that the Luftwaffe was not merely conducting the typical staff exercises that all general staffs conduct, even in wartime. For the Luftwaffe, the study was a practical and immanent feasibility. But what of Freier's allegations that the bomb was ready, but the delivery systems were not? Without a delivery system the German Wehrmacht could have possessed all the atom bombs it wished, but they would have been utterly useless, expensive toys, without a viable means to deliver them to its most significant militarily and economically powerful opponent.

Strange Flights 

Did the Germans possess any strategic bombers or aircraft capable of reaching the North American continent with a significant payload, and returning to Europe? Beyond the relatively well-known Messerschmitt 264, a four-engine bomber that looks far too similar to the American B-29 to be coincidental, Germany possessed in small numbers a quantity of heavy-lift, ultra-long range transport craft, including the four engine Junkers 290 and its massive six engine cousin, the Junkers 390.



In an article for the 29 June 1945 issue of the "Washington Post", a report that originated from 21st Army Group headquarters outlines the frightening discovery that awaited Allied military personnel who came to occupy Norway after the German forces there surrendered:

"R.A.F. officers said today that the Germans had nearly completed preparations for bombing New York from a "colossal air field" near Oslo when the war ended.

"Forty giant bombers with a 7,000 mile range were found on this base - the largest Luftwaffe field I have ever seen,' one officer said.

"They were a new type bomber developed by Heinkel. They now are being dismantled for study. German ground crews said the planes were held in readiness for a mission to New York".

Only two of these massive aircraft were ever built. The Junkers 390 assumes an odd significance here in our story, for in 1944, one such Ju-390 took off from Bordeaux, France, and flew to within 12 miles of New York City, snapped a picture of the Manhattan skyline, and flew back, a non-stop flight of 32 hours. 

Within the context of the German SS atom bomb project, this flight was more than a mere feasibility study. Photo reconnaissance could only be for target identification. And the flight itself, to within 12 miles of the city, could conceivably have been a test of American air defenses and reactions. In any case, the fact that such a flight returned safely can only indicate that the American Army Air Force simply was not expecting a visit from the Luftwaffe at all, reconnaissance, feasibility study, or otherwise.

Unknown Cargoes and a Curious Airfield

The Ju-390 and its smaller four-engine cousin the Ju-290, perhaps had a role envisioned for them in conjunction with another little-known, but nonetheless important, fact. In 1945 the Luftwaffe completed construction of an enormous airfield near Oslo, Norway, capable of handling very large aircraft like the Me-264, the He-177, and the Ju-290 and 390.

It is known that Heinkel undertook special modifications of its He-177 four engine heavy bomber late in the war, adapting it to carry large atom bombs, radiological bombs, and biological and chemical bombs. [Friedrich Georg, "Hitlers Siegeswaffen Band 1: Luftwaffe und Marine: Geheime Nuklearwaffen des Dritten Reiches und ihre Trägersysteme"] Within the context of the SS atom bomb program and the earlier flight of the Ju-390 from France in 1944, however, a purpose immediately suggests itself. The loss of France to Allied forces in 1944 deprived the Luftwaffe of its large French airfields. Norway, however, remained in German hands up until their very surrender, and thus constituted the only remaining base of operations available to the Germans for any type of offensive operation against the North American continent.

The presence of such an airfield and its deliberate construction so late in the war also strongly suggests a connection to the SS atom bomb program in an entirely different way, since its construction would likely have fallen under the jurisdiction of the SS Building and Works Department, which was under the direction of none other than SS Obergruppenführer Hans Kammler.  It is also significant that jurisdiction over all long range aircraft was also in Kammler's hands by war's end, thus linking the precious long-range bombers on the Oslo field to Kammler as well. Moreover, Mayer and Mehner speculate that at least two atom bombs were built and possibly transported on the mission of the U-234. In their view, the surrender of the U-boat to the American authorities thus not only provided the Manhattan Project with much-needed stocks of enriched uranium, but quite possibly also with two fully functional atom bombs as well. 

Professor Friedrich Lachner was assistant for twenty years to professor Mache at the Department for Technical Physics at the Technical University of Vienna. Familiar with aspects of the German bomb project, Lachner unburdened himself of his knowledge to researchers Mayer and Mehner. Among his allegations were that at least one completed bomb of German construction was transported from Thuringia to Salzburg by the SS near the end of the war. ["Das Geheimnis"]

Lachner also asserts unequivocally in his letter to Mayer and Mehner that the bomb dropped on Hiroshima was German. Lachner also states that there were no less than fifteen atom bombs in German hands by the war's end. Again, on first glance, this seems a sheer fantasy, unless they had already mastered the techniques of boosted fission. The Salzburg bomb story may not be fantasy, as American tank units were operating in the area late in the war in conjunction with Patton's drive on Pilsen and Prague.

Lachner's letter is intriguing for two reasons. First, because it corroborates the existence of a large atom bomb program in the Three Corners region, and corroborates Freier's allegations of a successful test in March 1945. By mentioning the transportation of such weapons out of the region, he gives some credence to the idea that the U-234 might have been used to transport at least one such weapon to Norway. [Italian officer Luigi Romersa mentions as well that the Russians captured two such bombs].

But a more curious allegation is made in Lachner's letter to Mayer and Mehner, and with it, we begin to approach the even more horrendous potentialities of Nazi wartime secret weapons research. Citing the letter of a British espionage agent who was well-aware of the multi-tiered nature of the German atom bomb program, and who was aware of a "third team that sought another way" of making the bomb (boosted fission), [Mayer and Mehner, "Das Geheimnis". It should be noted, however, that the name of this "well known" British agent is never mentioned] he then mentions a "fourth team":

"Yes, and then there was also the fourth team, about which we heard rumors during the last phase of the war. This was certainly so shadowy and fantastic, that one could only construe it as a ploy. But after the war it became evident that the world had avoided a colossal catastrophe by a hair's breath.... This fourth team worked in a field that was monstrous on a daily basis. And when I say this, I meant thereby that they experimented with things that a well-informed public would to thus very day think then to be unthinkable and unbelievable, and thus imaginary. I mean to imply that these specialists worked in conceptions that totally abandoned conventional physical law"s. [Ibid. The agent then mentions that he is not aware of which side ended up with this technology].

Mayer and Mehner then point out the implications of the agent's remarks in an age long accustomed to think in terms of the destructive power of hydrogen bombs:

"That the Germans were working on an atom bomb no one may any longer question, but that they also possessed a team that was working on the destruction of the world is an unbelievable concept. This could only mean that there was a weapons system that possessed enormous range and degree of efficiency that lay beyond that of nuclear weapons technology. Did the Third Reich really prepare the Doomsday Weapon? And if so, where is this technology today? Was it discovered by the Allies or does it lurk secretly deep in the earth waiting for its rediscovery? If such an Ultimate Weapon has already been in existence for more than fifty years, then it is a legitimate question to ask what today's military really, actually possesses". [Ibid. it is also a legitimate question to ask whose military possesses it].

The truthfulness of these stupendous allegations appears to be substantiated by a brief remark uttered by Adolf Hitler to a gathering of Axis elite in April 1944. According to Italian officer Luigi Romersa once again, who was present when Hitler made the remarks, the  Führer strolled through the room and said, "We have invisible aircraft, submarines, colossal tanks and cannon, unbelievably powerful rockets, and a bomb with a working that will astonish the whole world. The enemy knows this, and besieges and attempts to destroy us. But we will answer this destruction with a storm and that without unleashing a bacteriological war, for which we are also prepared.... All my words are the purest truth. That you will see!" [Mayer and Mehner, "Das Geheimnis"]

Bacteriological war? Bombs with an unbelievable working? Teams of specialists working in areas that defy conventional laws of physics that would threaten a global catastrophe? This is not the picture of a Germany tinkering with V-1 buzz bombs, V-2s of limited operational range and strategic value, clumsy and belated attempts to construct a working atomic reactor, and tottering on the brink of total collapse that we have been led to believe. All the evidence presented thus far tends to the opposite conclusion, that at a minimum the Third Reich possessed functioning atom bombs and was preparing to use them against the West, if she had not already done so against Russia. So the cargoes intended to fly out of that Norwegian airfield may have not only been nuclear, but something far more horrendous. Already the path through Nazi Germany's nuclear programs have led into very unexpected places and developments, developments only made possible by the recent German reunification and the declassification of German, British, and American archives that it provoked, and suggesting that behind that nuclear program lurks something even larger and far more monstrous.

In any case, it now seems clear why, in spite of Oppenheimer's statement in the middle of May 1945 that the earliest an atom bomb could be ready was in November of 1945. [Ibid. It is significant that Oppenheimer made these remarks before the capture of the U-234] that America was able to overcome all fusing problems and fissile material shortages in a mere two months after the German surrender.

THE STRANGE CASE OF THE DISAPPEARING GENERALS: SS OBERGRUPPENFÜHRER DR.ING. HANS KAMMLER AND GENERAL GEORGE S. PATTON

"Pilsen and the Skoda Works were captured by Combat Command B Third Armored Division, the same unit that captured Kammler's unique metropolis, with its treasure trove of missiles and jet engines, at Nordhausen in Saxony on April 11."

-- Tom Agoston, "Blunder! How the U.S. Gave Away Nazi Supersecrets to Russia"  (New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1985)

World War Two ended in Europe with the armored divisions of U.S. General George S. Patton's Third Army lunging deep into the tottering Third Reich, toward Arnstadt in Thuringia and toward the immense Skoda munitions works at Pilsen, Czechoslovakia. This little appreciated fact links together two of the war's most famous and powerful generals and perhaps affords a basis to speculate on the real reasons for the mysterious death of the one, and the equally mysterious "death" of the other.

The generals in question are General Patton, well-known to military history and America's most famous and capable field commander during the war in Europe, and SS Obergruppenführer Dr. Ing. (Doctor of Engineering) Hans Kammler, now little known to popular history, architect of the infamous Auschwitz death camps, responsible for the demolition of the Warsaw ghetto, and by the end of the war, the Third Reich's plenipotentiary for all secret weapons research, responsible directly to Reichsfuhrer SS Heinrich Himmler and to Adolf Hitler himself.

Introduction: The Rediscovery of the SS Sonderkommando, Kammler, and a Brush with "the Legend"

As indicated, there is some entity within the Third Reich that appears to have co-ordinated extremely sensitive and secret weapons research projects, including possible oversight of Germany's apparently large uranium enrichment program. However, this entity, as we shall subsequently see, was responsible for a great deal more than that. It is necessary at this juncture to say something about it, however, as it now directly enters the picture in the speculative reconstruction of the strange death of the one, and the disappearance of the other, of these two very important generals.

This entity first came to public light in the aftermath of World War Two, in the 1950s, in a series of publications in West Germany, and in a book by former German major Rudolf Lusar. These publications alleged that Nazi Germany had created and successfully tested "unusual" aircraft, including flying disks or saucers. Thus was born the "Nazi Legend" of the "real origin" of UFOs. The Nazi Legend maintained that this secretive development occurred under the direct auspices of the SS.

The allegations of an ultra-top secret entity co-ordinating and controlling the Nazi secret weapons research in the final years of the war tended to be discounted, along with its more sensation component, the "flying saucers" themselves. Moreover, discounting these allegations was easy to do, since they rested upon the isolated testimony of a disenchanted German major with definite Nazi sympathies (Lusar) and the "eye witness" statements of one or two others who came forward to corroborate the story, each with their own shady associations.

All that gradually began to change, however, by a sequence of events ranging from the publication of a book by a former British intelligence officer, Tom Agoston, in 1985, to the German reunification itself in 1989, which made a host of archives of the former East Germany available to researchers. A number of books has appeared in Germany since the reunification made these archives accessible, and moreover, the formerly inaccessible SS secret underground facilities and complexes finally became accessible to the public. Aided and abetted in their efforts by the declassification of several documents by the Clinton administration in the United States, German researchers began to probe the new information, reconnecting the dots, and presenting a chilling picture of the actual state of Nazi wartime research and its enormous discrepancy with the post-war Allied Legend.

The most prominent post-reunification German sources for this story are Friedrich Georg's series on secret weapons, Hitler's Siegeswaffen series in three volumes; and the studies of Edgar Mayer and Thomas Mehner, "Das Geheimnis der Deutschen Atombombe; Die Atombombe und das Dritte Reich"; "Hitler und die Bombe"; Harald Fath's "1945-Thüringens Manhattan Projekt" and "Geheime Kommandosache-S-III Jonastal und die Siegeswaffenproduktion". Also not to be neglected is Robert K. Wilcox's "Japan's Secret War: Japan's Race against Time to Build its Own Atomic Bomb", for this book raises the question of where Japan acquired its enrichment capability and stocks of uranium in no uncertain terms. Also important is Karl Heinz Zunneck's "Geheimtechnologien, Wunderwaffen und die irdischen Facetten des UFO-Phänomens".  

This body of work has been almost entirely ignored in North America. Agoston's work was the first indication from the "mainstream" that there may have been something behind the Nazi Legend. Agoston revealed his story for the first time after his source, none other than close Kammler associate at the famous Skoda Works, Dr. Wilhelm Voss, died. The story that Voss told Agoston at the end of the war was, according to Agoston, in confidence.

As Agoston notes rather sarcastically, Kammler boasted almost the perfect "corporate resume" and a documentable record of "whole person management" as a "team player":

A modern day management consultant who was talent hunting for a "total professional with total involvement" would certainly have been fascinated by the bizarre curriculum vitae Kammler could have submitted. He could demonstrate a "track record" in "very senior appointments," with skill in putting across "aggressive growth plans."...

In the Third Reich, within a span of a few years, the number of positions he had held in turn was phenomenal.

Among these "senior appointments" Kammler once commanded were:

(1) Operational control of the V-1 and V-2 terror bombardments of London, Liege, Brussels, Antwerp and Paris;
(2) Operational control of all missile production and research, including the V-2 and the intercontinental ballistic missile. the A-9/10;
(3) Design and construction oversight of the world's "first bombproof underground aircraft and missile factory sites," including sites for the production of jet engines and the Messerschmitt 262;
(4) Command of the SS Building and Works Division, the department which handled all large construction projects for the Reich, including death camps, "Buna factories," and supply roads for invading German legions in Russia; (5) Design and construction of the world's first underground testing and proving range for missiles;
(6) Command, control and co-ordination of all of the Third Reich's secret weapons research by the war's end.

This warped and twisted administrative genius first came to the attention of Himmler and Hitler "with a brilliant hand-colored design for the Auschwitz concentration camp, which he subsequently built. Later he was called in to advise on the modalities for boosting the daily output of its gas chambers from 10,000 to 60,000."

All this is to say that not only was Kammler a butcher, but that by the war's end, Hitler had "concentrated more power in Kammler's hands than he had ever entrusted to a single person," bar none. If one were to compare Kammler's position to a similar hypothetical position in the former Soviet Union, such a position would mean that the general who (commanded) the SS-20 rockets in Europe and Asia (the Commander in Chief of Strategic Rocket Forces) would also head research, development, and production of missiles. In addition, he would be in charge of producing all modern aircraft for the Red Air Force and have overall command of the mammoth civil engineering projects or the production centers in Siberia's sub-zero climate. Last, but very much not least, he would lead the national grid of gulags. To match Kammler's position in the SS, the Soviet general holding all these variegated commands would also be third in the KGB pecking order.

Indeed, one would have to add to Agoston's list, for such a Soviet general would also have had to be in charge of the co-ordination of all the most post-nuclear and super secret advanced scientific research and black projects in the entire Soviet Union. It is thus in the person of SS Obergruppenführer Hans Kammler that all the lines of our investigation meet: the Buna factory and slave labor of the camps, exploited for grisly medical experimentation and labor in the secret underground laboratories and production facilities, the atom bomb project, and as even more horrendous and monstrous aircraft and weapons development. If there was a gold mine of information, then it was available in the blueprints and files that were locked in Kammler's vaults, or even more securely in his brain. It is this fact and Kammler's extraordinary dossier that make his post-war fate even more problematical. But what of Kammler's "Special SS Command" (Sonderkommando) structure itself? What was it that was so revolutionary that Dr. Voss would have required Agoston to maintain confidentiality until after his death?

Voss had joined Skoda in 1938, when the plant was ceded to the Reich under the Munich Pact - Hitler, Chamberlain, Mussolini and Daladier, allotting the Sudeten German areas of Czechoslovakia to Germany and became an affiliate of Hitler's principle arms maker Krupp. With his flair for quiet diplomacy, Voss was immensely popular with the Czech executives, who had remained in leading positions at the time of the German takeover of Skoda. Voss even saw to it that Czech workers, paid on the local and not Reich wages, were paid more money.

Also important to the Skoda-SS relationship is the fact that all of Bohemian Czechoslovakia became a "Reich Protectorate," in effect turning total political, administrative, and military control of Bohemia over to the SS. It is in this context that the special relationship between Voss and Kammler developed.

By quirk of fate, the careers of Kammler and Voss overlapped at Skoda, where they jointly set up and operated what was generally regarded by insiders as the Reich's most advanced high-technology military research center. Working as a totally independent undercover operation for the SS, the center was under the special auspices of Hitler and Himmler. Going outside the scope and field of Skoda's internationally coveted general research and development division, it worked closely with Krupp and was primarily concerned with analysis of captured equipment, including aircraft, and copying or improving the latest technical features. In so doing the SS group was to go beyond the first generation of secret weapons.

Thus one has the first component of this Special SS Command: the analysis, duplication, and improvement of all recovered foreign and enemy technology. This in itself is not surprising, since all major combatants during the war maintained such research facilities.

The second thing one must note is the careful and deliberate camouflaging of the SS Special Command inside the normal engineering division of the Skoda works. But the real operational goals of this Special command were far more than the mere analysis of captured enemy equipment, as Voss detailed to Agoston.

Its purpose was to pave the way for building nuclear-powered aircraft, working on the application of nuclear energy for propelling missiles and aircraft; laser beams, then still referred to as "death rays"; a variety of homing rockets and to seek other potential areas for high-technology breakthrough. In modem high-tech jargon, the operation would probably be referred to as an "SS research think tank." Some work on second-generation secret weapons, including the application of nuclear propulsion for aircraft and missiles, was already well advanced.

Nuclear powered aircraft would require the development and miniaturization of functioning atomic reactors, something the Germans were not, according to the Allied Legend, supposed to have achieved. And though the mention of lasers seems to stretch one's credulity beyond all reason, there is credible evidence that the Germans were up to just that, and more besides.

But the most remarkable thing about this "SS think tank" was that it was established entirely without the knowledge of Göring, Speer, or any of the other big-wigs or research centers in the Reich. This would not only explain Speer's puzzlement at Jackson's question that we encountered earlier, but would also explain the apparent lack of information on the part of the Farm Hall scientists interred in England after the war.

These two facts alone indicate that the SS Special Command headquartered at the Skoda Works in Pilsen was more than just a secret weapons project being run through ordinary channels. Unlike even its Manhattan Project counterpart, it had no connection to the standard branches of the German military, the German state, or even the Nazi Party; it was entirely off the books. It is, in every sense that we have come to know it, a Black Project, coordinating all black projects in Nazi Germany. So extensive was the mandate given to this group that if there was a large uranium enrichment program underway in Germany for the production of atom bombs, then this is the entity most likely co-ordinating it.

Agoston alludes to the existence and connection of the uranium enrichment program to the Kammler Staff when he states "Even fissile uranium-235 was reportedly made available to Berlin's prime Axis ally". While the enormous implications of this statement are obvious, Agoston does not pursue the atom bomb component of the Kammler Staff in his book though he surely would have suspected it. The link of the Auschwitz "Buna plant" to the SS via the death camp there already provides one link to Kammler, since the "Buna plant" fell under SS jurisdiction via the camp itself, and thus the connection to Kammler is direct.

Moreover, not only did Skoda's "overtly operating research and development division" work closely with the SS on some less sensitive projects, it "provided a convenient cover for the Kammler Staff specialists, culled in great secrecy from Germany's research institutes to supplement the in-house experts. All were picked for their know-how and not for their Party records, Voss said. All had to have the ability to tackle visionary projects." The Kammler Staff Special Command even circulated top secret scientific paper and memos to the various scientists within the group itself via a central office of scientific reports. Some of these reports were then used as a basis of recruitment of top scientists.

So what was the Kammler Staff, or Kammlerstab, as outlined by Voss and Agoston?

First, it was the continuation of "normal" science, free of the constraints of Nazi party ideology, but under the control of the SS! But it was much more. Not only was it a "think tank," but it was also a central clearing house for ideas, for mapping out precise technology trees for the acquisition of second and third generation weapons. But it was more, it was also a fully-funded research Black Programs co-ordinating office with its own "inexhaustible" and expendable labor pool.

All of it was co-ordinated by SS General Hans Kammler.

All of it was headquartered at the Skoda Works in Pilsen.

If ever there was a reason for the Allied High Command to by-pass Berlin and head south to central Germany (Thuringia) and for Patton's Third Army to make a beeline for Pilsen and Prague, this was it. Thus, only in the recently revealed context of the existence of the Kammlerstab do any of the Allied or German military deployments or operations at the end of the war make any genuine military sense. The "National Redoubt" story was likely just that, a story put out by the American OSS to force the Allied commanders to change objectives, without disclosing the real nature of their concerns, priorities, and intelligence objectives.

And one more thing. By the war's end, Kammler also had control of the Reich's heavy-lift long-range transport aircraft, consisting of several Ju-290s and the two enormous Ju-390s, one of which, according to Agoston, made a polar flight to Japan on 28 March 1945.

This fact is merely reported by Agoston without substantiation, leading one to the conclusion that the source of the information must have been Dr. Voss. It is worth noting that Nick Cook reports that Kammler had control of the Ju-390s as part of another SS Special Evacuation Command. The purpose of this special command was to evacuate... something. Cook also reports that one of these enormous Ju-390s simply went missing at the end of the war.  

The Four Deaths of SS Obergruppenführer Dr. Ing. Hans Kammler

General Kammler, in addition to his "accomplishments" in streamlining death camp efficiency, his methodical and efficient leveling of the ruined Warsaw Ghetto and meticulous accounting of every last brick and stone removed, his co-ordination of the most arcane, and perhaps the biggest, secret weapons black projects program in human history, has also another odd distinction to his credit. He of all the high-ranking Nazis indicted and tried at Nuremberg either posthumously or in absentia, was never formally indicted, much less brought to trial. He is altogether missing from the docket, and altogether just simply missing. Kammler has yet another distinction. He appears to have been not only a very accomplished messenger of death for others, but also appears to have achieved the astonishing feat of having died himself no less than four times, each under different circumstances. Agoston commented at length on the odd assortment of "facts" surrounding Kammler's fate: brainchild of none other than Martin Bormann.

Analysis of the voluminous documentation shows crude discrepancies, the inconsistencies of which grow with almost every addition to the mosaic of information that enters the picture. Basically three major facts stand out:

In almost four decades, official records show no positive confirmation of Kammler's death. No court of law, no media editor would accept the uncorroborated statement of "unknown comrades," still so referred to in official records as conclusive evidence of death especially if the death was alleged to have taken place in the chaos of collapsing Germany.

The record shows no subsequent sworn corroborative statement Such a statement would automatically have been entered in the Red Cross and other dossiers on Kammler.

None of the persons reporting any of the four versions of the general's death had conformed with the prescribed duty of all servicemen to detach one-half of a dead man's Soldier's paybook or officer's identity document, to the nearest unit, relevant records office, Red Cross, or holding power, if the surviving serviceman had become a prisoner of war, to help notification of next of kin. Germans are traditionally meticulous and, to say the least, most sentimental in such matters.

Thus, in spite of "the proliferation of un-substantiated evidence that permeates all four versions of Kammler's death, the shell of the case contains sufficient facts to suggest a more than coincidental pattern of seemingly targeted and organized disinformation." The origin of this disinformation, according to Agoston, was probably within the SS itself, a program necessitated by Kammler's disappearance and likely treason to one of the victorious Allied powers.

The "first death of General Hans Kammler" is recounted by Albert Speer himself, in his last book. In this most simple version, Kammler ordered his adjutant to shoot him. The "suicide" allegedly took place in Prague as Kammler realized the war was lost and, according to Speer, "acted in elitist SS loyalty." As Agoston quips, "even the most ardent worshipper of Teutonic creed could not possibly suggest that elitist SS loyalty can be demonstrated three times, in three locations, and all on the same day." The second version of the story, related to Agoston by Kammler's "civilian" aide Dr. Wilhelm Voss, was that the general took cyanide somewhere "on the road between Pilsen and Prague on May 9." The third version of Kammler's death was doled out by V-2 rocket expert, General Walter Dornberger, subsequently employed by the American firm of Bell Aerospace. According to Dornberger, Kammler's mental and emotional state had quickly deteriorated in the final days of the war, and the general overheard Kammler ordering his aide to shoot him if things became "hopeless." But this does not square with Dornberger's close associate, Dr. Wernher von Braun's own recollection of a conversation he overheard between Kammler and his aide Starck fully two weeks later. According to von Braun, Kammler and Starck discussed the possibility of "going underground" before the Americans arrived, disguising themselves as monks in a nearby abbey.

Thus report, if true, is perhaps the most interesting, since it indicates that Kammler had no intentions of surrendering himself to any of the Allied powers, but rather, intended to survive, perhaps independently continuing his oversight of secret weapons development.

Another version of Kammler's death has him giving a speech to his assembled aides in Prague in early May 1945, dismissing them from their duties and advising them to return home, and then walking into a woods where he then shot himself. And lastly, there is a version of Kammler's death that has him dying a typical SS hero's death, fighting and going down in a blaze of "glory" in the face of rebelling and revolting Czechs.

What emerges from all this is that no one, no where can advance anything like a consistent account of the date, location, time, or even method of Kammler's death. Now it is suicide by poison, then suicide by gunshot, suicide by ordering an aide to shoot him, a fighting death, or disappearance into a Roman Catholic monastery. Now he is in Prague, now he isn't; now he's with people, now he isn't; now he's suffering mental and emotional collapse, now he isn't.

In all likelihood, therefore, Kammler did not die at all; he disappeared. The important question is, where?

The Ironic Death of General George S. Patton

While SS Obergruppenführer Kammler was busy dying four times in various locations by various means, another general was busy lunging his troops with the precision of a surgeon into the nerve centers of Kammler's black projects empire: General George S. Patton. His troops formed the spearhead of the Allied lance that, much to the surprise of the Nazi, Soviet, and Allied field commanders themselves, suddenly turned from its victorious drive on Berlin to a militarily questionable operation designed to take the alleged "Nazi redoubt."

By the spring of 1945, the Redoubt had ballooned to become a major military concern to the Allied High command, "despite the caveats from British and us military intelligence."

Agoston traces the origin of the "redoubt" theme of the postwar Allied Legend to the USA's Office of Strategic Services, or OSS, the precursor to the modern day CIA. The OSS had apparently not bothered, according to Agoston, to check out the sources of its intelligence or the truthfulness of the "redoubt." The final decision to abandon Berlin as a military objective and drive south toward Thuringia was made by Eisenhower on 11 April 1945.[27]

A possibility is that Kammler arranged to turn over his secret weapons treasure trove to the OSS in exchange for his life. It could have been arranged by fellow SS General Wolff, already in negotiation with Allen Dulles, OSS station chief in Zürich. If so, then the sudden shift of Allied objectives to south central Germany may have originated from intelligence originating within the Kammlerstab itself. This intelligence would have been easily verifiable by Allies who would naturally have wanted to check its veracity by means of aerial reconnaissance of the installation sites presumably leaked to them by someone in the Kammlerstab.

The date of General Eisenhower's decision is crucial, for it means that the military objective shifted from Berlin toward south central Germany after the alleged atom bomb test at Ohrdruf on 4 March 1945. It is therefore possible that the OSS was in receipt of extremely secret intelligence concerning this weapons program and its centers of production, for Patton drives his troops with unerring accuracy right toward this super-secret installations, many of them underground and carefully camouflaged. Given the sensitivity of the Manhattan Project within the structure of the Allied command, it is also plausible that the OSS decided not to share this information with the Supreme Allied Command, and proffered the "Redoubt" and "fleeing Nazis" and a transferred German war archives as a cover story to sell the Allied command on a shift of objectives away from Berlin. If indeed the OSS "Redoubt" reports were a component of an OSS psychological operation designed against the Allies' own military command structure, designed to divert Allied military operations to a gold mine of military technology and research, then one and only one general was in a position to know the real, and the whole story about the Redoubt, and what was actually recovered in Thuringia, Pilsen, and Prague, and that was General George S. Patton.

Patton, as his troops entered the Skoda works at Pilsen and the underground factories and laboratories at the Three Corners region in Thuringia would have been privy to the top secret reports of his divisional commanders entering these super-secret Reich facilities. Patton would thus have a thorough first hand knowledge of the complete inventory of the Reich's most sensitive black programs. As Agoston himself notes, without seeming to realize the importance of his own observations in the light of post-war events, "the sudden switch in Allied planning...." brought at least one bonanza. The rapid eastward drive of the U.S. Third Army brought it to Kammler's secret metropolis well ahead of the Russians in whose designated zone it lay." The "holy grail" of all this research were the files and blueprints in the central coordination office of Kammler's black programs think tank inside the Skoda Works at Pilsen. And it is likely that General Patton therefore knew much of the general outlines of this treasure trove and what it portended for future secret weapons development. There is thus a direct and immediate link between General George S. Patton, General Hans Kammler, and the little-known world of top secret weapons research that Kammler headed. [This fact is adequately appreciated by Mayer and Mehner, "Das Geheimnis"]

And this in turn may lend some credence to those who view General Patton's ironic death after the war as being something more than an ironic accident. The factual circumstances of Patton's death are plain enough. While on an inspection tour with his driver and Major General Hobart Gray on 9 December 1945, Patton's car swerved to avoid hitting a heavy U.S. Army transport truck that had turned in front of them. Patton's driver, attention momentarily diverted away from the road by a remark that Patton himself had made, belatedly noticed the truck in front of them, and swerved the General's car to avoid a head-on collision.

None of the others involved in the accident were hurt, and all were able to walk away from the accident. Not so General Patton. He had suffered a broken neck, and the prognosis was paralysis from the neck down. From this point the General recovered rapidly at the military hospital in Frankfurt, making such good progress that until the afternoon of December 19th, his doctors were seriously considering moving him to Boston. But that afternoon his breathing difficulties increased dramatically and suddenly. On December 20th he suffered breathlessness and pallor, and Patton, who had had a prior history of embolism, died in his sleep on December 21st at 5:50 P.M. [Ladislas Farago, "Patton: Ordeal and Triumph"]

The fact that Patton alone of all the victims of the automobile accident suffered serious injuries, plus the lack of his recovery and then sudden decline in a military hospital, have fueled various conspiracy theories. One of these, that Patton knew of the Soviet shooting of American, Canadian, and British prisoners of war and threatened to expose the Allied knowledge and cover-up of the affair, was revealed by a Ukrainian defector with close ties to the Soviet KGB, who alleged that Patton's accident was no accident, and that the KGB had been behind it. Another version is similar, but has the OSS or other Allied entity performing the "accident" and subsequent "medical complications."

If there is any truth in the idea of a conspiracy behind the ironic death of America's most decorated and celebrated general officer of the Second World War, then the explanation is likely to lie in the more esoteric and arcane secrets he and his intelligence officers uncovered in Thuringia and at the Skoda Works in Pilsen. Having performed a preliminary assessment of the second and third generation weaponry Kammler's scientists had begun to research, the OSS specialists who arrived at these sites must have immediately realized the material would require the tightest security and highest classification then possible, beyond that even of the Manhattan Project, not least because what was uncovered would give lie to the emerging Allied Legend of nuclear technological superiority. Patton was a potential threat to the security of this operation and a risk to the continued secret American development of Kammler's technology in conjunction with Operation Paperclip. [It is significant in this respect that Mayer and Mehner report in "Das Geheimnis" that all of the documents of Patton's troops in Ohrdruf are still sealed and classified.]

If there is truth to the conspiracy theories of Patton's incongruous death, then of all the theories, this would seem to be the most plausible motivation and explanation for the murder of America's famous general.

Patton, and his famous mouth, had to be silenced.

The Kammler SS Sonderkommando Secret Weapons Empire

Were the secrets of Kammler's SS empire worth changing the entire Allied operational plan at the end of the war, and were they worth the possible deliberate assassination of one of the war's most famous generals?

"Pilsen and the Skoda Works were captured by Combat Command B, Third Armored Division, the same unit that captured Kammler's unique metropolis, with its treasure-trove of missiles and jet engines, at Nordhausen in Saxony on April 11."

Suspiciously, Agoston's Freedom of Information Act request for the war diaries of Patton's armored units that captured the SS facilities in Pilsen and Prague could not be located in he U.S. National Archives.

However, Agoston presents evidence that Allied intelligence, at least from the British point of view, had little to no knowledge of the Kammler Group. British Lieutenant Colonel James Brierley, commanding the first British intelligence group to arrive in Pilsen after its capture, stated that the Skoda plant workers and engineers themselves reported that everything was microfilmed, that the buildings which housed their blueprints and development projects had been demolished, and also that the files had been stored outside Pilsen.

Destroyed by whom? And stored outside Pilsen by whom?

Presumably by the SS itself. It is perhaps pertinent to this idea that many of the reports of Kammler's death place him in the area, not to die, but to remove the most sensitive data and to vouchsafe it for security.

At this point it is necessary to say something about Agoston's own thesis concerning the disappearance of the Kammler Staff's files. The whole thesis of Agoston's book is obvious from its title, i.e., that in the confusion of the transfer of the Skoda Works from American to Russian military occupation, the Kammler Group's entire secret inventory was handed over to the Soviet Union. This much is recounted to Agoston by Voss. However, if Kammler had previously removed, or even duplicated, the most sensitive items, blueprints, and papers and secreted them somewhere, as would seem to be indicated by the Czech reports to British intelligence, then it is likely that all the Soviets received were the table scraps. Kammler had previously removed the most sensitive items, and Patton's men, and presumably the OSS, would have thoroughly scoured the remaining material.

Another possibility thus emerges in the "conspiracy" view of Patton's death. Could he have been assassinated because he himself was the point man to bring Kammler and his secrets and technicians and scientists into the emerging Operation Paperclip? While we will probably never know for sure, it is interesting to note that when Dr. Voss gave "the full story of the secrets leakage at Pilsen and Kammler's disappearance to us Intelligence in West Germany," he was informed "at the highest level to keep the matter under wraps, along with the briefings he then gave US Intelligence of he areas covered by the SS research at Pilsen." [Agoston notes that this secrecy order to Voss kept him from disclosing the story until after Voss' death] Who was it that debriefed Voss for US military intelligence? None other than fellow general officer Lieutenant General Lucius D. Clay, a man well known to Patton.

What happened to Dr. Voss after the war? Perhaps not unusually, he became involved in a joint CIA-West German BND Bundesnachrichtendienst, West Germany's version of the CIA) effort to build armaments plants for Egypt's Gamel Abdul Nasser, and to train its army. Voss became the overall co-ordinator of an effort to supply Egypt with former Wehrmacht officers and the latest in missile technology. Also involved was former Reichsbank president Hjalmar Schact, father-in-law to famous SS commando, and later coordinator of the notorious ODESSA {Organization der Ehemalige SS Angehöriger or Organization of Former SS Members), Otto Skorzeny. This effort was part of a much broader postwar effort on the part of the West German government to expand its markets for high technology military equipment to the Arab-Muslim world, a drive that has continuing political repercussions down to our own day. There is more than meets the eye in this post-war SS-Arab connection.

In any case, taken together the picture of the post-war behavior and associations of Dr. Wilhelm Voss, the multiple "deaths" of Obergruppenführer Kammler, his more likely disappearance into you another black programs empire, and the ironic if not suspicious death of General George Patton are further corroboration that the Nazi Reich was up to far more than V-1s and V-2s. It was in the possession of prototypical technologies and military capabilities of such extreme power and sophistication that many of these secrets remain classified. Before we can examine what these secrets might be and the type of physics that they imply, we must, however, take a detour to the other Axis power seeking its own path to the atom bomb on the other side of the world.

THE HONORARY ARYAN BRETHREN

"Contrary to the widely held view, the United States may have known about the Japanese project before the end of the war, and this information might have influenced President Harry Truman's decision to use the bomb on Japan.... when UN forces had been at Hungnam in connection with the retreat from Chosin, a mysterious installation in the mountains around it had been discovered".

--Robert K. Wilcox, "Japan's Secret War: Japan's Race against Time to Build is Own Atomic Bomb


An ancient Japanese legend has it that the Japanese people are descended from a blonde haired blue eyed race that came from the stars, a legend remarkably similar to the doctrines that percolated in the secret societies that fostered and mid-wifed the Nazi Party into existence in Germany between the World Wars. Nor did this legend play a small part in the history of World War Two, for it was partly because of its mere existence that Hitler could proclaim the Japanese "honorary Aryans" and conclude the incorporation of Japan into the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis without contradicting Nazi Party racial ideology. This was in no small part due to the Japanese ambassador in Berlin's diplomatic skill in pointing out this little known fact of Japanese legends to the Germans. Of course, there were pressing military and political reasons for Italy and Germany to conclude an alliance with Japan, but for the race and ideology obsessed Nazi government, so much the better if the Japanese had some sort of Nordic-Aryan connection, no matter how tenuous that might be. An early and continuous problem for the three Axis partners was to arrange the transfer of technology and raw materials from Europe to the Far East. Most transfers occurred via U-boats or Japanese submarines, though both Germany and Italy undertook long range, and militarily quite risky, flights to Japan as well.

The Italians, for example, mounted such a flight with a Savoia Marchetti S 75 GA during 1942, ostensibly for the purpose of supplying the Italian embassy in Tokyo with copies of new Italian code books, since the Commando Supremo had concluded that the Allies had broken Italian codes. [Dr. Publio Magini, Military History Quarterly, Summer 1993.  I am very grateful to Frank Joseph for uncovering and sharing this information with me. The updating of Italian code books would be a pressing enough matter for the Italians to undertake such a flight].

As the war progressed, the Germans found themselves increasingly trading their high technology for very little in return other than the prospect of stiffening Japanese resistance and perhaps drawing American force to the Pacific and lessening pressure on the Reich. And the Japanese, their industry hard-pressed to maintain pace with American and British technological developments, were always very eager, and very specific, in their demands for high technology from their Aryan brethren.

Even the conventional military technology transfers from Germany to Japan are staggering enough.

By 1944 Japan had requested and received either working models or full production designs for the following:

- German techniques for manufacturing cartridge steel for large gun barrel linings;
- Finished artillery pieces;
- 105 and 128 mm heavy anti-aircraft (FLAK) guns;
- 75 and 88 mm field pieces and anti-tank guns; -
- Würzburg radar system;
- 750 ton submarine pressure hulls;
- PzKw V Tiger I tank;
- Focke Wulfe 190 fighter;
- Henschel 129 tank-busting aircraft [This rather odd-looking twin engine aircraft had a bulbous cupola slung beneath the nose of the main fuselage, in which was mounted a 75mm automatically reloading high velocity anti-tank gun projecting from its nose. It was a deadly and efficient tank-busting airplane used with great effectiveness on the Eastern Front, curiously resembling a similar ground assault aircraft in the modern American arsenal, the A-10 "Warthog"];
- Heinkel He 177 heavy bomber;
- Messerschmitt 264 long-range Amerikabomber; 
- Messerschmitt 262 jet fighter;
- Messerschmitt 163 rocket-powered fighter;
- Lorenz 7H2 bombsight;
- B/3 and FUG 10 airborne radars;

and perhaps significantly, Twenty-five pounds of "bomb fuses.

-- Joseph Mark Scalia, "Germany's Last Mission to Japan: The Failed Voyage of the U-234"

Fortunately for American and Commonwealth forces in the Pacific theater, these weapons never saw full-scale production by the Japanese. What is intriguing is the last item. Why bomb fuses? Surely the Japanese, who had been raining bombs all over China, Indochina, Burma, and the Pacific knew how to fuse a conventional bomb. The request suggests that the fuses were of a sophistication beyond the capabilities of Japanese industry. And why a request for heavy bombers so close to the end of the war, at least one of which was reputedly capable of ultra-long-range flight and heavy payload?

Strange Rumors

As with the end of the war in Europe, the end of the Pacific war carried with it the odd rumor or two, some of which managed to appear in short articles in the Western Press, before the curtain of the Allied Legend slammed down to hide their implications from view. Robert K. Wilcox, in a book that may well in retrospect be the first book on the German bomb project from a revisionist perspective, "Japan's Secret War", revitalized these reports and rumors:

Shortly after World War II had ended, American intelligence in the Pacific received a shocking report: The Japanese, just prior to their surrender, had developed and successfully test-fired an atomic bomb. The project had been housed in or near Konan (Japanese name for Hungnam), Korea, in the peninsula's North. The war had ended before this weapon could be used, and the plant where it had been made was now in Russian hanBy the summer of1946 the report was public.

David Snell, an agent with the Twenty-fourth Criminal Investigation Detachment in Korea... wrote about it in the "Atlanta Constitution" following his discharge.

Snell's source for the allegation was a Japanese officer returning to Japan. The officer informed him that he had been in charge of security for the project. Snell, paraphrasing the officer in his article, stated:

"In a cave in a mountain near Konan men worked, racing against time, in final assembly of "genzai bakudan," Japan's name for the atomic bomb. It was 10 August 1945 (Japanese time), only four days after an atomic bomb flashed in the sky over Hiroshima and five days before Japan surrendered.

"To the north, Russian hordes were spilling into Manchuria. Shortly after midnight of that day, a convoy of Japanese trucks moved from the mouth of the cave, past watchful sentries. The trucks wound through valleys, past sleeping form villages.... In the cool predawn, Japanese scientists and engineers loaded genzai bakudan aboard a ship at Konan.

"Off the coast, near an islet in the sea of Japan, more frantic preparations were under way. All that day and night, ancient ships, junks and fishing vessels moved into the anchorage.

"Before dawn on August 12, a robot launch chugged through the ships at anchor and beached itself on the islet. Its passenger was genzai bakudan. A clock ticked.

"The observers were 20 miles away. The waiting was difficult and strange to men who had worked relentlessly so long, who knew their job had been completed too late.

"The light in the east, where Japan lay, grew brighter. The moment the sun peeped over the sea there was a burst of light at the anchorage, blinding the observers, who wore welder's glasses. The ball of fire was estimated to be 1,000 yards in diameter. A multicolored cloud of vapors boiled toward the heavens, then mushroomed in the atmosphere.

"The churn of water and vapor obscured the vessels directly under the burst. Ships and junks on the fringe burned fiercely at anchor.

"When the atmosphere cleared slightly the observers could detect several vessels had vanished. Genzai bakudan in that moment had matched the brilliance of the rising sun to the east. Japan had perfected and successfully tested an atomic bomb as cataclysmic as those that withered Hiroshima and Nagasaki".

There are a number of things to note about this account. How had Japan, hard-pressed for even conventional military technology, pulled off this feat of testing an atom bomb of the same approximate yield as Hiroshima and Nagasaki? Where did they get the enriched uranium for the weapon? Moreover, the Japanese had tested their bomb only three days after the plutonium "Fat Man" fell on and obliterated Nagasaki. Small wonder then, that the Japanese cabinet debated whether or not to surrender. This important fact, in conjunction with Wilcox's startling revelations, will serve as the basis for further speculation. Finally, the test itself suggested that the Japanese envisioned deploying the weapon against naval targets. What possible thoughts may have been going through the Japanese cabinet's surrender debate? Possible clues lie in the nature of the Japanese program itself, and its significant reliance on technology transfers from Germany.

The chief physicist involved in the Japanese project was Yoshio Nishina, a "colleague of Niels Bohr." [Robert K. Wilcox, "Japan's Secret War", referencing an article in the January 1978 edition of "Science" magazine.] It was Nishina who in fact headed the Japanese army team that investigated Hiroshima after the bombing of that city. The reports of the Japanese test at Konan were a steady source of consternation and mystification to American intelligence units in occupied Japan after the war, for unlike its obsession with the German bomb program, Allied intelligence consistently placed the Japanese far behind, as conducting only theoretical studies, and maintaining that the Japanese "had neither the talent nor the resources to make a bomb".

Historian Rainer Karlsch has alleged that shortly before the end of the war US intelligence acquired information to the effect that Japanese scientists had planned to conduct a test of a nuclear weapon near Hungnam on 12 August 1945. However, this could not be verified as the Red Army occupied Konan a few days later, before US occupation authorities could investigate fully.

Resources Japan may have lacked, but there was no lack of talented physicists who understood bomb physics. In any case the reports caused enough concern for the American occupying forces to send several intelligence teams throughout Japan to destroy its cyclotrons, of which there were no less than five, and presumably more! This curious fact raises a question. What were the Japanese doing with that many cyclotrons? Could they have perhaps been given the secrets of Baron Manfred von Ardenne's method of mass spectrograph separation and enrichment of uranium 235? Or did the Japanese physicists, like their German and American counterparts, come to the realization that the cyclotron afforded a method for isotope enrichment? Both are possible, and the latter is probable.

Strange Industrial Complexes: Kammler Revisited, Noguchi Style

Further confirmation of a Japanese atom bomb test led Wilcox to connect Nishina to a Japanese industrialist named Noguchi. Searching through American declassified records, Wilcox quickly concluded "that subsequent directives in the same boxes ordered reinvestigations in 1947 and 1948 of Japanese wartime atomic research, indicating that (American intelligence) still did not know exactly what had happened. In fact, (it) was continually ordering reinvestigations of Japanese wartime atomic research and discovering new facts at least up until 1949, according to additional documents that I found."

So what was the Konan complex? To reconstruct it requires a similar process to that used in examining the German uranium enrichment program. The transcript connects the Konan complex and a Japanese industrialist named Noguchi.

Jun Noguchi had built the huge Japanese complex of factories that nestled about the Yalu, Chosin, and Fusen rivers. The latter two rivers had been dammed by Noguchi to supply the enormous electrical power needed by his factories. "Together the three rivers delivered more than 1 million kilowatts of power" to the complex. This was for the time a prodigious amount of electricity, especially in view of the fact that all of Japan produced no more than 3 million. Begun in 1926 in a deal struck with the Japanese Army Noguchi's Konan empire expanded along with Japan's imperial appetites.

So, like the I.G. Farben "Buna" plant at Auschwitz, we note already two key ingredients are present at Konan: large electrical power production infrastructure, and proximity to large amounts of water. Konan, in fact, was the largest industrial complex in all of Asia, and relatively sheltered and even unknown to Allied bomber and the intelligence committees that prepared their targets lists. But there is more.

Declassified documents noted that Konan was also near uranium ore deposits. "This was the logical place for an end-of-the- war atomic bomb project."

Moreover, as Wilcox discovered, "More digging...turned up a lengthier summary". Dated 21 May 1946 and originating within the U.S. Army's chief of staff office in South Korea, it stated:

"Of increasing interest have been recent reports dealing with an apparent undercover research laboratory operated by the Japanese ... at ...Hungnam.... All reports agree that research and experiments on atomic energy were conducted.... The two chief scientists were Takahashi, Rikizo and Wakabayashi, Tadashiro.... The recent whereabouts of these two individuals is not known, inasmuch as they were taken into custody by the Russians last fell. However, before their capture they are reported to have burned their papers and destroyed their laboratory equipment.... Some reports... say... the Russians were able to remove some of the machinery. Further reports stated that the actual experiments on atomic energy were conducted in Japan, and the Hungnam plant was opened for the development of the practical application of atomic energy to a bomb or other military use. This section of the ... plant ... was always heavily guarded.... These reports received separately are surprisingly uniform as to content. It is felt that a great deal of credence should be attached to these reports as summarized".

We may now speculate as to the real significance of these U.S. Army intelligence reports in the light of subsequent events.

Clearly, the U.S. Army is taking seriously allegations of a Japanese atom bomb project based in the northern Korean Peninsula, very close in fact, to the international border with China, and scene of one of the Korean War's bloodiest battles. At the Chosin Reservoir, General of the Armies Douglas MacArthur had been dealt a significant defeat and was forced to retreat. Indeed, after his celebrated landing at Inchon, MacArthur had relentlessly driven his troops northward in a classic Blitzkrieg style campaign, designed in part to seize the Yalu River crossings, crucial to any further operations in China, as well as for defense against any Chinese invasion of the peninsula. And the Chosin Reservoir, and hence Noguchi's vast Konan complex, was also a prime military target. With MacArthur's insubordination and the subsequent Chinese entry into the war, Truman fired MacArthur. So goes the standard history.

But could the real motivations for MacArthur's lightning dash up the peninsula toward Chosin after the Inchon landings in fact have been based on a very different, and highly secret, agenda of military objectives? Given the U.S. Army's own intelligence memoranda concerning the Konan complex and Russian activities it seems all too likely. And this in turn may mean that the real motivations for his subsequent firing by Truman may also lie in what he uncovered there: certain knowledge of the extent, capabilities, and actual achievements of the Japanese scientists and engineers working on the genzai bakudan.

But what would have been so sensitive about the Japanese atom bomb project, beyond its actual achievements? To answer this question, we must speculate once again. What isotope separation and enrichment methods were known to the Japanese? What did physicist Nishina and his team of scientists finally rely on? Like their German counterparts, the Japanese knew that the ultra-centrifuge was the simplest path, at least in theory, toward the uranium bomb. But Japanese scientists calculated the needed revolutions-per-minute of such a device to be between 100,000 and 150,000 rpms. The United States itself, because of the difficulties in designing turbines of this speed, decided to forego enrichment via this process.

At this point, Wilcox's reconstruction begins to run into a bit of trouble, for the Japanese, he reports, were able to design, and apparently to build, a large ultra-centrifuge. Their only problem, according to Wilcox, was a large enough supply or uranium. 

However, there is a significant weakness in this construction, for the Japanese, it will be recalled, had to request German assistance in the design and production of jet engines, a request that led not only to the exchange of blueprints for the Messerschmitt 262, the world's first operational jet fighter, but of technicians able to show the Japanese the necessary production methods and tolerances to construct such high speed turbines operating under the stress of tremendous heat. In other words, while Japanese theoretical capabilities were not lacking at that time, they did lack certain industrial expertise which only the Germans possessed. Moreover, as we have already seen, the centrifuge idea had originated and been developed by the Germans. So if the Japanese successfully designed and built a large ultra-centrifuge, it would seem likely that German assistance was involved at some point.

The other method, a cheaper method and certainly one well within Japanese wartime industrial capability, and one taken to extremely large size by them, was very much a German device.

What the Nishina group finally did settle on was a process called thermal diffusion. This had been one of the first isotope separation processes devised. But until it was perfected by two German scientists, Klaus Clusius and Gerhard Dickel, in 1938, it had not been practical. Stated simply, thermal diffusion relied on the fact that light gas moves toward heat. Clusius and Dickel constructed a simple device consisting chiefly of two metal tubes placed on inside the other. The inner tube was heated; the outer one was cooled. When the apparatus was turned on, the lighter U-235 moved to the heat wall; the U-238, to the cold wall. Convex currents created by this movement sent the U-235 upward; the U-238 downward.... At a certain point the U-235 at the top could be collected, and new gas pumped in. it was a simple and rapid way to get relatively large concentrations of U-235.  As Wilcox notes, this process, developed as it was in Germany, gave the Japanese access to the latest development of this simple and unusual technology. And as we have already seen, the Germans also deliberately fabricated an alloy - Bondur - to offset the highly corrosive effects of uranium gas. used in large size and enough quantity - At Auschwitz and Konan - and perhaps in conjunction with other technologies of enrichment, von Ardenne's mass spectrograph adaptations of cyclotrons, it is entirely feasible that the Japanese also had a highly secret uranium enrichment project being run near the Konan complex.

So one may advance the line of speculation further: with the surrender of the U-234 and its cargo of infrared proximity fuses and their inventor, Heinz Schlicke, and Japan's own request for "fuses" and plans for German strategic heavy bombers, McArthur's troops at the Chosin Reservoir may have uncovered not only evidence of Japanese progress and eventual testing of a uranium atomic bomb but they may have uncovered further evidence of the success of the program that lay behind it: Nazi Germany's. Indeed, the fuses point to a possible plutonium bomb project underway in both countries.

And so we return to the decision of the Japanese cabinet, and speculate further. If the Japanese government knew of the German program, they may also have known of the extent of its success, two bombs had fallen, and according to the translator for Marshal Rodion Malinovsky, another had fallen but not detonated. In any case, the Japanese were probably aware that while America's single bomb project may not have been capable of delivering more bombs within a short span of time, there would have been no way to estimate how many bombs might have been taken as war booty from the Germans. And the failure of the U-234's mission would have told them that at the minimum, fuses capable of use in a plutonium bomb as well as a large supply of enriched uranium had fallen into Allied hands. By 12 August 1945, with the successful test of the Japanese bomb and the German test of October 1944. the war had gone nuclear.

Thus, if the Japanese had been informed of the successful test of the German atom bomb in October of 1944, then the debate of the Imperial Cabinet in Tokyo is understandable. Japan was faced with a potential rain of atom bombs "of German provenance," to quote Oppenheimer's curious remark once again. Surrender, ganzai bakudan notwithstanding, was the logical choice, even for a nation steeped in "proud samurai traditions of honor".

Perhaps it is significant, in the light of contemporary problems with a nuclear North Korea, that the Japanese government issued a strong warning to North Korea that it could arm itself to the teeth with nuclear and thermonuclear weapons in a heartbeat, and would not hesitate to do so if threatened.

In this light, perhaps the most significant fact uncovered by Wilcox is that "contrary to the conventional military history that Japanese atomic efforts were bombed into extinction by spring 1945... the project was continued and heightened even after the Emperor's August 15 surrender."

Wilcox does not elaborate much farther than this, but the statement raises a chilling prospect: How could a Japanese project survive right under the noses of the occupying American forces? ... and what if it was not only the Japanese project that survived?

THE HEERESWAFFENAMT AND HOUTERMANS MEMORANDA

"And there is something else interesting: Erwin K. Oppenheimer maintained that the bomb that was dropped on Japan was of German provenance".

-- Edgar Mayer and Thomas Mehner, "Das Geheimnis der deutschen Atombombe: Gewann Hitlers Wissenschaftler den nuklearen Wettlauf doch? Die Geheimprojekte bei Innsbruck, im Raum Jonastal bei Arnstadt und in Prague" 

One of the most problematical documents to explain from the standpoint of the post-war Allied Legend is the top secret memorandum concerning the development of an atom bomb anonymously submitted to the German Army Ordnance Bureau (Heereswaffenamt) in early 1942. This document not only correctly estimated the critical mass for a uranium-235 based bomb, but also indicated the possibility of transmutation of uranium into plutonium - called "Element 94" by the memorandum - and its use in a bomb. The memorandum's origin and authorship has been attributed to various interred Farm Hall scientists, including Dr. Kurt Diebner. But the authorship is unknown, and the problem of its existence remains: How could the German army, knowing that the required amount of uranium for a nuclear bomb was comparatively small and therefore technically feasible, not have pursued its development? And how could they have pursued such laughably pathetic attempts toward a functioning reactor?

The mystery only deepens when we consider a possible ancestry for the Heereswaffenamt memo written in a paper the previous year.

In 1941, Baron Manfred von Ardenne decided to circulate an unusual paper by his colleague Dr. Fritz Houtermans. The full title of the paper was "On the Question of the Release of Nuclear chain reactions, by Fritz G. Houtermans: A Communication from the Laboratory of Manfred von Ardenne, Berlin-Lichterfelde-Ost."

The paper is remarkable in several respects, not the least for its revealing table of contents:

  I. General Point of View
 II. Competing Processes
III. Chain Reactions through Nuclear Fission with Fast Neutrons
 IV. Nuclear Fission through Thermal Neutrons

Isotope Separation

Selection of a heavy Moderator Substance such as Hydrogen, especially Heavy Water

Relative Advance of the Probability for 1/v Process through Application of Low Temperatures

Self-Regulating reaction and the Significance of the Doppler Effect at Low Temperatures

  V. Chain Reactions at Final Trial Volumes 
 VI. The Importance of a Chain Reaction at Low Temperatures as a Neutron Source as an Apparatus for Isotope Transformation.

The general outline suggests that Houtermans had already thought his way through the process, not only of initiating nuclear explosions via fast neutrons, but also of the transformation of U-235 into higher elements not chemical identifiable with it. This is the first step toward plutonium, and to the use of plutonium rather than U-235 as the explosive fuel for a bomb. The contents of the paper confirms that this is what Houtermans has figured out in no uncertain terms:

"We are able to envision here an apparatus, that would allow...a certain amount of U-235 to undergo nuclear reaction, simultaneously as an isotope transforming apparatus. The advantage vis-a-vis an isotope enrichment apparatus is therefore that the newly-created product, which would have an atomic number of 93 or more, is not chemically identical with uranium, and therefore is separable by chemical methods. Now since much larger amounts, namely 139 times more, of  U-238 are available, so the amount that would be convertible as fuel for a chain reaction is, from the standpoint of our theme, much more important than isotope separation that would result in mere U-235".

In other words, before the 1942 Heereswaffenamt memo (which not only gave a critical mass of a bomb with U-235 as the explosive fuel that is within the range of accuracy, but which also indicates the transformation of uranium into plutonium in a reactor as an alternative fuel returning more-bang-for-the-Reichsmark) Houtermans has clearly seen another path to the atom bomb. He may therefore also be considered a leading candidate, if not the leading candidate, for the authorship of the anonymous Heereswaffenamt memorandum. His Jewish background would explain why the memorandum was authored anonymously.

So, having speculated in previous pages that Nazi Germany had actually pursued a uranium bomb as the primary component of its bomb, and conducted a large and very secret uranium enrichment project in order to acquire it, we now come to the subject of the possibility of a plutonium bomb project, conducted once again in secret, and far from the "public exposure" laboratory tinkering of the Farm Hall scientists. In this respect there has already been one indication: the allegation of a second nuclear test of a bomb with a very small critical mass via the process of boosted fission, near the Three Corners region of Thuringia, an area that has the highest gamma background radiation in all of Germany.

Are there corroborating indications that the Germans might have successfully developed an atomic reactor, and hence, plutonium, in the secret recesses of Kammler's SS black programs secret weapons empire? Henry Picker, in his book "Hitler's Table Talk", makes one significant statement. Not only does he indicate that the Reichspost had something to do with the atom bomb project, but he offers more detail. The bomb was to be constructed in a plant "in an underground SS factory in the southern Harz mountains, which had a foreseen production capacity of 30,000 workers." Once again, the trail leads back to the SS, the southern Harz mountains of Thuringia, and large underground factories. This facility, according to Picker, "was transferred back to the USSR by the Red Army" after the German surrender. [Henry Picker, "Hitlers Tischgespräche im Führerhauptquartier", 2 Auflage (Berlin: Propylän Taschenbuch bei Ullstein, 1997), cited in Mayer and Mehner, "Das Geheimnis"]

According to Picker, it was for this reason that Stalin reacted with such detachment when President Truman informed him of the successful test of the plutonium bomb at the Trinity site in New Mexico, for Stalin had already acquired the necessary technology to make his own atom bomb. Moreover, Stalin awarded Manfred von Ardenne the "Soviet 'Nobel Prize,' the Stalin Prize." Mayer and Mehner comment on the real significance of this series of admissions:

"Everything clear? The Russians thus came into possession of some means of production - which from then until now remains unknown -and paid off Manfred von Ardenne, who was certainly the best consultant in these things, who must have clarified for them the things the Russians had found there".

It is an intriguing idea, for we have already discovered a possible plutonium bomb detonation near Ohrdruf very late in the war. This would of necessity imply that the Germans had acquired a successful atomic reactor, the question is, where? In any case, the reason for lack of knowledge about this project is clear: it was in the control of the SS, and therefore, within the portfolio of the security-obsessed General Kammler.

In any case, Houtermans' reactor concept was significantly different than Heisenberg's, or for that matter, even Enrico Fermi's successful atomic pile at the University of Chicago, since it aimed at the production not of energy, but of radioactive isotopes. For this reason, it would be able to operate at low temperature using liquid methane as a moderator, rather than heavy water or graphite. This meant that it would be an efficient producer of "element 93 or higher" that could be chemically separated and used as a nuclear explosive. [Researcher Frank Joseph has found another source for a reactor, and consider his information to be so crucial to this story, and so sensational, that Icannot in good conscience mention it in this work. I believe that it is a story that he best tells himself, since it is his discovery. He was kind enough to share it with me as this book was being written].

This is significant, for it differentiates the von Ardenne-Houtermans effort both from the Heisenberg effort to design and construct a working atomic pile, and from Enrico Fermi's success in doing so.

So at one end of the war, ca. 1945, we find the allegations on tested weapon of small critical mass which, if true, is most liked that of a plutonium bomb using a process of boosted fission, and at the other end, ca. 1941, we have a paper outlining a project to achieve a reactor for the production of the explosive fuel of such a bomb. There is an odd piece of corroboration that the Germans may also have been perilously close to, if not in actual possession of, a plutonium atom bomb, from the Pacific Theater and the Japanese program. Robert Wilcox, in his "Japan's Secret War", recounts how the Spanish Nationalist government successfully ran a spy ring both for the Germans and for the Japanese, an espionage operation that had no little success in penetrating the Manhattan Project, even to the extent of acquiring in 1943 the earliest Allied designs for a detonator for such a bomb. Interviewing Angel Alcazar de Velasco, the alleged head of the ring, Wilcox quotes a rather astonishing statement:

"The information was that the American work on a nuclear weapon was very advanced but they had a long way to go. There were even notes about the detonator. It was similar to one already in use by the Germans".

A complicated detonator - presumably for use in a plutonium bomb, since the detonator mechanism for a uranium bomb is a much simpler piece of equipment - already in use by the Germans in 1943!? Why would the Germans have had the need for such a complex detonator? The timing of the allegation is also disturbing, since it corroborates the assertions, examined earlier, of the Japanese military attache in Stockholm, that the Germans were using some type of weapon of mass destruction on the Eastern Front ca. 1943, in the region of Kursk.

The attaché, it will be recalled, actually maintained that these weapons - whatever they were - were also used in the "Crimea", making it most likely during the siege of the Russian fortress of Sevastopol in 1942. Thus would seem to weigh very heavily against this mystery weapon being an atom bomb. But if not, what other weapon could have caused such destruction?  Powers notes that Allen Dulles in Zürich received reports of a German project in "vast underground factories" that were after "putting out a new explosive in aerial bombs. He has even heard that the container of the explosive is spherical". [Rose, op. cit. A spherical detonator, of course, is the type of implosion-compression detonator used to assemble the critical mass of a plutonium bomb].

But Houtermans was interested in more than just atom bombs. Even Paul Lawrence Rose admits that Houtermans' role in Nazi atom bomb research "remains enigmatic." [Rose, op. cit.] The reason why, though, is clear enough, once its enormous implications are understood, for Houtermans' real specialty lay in the first theoretical description of the process of thermonuclear fusion of heavy hydrogen (deuterium and tritium) atoms through high heat in stars, the very heat produced by an uncontrolled chain reaction. [Powers, "Heisenberg's War"] With this, we are a step closer to unlocking the riddle of just exactly what types of weapons Kammler's "think tank" was working on, for if Houtermans' idea was seized upon, then hydrogen bombs would have been the next logical progression in the  "technology tree" from the atom bomb, just as it was for the Americans and Russians after the war. Is there any indication the this was in fact the real ultimate goal of the secret German SS atom bomb program? In other words, was it really an atom bomb program at all? Or was it a hydrogen bomb program?

Fantastic as it may be to believe, the latter possibility would seem to be the actual case. The letter of Professor Lachner referred to previously also gives further illumination on the goal of Kammler's SS Sonderkommando:

"Work was also conducted on the hydrogen bomb. A factory for the manufacture of heavy hydrogen was constructed in Norway but was of course destroyed by the enemy. The small uranium bombs were primarily intended as detonators for the hydrogen bombs, so their immediate use was not contemplated". [Mayer and Mehner, "Das Geheimnis"]

Another corroboration for this astonishing assertion may be found in a pre-war Austrian patent for a "molecular bomb", an early version of the hydrogen bomb, from 1938. [Ibid.] In any case, Professor Lachner asserts unequivocally that the real goal of the project was weapon more terrifying and destructive than the atom bomb.

Another factor is worth mentioning in this regard. The pursuit of the hydrogen bomb would also explain why the Nazis were interested in small atom bombs, made smaller via boosted fission, for a hydrogen bomb, at least with the technology available back then, would have been an enormously heavy and cumbersome object. The quest for "miniaturization" was therefore another practical aim: any such bomb would have to be made small enough for German bombers or rockets to carry, and even then, only the very largest bombers or rockets would have been up to the task, if at all. [It should be recalled that the first hydrogen bomb, America's "Mike", weighed several tons, and was impractical as an actual weapon. America's first operational hydrogen bomb actually weighed several tons. It is difficult to imagine any existing aircraft in the German arsenal, not even the enormous Ju-390, as being up to the task of delivering a hydrogen bomb, and the specifications for the A-9/10 Amerikarakete are far below what would be needed].

But to produce hydrogen bombs, one must have an adequate supply of the heavy hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium. Here again, however, the Allied Legend intervenes, and maintains that after the successful Allied destruction of the Norwegian heavy water plant at Ryukon, German production of the precious destructive substance was never able to recover, and, as a consequence, heavy water for a moderator in reactors (much less a hydrogen bomb!) was never in enough supply. The further implication of this assertion is, of course, that the failure of Heisenberg and other scientists to construct a reactor based on heavy water as a moderator was doomed to failure because of the lack of supply. But again, the reality was quite different. Dr. Diebner in an exchange with Dr. Wirtz - both later interred at Farm Hall - indicated that a complete heavy water plant was built in Germany by the end of 1943. [Mayer and Mehner, "Das Geheimnis"] However, revelations made at the end of the war were even more important as a means of measuring the truly significant extent of German heavy water production: a large heavy water factory, hitherto entirely unknown, had been discovered by the Allies in Kiel in northern Germany. But most importantly, after the German reunification in 1989, when the vast SS underground factories in the Harz region of Thuringia in the former eastern zone were rediscovered, many of these were found to contain several large electrical generators, enough to supply power for a few small cities! [Ibid.]

Such high electrical output would certainly not have been needed for the last Führer Headquarters, but it certainly would have been required for factories separating uranium isotope (especially if they used von Ardenne's cyclotron process), and that manufactured heavy water. Was the hydrogen bomb the real goal? Does this explain the reason that, if Germany did have the atom bomb, it (or they) were seldom if ever actually used, being husbanded as detonators for something far more powerful? Does this also explain, in part, the real reason for the curtain of secrecy that fell over Kammler's special SS "think tank" command structure?

The only practical method of delivering a hydrogen bomb, it seems to me, would have been via a large submarine or ship to a port city, a militarily quite risky venture, and one that, for the German crews involved, would have been a one-way venture.

One indication that this may be so were remarks made by Dr. Josef Göbbels to the Italian officer Luigi Romersa who witnessed the Rügen atom bomb test. According to Romersa, Göbbels told him "Heavy water is an important material in the manufacture of the disintegration bomb [Auflösungsbombe]. We had already before the war made some headway in the direction..." [Mayer and Mehner, "Das Geheimnis"] Headway indeed, if an Austrian patent for prototype had already been taken out in 1938! [Such a patent would have been immediately classified as a "Geheime Reichsache" or "secret state matter", i.e., a matter of national security as would now be said. As such, it would have definitely made its way directly to Kammler's "think tank".]

That the ultimate goal of the German atom bomb project was the hydrogen bomb, and not the atom bomb at all, seems in retrospect both quite logical and quite disconcerting. However, even hydrogen bombs pale by comparison not only just to the "paper projects" being studied in Kammler's SS Sonderkommando, but to the very real projects and experiments with forces of even larger potential destructive capability than hydrogen bombs. Having foreseen the thermonuclear future, the SS was already planning and experimenting with countermeasures, and with second and third generations of offensive strategic weapons even more horrifying.

GATEWAY TO THE BLACK SUN

"So it is that proof of an arrangement between Martin Bormann and the United States, if there was one, does not appear to exist. What is apparent, however, is that the United States went to some trouble to ensure that such evident of a relationship does not exist!"

-- Carter Hydrick, "Critical Mass"

I believe a strong prima facie case has been outlined that Nazi Germany developed and successfully tested, and perhaps used, an uranium atom bomb before the end of World War Two, and possibly that it had made significant strides toward the acquisition if not outright testing, of a boosted fission plutonium bomb of small critical mass and high yield. This thesis, radical as it is, does seem to resolve at a stroke discrepancies and anomalies - some seemingly trifling and others much more blatant - about the political and operational history of the war. The idea of an actual German atom bomb and project, and not the small, miserably failed, laboratory effort proffered by the Allied Legend, seems to provide suitable explanations for a host of things that have long puzzled analysts and commentators.

For example, what of Hitler's declaration of war against the United States in December of 1941, after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor? Analysts have puzzled over this decision and his possible motivations in doing so for decades, and a variety of unsatisfactory explanations have been advanced, from his bourgeois sense of "duty" to his Japanese ally, to the secret naval war fought "off-the-books" for months between the Third Reich and the United States and the need to make it "official", to Hitler's impatience, delusions, and/or insanity, to the realization by the Nazi leadership that Roosevelt meant to enter the European war one way or another no later than 1943.

But regardless of what Hitler's motivations or thought processes may have been, from the standpoint of conventional military analysis, the German declaration of war on America was sheer suicide, as her overwhelming production capacity and oceanic insulation virtually assured her of final supremacy over the Nazi war-making juggernaut. Hitler's decision, as German armies were stalled and freezing to death at the gates of Moscow in 1941, seems more than suicidal. Hitler was shown for what he was: a madman. But from the perspective of the evidence presented here, that was not the real military picture in December 1941 at all, not was it in the secret counsels that the German dictator kept in his mind. His scientists, after all, had discovered nuclear fission, and his scientists had proposed a method of obtaining an atom bomb via large quantities of isotope separation and enrichment machines and huge concentrations of labor. His scientists would, in a month or so, assure him, via the Heereswaffenamt memorandum, that the amount of material needed for a bomb was not tons, but kilograms. And his favorite atomic scientist, Manfred von Ardenne, and his associate Dr. Fritz Houtermans, had already published a manuscript on how it could all be done. And he knew, too, that Germany had the needed material - uranium - in an abundance that the United States could only scarcely imagine.

In retrospect, then, the secrecy surrounding the German project seems all too clear, for the best source of cheap labor lay in the death camps, camps that Hitler desired to keep secret from the German people, for obvious reasons. By early 1941 Farben had already begun construction of its "Buna plant" at Auschwitz. And there was more probably lurking in Hitler's twisted mind: before the war, some scientists in the Reich had spelled out the basic idea behind a weapon even more powerful than the atom bomb, for which the latter was but a fuse. Hitler, on this view, ever the gambler, too the risk, confident of being in the possession of a fearful arsenal within a short span of two to three years, declared war on the United States.

So too the military deployments and operations of the European war's end that made little sense before now begin to take on an operational logic that is almost irresistible. The madcap, and some would say, militarily and politically indefensible, Allied dash away from Berlin and to south central Germany and Prague are consistent with American knowledge, at some very high level, of Kammler's SS Sonderkommando black projects and secret weapons empire. Hitler's own obsession with the defense of Breslau in lower Silesia and of Prague itself, an obsession that made no sense to his generals, make military sense only in the context of an atom bomb and inter-continental rocket project that was successful in the attainment of the first and perilously close to the attainment of the second.

Similarly, Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler's offer of a surrender to the Western Allies has usually been dismissed as the frantic attempts of a desperate mass murderer to avoid his inevitable fate, and nothing more. But Himmler, like Hitler, and possibly only Martin Bormann, was one of the "inmost circle" who knew the full extent of Kammler's empire and its actual activities Himmler may have therefore used this knowledge as a possible bargaining chip. His offer was rejected, not so much because it was not genuine (from Himmler's point of view), but because he had long lost genuine control of it. The deal had already probably been cut between Kammler's representatives and OSS station chief in Zürich, Allen Dulles, or via General Patton himself. Bormann, too was implicated in this plot, and is directly linked to Kammler.

The thesis of an actual German atom bomb also explains the odd little events that began to surface in scattered Allied press reports toward and immediately after the end of the European War. Long-range heavy lift round trip "proof of concept" flights from Europe to within sight of New York City, Luftwaffe maps of Manhattan with blast damage estimates for an atom bomb of the same approximate yield as Hiroshima, a Norwegian airfield filled with over forty long range bombers capable of making the flight, "Buna plants" that incomprehensibly use more electricity than Berlin and paradoxically produce no rubber during the entire course of the war, U-boats loaded with infrared fuses - a device whose technical complexity betokens an immediate nuclear application - and enriched uranium powder ready for metallization.

Likewise, this thesis provides a more plausible explanation, for those inclined to think it suspicious, for the mysterious death of America's most celebrated and famous, and for the equally impossible "triple death" of Germany's most sinister, generals. Patton, as was seen, was the commander of the very America army entrusted with seizing the mother lode of secret weapons research treasures in Thuringia and at Pilsen in Czechoslovakia. He, at the top of the Third Army's command structure, would have been privy to all the first intelligence reports of his units entering those areas, and would easily have been the first man outside Kammler himself to see enough of the pieces to put together a reasonable picture of the whole. If indeed Patton was deliberately silenced, and I am by no means convinced that he was, then surely this is the most plausible motivation for the deed. And finally, as was seen, a successful German atom bomb project might very well meet the inner moral logic at work in the German Resistance's bomb plot against Adolf Hitler in July of 1944. Similarly, the thesis puts on a firmer foundation another set of "oddities," such as the ludicrous notion that the Allied engineers were so confident that their design for the Little Boy uranium bomb dropped on Hiroshima was so good it did not need to be tested, or (in another explanation), that there was not enough weapons grade uranium to build two such bombs to test one before dropping the other. That the US military would have dropped an untested super weapon on an enemy city, an enemy known to be working on acquiring the very same weapon, is simply ridiculous in the extreme. The Allied Legend is made even more ridiculous when one considers the fact that the plutonium bomb had been successfully tested, and that a plutonium bomb was already ready for deployment against the Japanese. Why then was the "untested" Little Boy dropped first, instead of the plutonium "Fat Man"? A rational explanation is afforded by the thesis of this book: Little Boy was not tested by the Americans because, as Oppenheimer hinted, the bomb was "of German provenance." The Americans did not need to test it, because its German designers already had.

Moreover the infusion of German bomb technology into not only the American, but the Japanese effort, explains Japan's rather slow response to Allied demands for unconditional surrender after Hiroshima and Nagasaki, for only a day after Nagasaki, the Japanese too, for a brief moment, joined the nuclear club. And five years later, MacArthur presided over one of America's worst military debacles at the Chosin reservoir in the midst of the largest industrial complex in Asia, built by Japanese industrialist Jui Noguchi, and nerve center of the Japanese atom bomb program. Were the operational risks MacArthur took to secure and hold Chosin due in part to a hidden intelligence agenda, to secure more information about an enemy only recently defeated, and to deny the technology to potential enemies such as Red China?

And last, but surely not least, there is simply too much enriched uranium, and too many bombs, around by the end of World War Two, to have come entirely from the Manhattan Project. Marshal Rodion Malinovsky's translator told of a "dud" dropped on August 8 on Nagasaki and surrendered by the Japanese to the Russians- a Japanese bomb, two separate German tests, a bomb sunk on board the US Indianapolis en route to Japan - and all these bombs from a Manhattan Project critically short of weapons grade uranium as late as December 1944, and only projected to achieve half the necessary critical mass by May of 1945? Where did all this extra uranium come from, not to mention the "extra bombs"? I have argued that most likely all of it came from Nazi Germany, courtesy of Nazi Party Reichsleiter Martin Bormann, and SS Obergruppenführer Hans Kammler.

But these conclusions leave several problems to be resolved, and in their resolution, a further glimpse into Kammler's dark empire of secret weapons, think tanks, underground factories and slave labor is afforded.

How did the Russians know to request this bomb? Surely the United States would not have told them. The only other plausible explanation is that the Russians knew where the bomb was ultimately from, and had done the mathematics.

THE MYTH OF SURVIVAL AND THE REALITY OF PAPERCLIP

"And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded unto death; and his deadly wound was healed; and all the world wondered after the beast. And they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast? Who is able to make war with him?"

Apocalypse of St. John the Divine, 13:3-4

THE BLACK ORDER: THE OCCULT INFLUENCE ON NAZI SECRET WEAPONS

As was seen, the Nazis very possibly may well have succeeded in developing and testing atom bombs prior to the end of World War Two, and may even have used them or some other weapon of mass destruction on the Eastern Front. But in the argument of the previous chapters, indications of something even more sinister cast a pall over the developing argument. For example, in Professor Lachner's allegation, the Nazis were interested in the atom bomb as mere fuses for the far more destructive hydrogen bomb. Beyond even the hydrogen bomb, there were hints and outlines of something shadowy, vague, and of monstrous destructive power. British agents surface to tell of a "fourth" team developing and working in an area of physics that seemed almost magical; a scientist at Farm Hall mentions in passing the construction of artificial rubies; newspaper clippings report Allied officers coming forward in the immediate aftermath of the war to make it clear that it was won - not as an inevitability against a collapsing Reich - but just in the nick of time, a viewpoint quickly swept away in the triumphalism of the emerging Allied Legend and standard histories of the war. A vast isotope enrichment program conducted by the SS in conjunction with the death camps casts a shadow on the ground, in spite of the best efforts of the postwar Allied Legend to touch up the photograph and render the object casting the shadow invisible, the ultimate in stealth technology.

The question is, why? Why cover up a successful German atom bomb well into the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries? Why indeed, unless that program leads to something else something whose possession would give extraordinary technology and military power to the nation that successfully continued its development? Why indeed, unless that program leads to a wholly different scientific paradigm, developed in secret and off the pages of the textbooks of mainstream "science" proffered for public consumption?

Much of the answer to these questions lies in occulted aspects of the Nazi Reich's ideology, and in the structures of power and bureaucracy it put into place to pursue that ideology. Much of the answer to these questions lies in the connection of Kammler's Sonderkommando to its parent organization, the SS itself. The nature of that organization, at its very heart, at the uppermost pinnacle of its power structure, was in every sense of the word occult.

There are two facts that directly connect Kammler's black, underground, and very secret weapons and death camps empire, to this occult aspect of the Third Reich and its SS "Black Order." These two odd connections require in turn an investigation - cursory though it will have to be - of the occult doctrines themselves in order that we may clearly discern the outlines of their influence on the more sensational German weapons research of the war. In connection with Kammler's empire and its postwar continuation, it is best to understand that this science is an "occulted science."

Some Necessary Definitions

For our purposes, this "occulted science" is to be understood as contained in various artifacts: ancient mysteries, various esoteric or other "occult traditions" per se, and actual physical structures or other types of physical artifacts. This broad definition requires farther "unpacking" in order for its full scope to be adequately comprehended:

Occulted Science: The "science" component of this term focuses specifically on three general areas: physics, chemistry, and biology. Our primary focus in the subsequent parts of this work will be on physics, with forays into the other two areas as needed. Thus, our thesis and method is that there is an "occulted physics" hidden - sometimes deliberately - within various mythological and ancient texts, including textss of the esoteric or occult traditions both of the Orient and of the Occident. This belief was one of the cornerstones of the Nazi secret weapons research, and it produced some astounding failures, as well as grist for the mill of its less well known, but equally astounding successes. This thesis was a major component in the ideological belief structure of the upper echelons of the SS and its more important and secretive departments, including the Ahnenerbedienst. There is every indication that it also formed a major paradigm for the upper echelons of Kammler's secret weapons "think tank" and was possibly even its very raison d'etre.

The occulted aspect of the term "occulted science' therefore takes on an extension of meaning beyond what one normally comes to associate with the term "occult". For our purposes, this "occulted science" is occulted in the sense of:

(1) "hidden" or "dark" and therefore hidden in the sense of black and covert secret classified projects;
(2) "deliberately encoded science" found in texts or artifacts that are, as the deliberate products of such encoding, subject to the full range of standard typological and analogical interpretive methods conventionally employed to understand such texts, but in this case, they are not understood on a metaphysical basis but rather in a "proto-scientific" sense, a "proto-physics" sense;
(3) "non-deliberate corrupt transmission" of that science and its textual and/or physical artifacts by groups or communities not fully cognizant of the extent of the science actually encoded in them;
(4) "esoteric or occult traditions and secret societies" in the conventional sense; by "esoteric or occult traditions" is meant not only standard occult texts and traditions and the various secret societies associated with them, but also traditions or legends that are not generally considered to be esoteric or occult in the stand sense; they remain esoteric or occult only because they are not well-known by the general public;
(5) "buried or partially buried" in the mists of pre-history and the mythologies, legends, talismans and physical monuments typically associated with them. By "ancient mythologies or legends" is meant as legends, texts, scriptures (whether considered to be canonical or apocryphal by any given community), of various cultures. The cultures chiefly in view are the classical Sumerian, Egyptian, Hindu, Maya, Olmec, Scandinavian-Teutonic, Chinese, and of course the later standard Graeco-Roman European culture.

It will be evident from careful consideration of this outline, that the peculiar blend of logic, reason, and science with the metaphysical and speculative component is a paradigm that is readily adaptable to the peculiarly German turn of mind as it developed from the opening of the nineteenth century to the fall of the final bomb before the capitulation in 1945.

In my opinion, it is this type of thought that is the Allied Legend's real goal to conceal, for more than anything else Kammler's black SS Sonderkommando secret weapons, death camps, "think tank" empire was the first deliberately and consciously organized and orchestrated attempt by a modern nation state to commit massive financial, labor, technological, and most importantly, intellectual capital to an off-the-books black projects recovery and development of lost and exotic technology, by the application of the most avante garde conceptions of the then contemporary science. Against this broad conceptual framework, we may now view two significant facts that place his think tank very clearly within the orbit of "occulted science" in many of the above senses.

B. Into the Labyrinth of the Beast

Evidence of a possible German atom bomb test at the island of Rügen in the Baltic Sea was presented. This evidence stemmed primarily from the recently declassified affidavit of Hans Zinsser who saw and described the explosion and resulting mushroom cloud, and the testimony of Italian officer Luigi Romersa, who was there apparently as an observer for Mussolini's Italian Fascist government. Corroborating evidence of secret wartime British atom bomb alerts and German telephone outages in Berlin - events concurrent with the time frame of the test - were presented. But what of Rügen itself? Why test a weapon on a sparsely populated island that is so close to the population center of Kiel and its heavily trafficked sea lanes and canal? What is it about Rügen that is so significant that the SS would test an atom bomb there? The answer may come from its possible connection to the SS's special "occult research" department, the Ahnenerbedienst, the society personally established by Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler to investigate all manner of occult and esoteric doctrines for its possible scientific value and weaponization. Among the strange and irrational doctrines entertained by Himmler and others at the pinnacle of the SS was a peculiar twist to the "Hollow Earth" theory.

In its even more irrational Himmler variation, this theory held that the earth was hollow, and that its surface - the surface that the fanatical SS leadership actually lived on - was the inside of that "hollow earth". And thus according to an article in "Popular Astronomy" in June 1946, entitled "German Astronomy During the War":

"They considered it helpful to locate the British fleet, because the curvature of the earth would not obstruct observation. Visual rays were not suitable because of refraction; but infrared rays had less refraction. Accordingly a party of about ten men under the scientific leadership of Dr. Heinz Fischer, an infrared expert, was sent out from Berlin to the isle of Rügen to photograph the British fleet with infrared equipment at an upward angle of some forty-five degrees."

The experiment did not work. [Dusty Sklar, "The Nazis and the Occult"]

One is left with the impression that this "experiment" with irrationality was but another manifestation of the scientific quackery that was the Third Reich, and rightly so. But significantly, once again, this rather avante garde experiment, no matter how irrational, took place on Rügen. Apparently, the island was home to a number of advanced projects. One should also note carefully the hidden technological implication of the experiment, not withstanding the insane use to which it was put: the Nazis possessed the means of detection of infrared reflections from great distances though atmospheric refraction, the same technology as was developed for use in heat-seeking anti-aircraft missiles and subsequently used with dramatic destructive effectiveness in America's plutonium bomb.

And this afford a clue into the real nature of Kammler's "think tank": technology appears to have been developed that could be adapted to a variety of uses in the various highly classified weapons developments black projects, as well as used in experimentation and testing of the more bizarre aspects of Nazi and occult beliefs.

But again, why Rügen? The answer lies in the "esoteric history" of the island prior to the war, and indeed, prior to World War One! When the Second World War ended, Hitler's private library was discovered in a mine near his idyllic mountain aerie of Berchtesgaden. Several tomes and volumes of occult literature were contained in it, including a "collection of (Lanz) von Liebenfels' racist-occult magazine 'Ostara'" published in Vienna before the First World War.[Peter Levenda, "Unholy Alliance: A History of Nazi Involvement with the Occult"]. While Hitler's own membership in any occult lodge has not been conclusively demonstrated, it is very probable that the young dictator-to-be actually visited von Liebenfels while both were in Vienna before World War One. [Levenda, op. cit.] It is von Liebenfels and his Order of the New Templars that forms the connection between the SS, irrational "Hollow Earth" experiments, and the far more successful atom bomb test at Rügen. with the assistance of wealthy patrons who soon flocked to his secret society - a society dedicated to the "purification" of the German race from its corrupting influences (Jews, Slavs, "Mongoloids" and basically anyone not "Germanic" or "Aryan") - von Liebenfels was able to purchase and renovate several old castles throughout Austria and Germany and to transform them into centers for his Order. The Order, in addition to its racist ideology, also dabbled in "astrology, the Cabala, phrenology, homeopathy, and nutrition." [Sklar, op. cit.]

In any case, von Liebenfels, in the best traditions and tactics of classical "Christian Gnosticism," and with the aid of his monastic training as a Cistercian monk, "composed his own voluminous variations of liturgical texts: a two volume New Templars' Breviary, The Psalms in German, and a "secret Bible for the initiated" which ran to ten volumes, as well as prayer books and the like." [Ibid.] With money pouring into his order from its wealthy "initiates", one of the castles he bought and restored as a center for esoteric research and "New Templar" activism was on the island of Rüugen.

Hitler was, according to von Liebenfels in a letter to one of his New Templars, "one of our pupils. You will one day experience that he, and through him we, will one day be victorious and develop a movement that makes the world tremble." [Ibid.] When Hitler annexed Austria, von Liebenfels was forbidden to publish. Indeed, the Nazis severely regulated - almost to the point of squeezing it into complete non-existence - any public display of "occultism" or "secret society" activity. Hence, Himmler's motivations for creating the SS Ahnenerbedienst within the bureaucracy of the SS becomes clearer, for the regime was in part fearful of its own connection to the highest level to such societies and activities. By placing such activities under SS jurisdiction, they could be monitored, studied, funded, organized, and exploited in complete secrecy.

What was the Ahnenerbe? In many respects it was the most secret of all the SS myriad secret departments.

Imagine that the evening adult education program of the New School of Social Research had suddenly become an independent government agency with a budget as big as the Defense Department.

The one might have some idea of what the Ahnenerbe was, and of the type of people it first attracted to its ranks. It was a humanities program. With guns. [Levenda, op. cit.]  A fact that in itself should give one pause, especially in view of the subsequent importation of many of these Nazi "esoteric scientists" into the USA under the aegis of Operation Paperclip.

This bizarre and irrational element of the occult at the very heart of Himmler's Black Order of the SS is one of the hidden entities, for example, co-ordinating and conducting the gruesome "medical experiments" on concentration camp victims, and even on ordinary Germans, during the war.

During the height of the war, the insanity gripping the Ahnenerbe and its macabre and bizarre experiments became almost surreal. The bureau devoted so much manpower and money to "esoteric research projects that it began to seem as if (Himmler) hoped to turn the tide in Germany's favor by fathoming the secrets of Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry, the occult meaning of Gothic spheres the top hats worn by the boys at Eton, and the symbolism involved in the suppression of the Ulster harp." [Sklar, op. cit.] Among its most ambitious projects, enormous amounts of money were spent for a flight to Tibet to look for traces of a pure Germanic race which might have been able to keep intact the ancient Nordic mysteries. The Ahnenerbe also had archeologists digging up all of Europe for remains of Germanic culture. More than fifty departments in this branch succeeded in spending over a million marks ($400,000) on such "vital" matters.

Hitler was rather embarrassed by Himmler's obsession with the past:

"Why do we call the whole world's attention to the fact that we have no past? It isn't enough that the Romans were erecting great buildings when our forefathers were still living in mud huts; now Himmler is starting to dig up these villages of mud huts and enthusing over every potsherd and stone axe he finds. All we prove by that is that we were still throwing stone hatchets and crouching around open fires when Greece and Rome had already reached the highest stage of culture. We really should do our best to keep quiet about this past. Instead Himmler makes a great fuss about it all. The present-day Romans must be having a laugh at these relevations".

--Speer, Albert, "Inside the Third Reich", Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1970

But the most incredible research of all was set up in 1939 in Berlin. An astrologer, Wilhelm Wulff, who was made prisoner of the SS and coerced into working for it, described the Berlin Institute's scientific research center as being used '"to harness, not only natural, but also supernatural, forces. All intellectual, natural, and supernatural sources of power -from modern technology to mediaeval black magic, and from the teachings of Pythagoras to the Faustian pentagram incantation -were to be exploited in the interests of final victory." [Sklar, op. cit.]

One such experiment resembles nothing else so much as an early experiment in "remote viewing", and included a man who was an alleged "adept," who held out pendulums over pictures of U-boats, and then held it over maps of the ocean in attempts to detect it.

If all this seems insane and fruitless dabbling, consider that the modern phenomenon of "remote viewing" is a highly developed enterprise - undertaken initially in secret by the CIA13 - and employed at one time none other than renowned theoretical physicist Dr. Hal Puthoff in the elaboration of strictly controlled scientific protocols for its testing. [Joseph McMoneagle, "Remote Viewing Secrets". The research was conducted by SRI International]. 

McMoneagle cites one of the original theoretical papers concerning remote viewing, co-authored by Dr. Puthoff and Russell Targ, entitled "A Perceptual Channel for Information Transfer over Kilometer Distances: Historical Perspectives and Recent Research". It is important to mention that most of Dr. Puthoff's theoretical physics research concerns quantum mechanics and the Zero Point Energy, or vacuum quantum flux potential. Puthoff has noted the connection between quantum mechanics and the consciousness of intelligent observers. More recently the connection between intelligent life and physics at the topological level has been a major focus of papers by Ukrainian theoretical physicist Dr. Volodymyr Krasnoholovets, and French topologist Michel Bounias.

The Ahnenerbe's portfolio was to investigate any potential source of power for weaponization. And notably, all normal constraints or orthodox conceptual or moral paradigm were laid aside. In that context, there were bound to be more failures than successes. But equally, in that context, in that bureaucratic culture, the freedom to "brainstorm", to generate and then to pursue the unorthodox novel idea, would have been given more or less free rein. Indeed, it would have been expected.

Consequently, the Ahnenerbe's failures, or its barbarous cruelty, are often paraded as evidence of a pervasive breakdow not only of traditional morality, but of the scientific establishment and method in Nazi Germany. But what are overlooked are the indications of its possible - and groundbreaking - successes, for in the milieu of free experimentation without constraints (moral or otherwise), dramatic failure was to be expected. But the potential for dramatic success was equally as great. "There was, via the Kammler trail," notes "Jane's Defense Weekly" reporter and researcher Nick Cook, not without a tinge of anxiety, "a mounting body of evidence that the Nazis, in their desperation to win the war, had been experimenting with a form of science the rest of the world had never even remotely considered. And that somewhere in this cauldron of ideas, a new technology had been born; one that was so far ahead of its time it had been suppressed for more than half a century." [Nick Cook, "The Hunt for Zero Point"] Was Kammler's secret weapons Sonderkommando think tank connected to the Ahnenerbe?

While no direct evidence has been forthcoming to date, there is a factor - beyond his involvement with the death camps - that does connect Kammler with the Ahnenerbe, and this brings us to that "second odd fact", a detail that seems to indicate that there was indeed a connection between the Ahnenerbe's occult interests and Kammler's black secret weapons projects "think tank." This is the fact that at its very pinnacle, the SS was deliberately conceived and organized by Heinrich Himmler to be an occult "order," a black and twisted version of King Arthur's Knights of the Holy Grail and Round Table. One observes here, once again, the connection to the ideal the Templars and von Liebenfels' "New Templars," for whom the "Holy Grail", or sang real, was the "royal bloodline" itself and its "container" or "chalice", the Germanic Aryan race. As a result of this view, the Ahnenerbe's "medical experiments" were done not only to advance German medicine in areas of treatment of extreme conditions - high pressure, low pressure, and so on - that were encountered in extreme climates or, eventually, outer space, but a considerable portion was devoted to finding the basis of genetic and ethnic "purity" of the Germanic race itself. The SS was therefore the vanguard, the prophetic forebear, of the new religion and new age and new man it hoped to usher in:

"The headquarters for this cult was situated at the medieval castle of Wewelsburg, near the towns of Paderborn and Detmold in the German province of Westphalia, close by the site in the Teutoburg Forest where Arminius made his stand with its famous, Stonehenge-like monument known as Externsteine....

"Secrecy was the key element in the SS and most especially at Wewelsburg". [Levenda, op. cit.]

There Himmler had constructed a central chamber with a large table designed to seat twelve men specially selected from the senior Gruppenführers (generals) of the SS. [Ibid. Citing Padfield, Himmler: "Reichsführer-SS" (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1990)] A 12,000 volume library of the occult was available in the castle.


Himmler's Fortress of Fear

SS headquarters at Wewelsburg Castle

Rumours of prominent Nazis' involvement with the realm of the occult have persisted for decades.
While much emphasis is given to the occult involvement of Adolf Hitler, it is to Heinrich Himmler
that we should look for the most active Occultist among the leaders of the Third Reich.

What is the truth behind SS-Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler's vision of an ancient and noble Aryan prehistory that verified the superiority of the Master Race?


In Central Germany's Alma Valley, a striking 17th-century castle overlooks the picture-postcard scenery that stretches in every direction; jutting majestically above green trees and bathed in sunshine, it looks more like something out of Cinderella than a former Nazi headquarters. And yet the story of Wewelsburg Castle is irretrievably intertwined with the insanity and cruelty at the very heart of the Third Reich.

In 1933, SS-Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler, the second most powerful man in Germany, chose the stronghold as the site of a new Nazi Mecca, a place he planned to transform into the very "centre of the world". His efforts to turn this vision into reality would claim the lives of over 1,200 people.

Over the years, Wewelsburg has become a symbol of the alleged Nazi obsession with the occult. Some have claimed that Himmler chose the site because it lies on a nexus of 'ley' energies; others have suggested that bizarre rituals were carried out there by cults within the Nazi party. It has even been alleged that the castle's North Tower was such a storehouse of powerful magical energies that all attempts to destroy it at the end of the war were in vain.

While the reality is considerably more mundane than some of these outlandish theories would have us believe, it is ultimately no less bizarre.

Wewelsburg lies in Westphalia – "the land of Hermann and Widukind", as Himmler himself put it. Himmler had been considering two other sites as centres for the SS, but after viewing Wewelsburg on 3 November 1933, during a tour of the Reich, he made his decision that same night. In August 1934, the SS leased the castle from the District of Buren for 100 year, for the nominal sum of one Reichsmark per year.

Wewelsburg no doubt appealed to Himmler on many different levels. Originally constructed between 1603 and 1609, the Weser Renaissance-style castle was intended to serve as a second residence for the Prince Bishop of Paderborn. It was built on the site of an earlier Saxon stronghold; archeologists discovered a Stone Age burial pit containing dozens of human remains when they excavated the foundations. Nearby digs had uncovered Neanderthal skulls, as well as items of Bronze Age jewellery and other signs of early human habitation.

During the 17th century, the castle played a key role in the witchcraft trials sweeping across
Europe. The persecution of witches had been particularly ferocious in Germany; especially in territories presided over by the Catholic Prince Bishops. Some estimates place the number of 'witches' who perished at the stake as high as 100,000. In Westphalia, local women accused of witchcraft were held in Wewelsburg's dungeons and confessions were extracted under torture in an adjoining courtroom. Many of them were subsequently executed at the castle.

The surrounding area was similarly rich in historical significance. Nearby was the
Teutoburg Forest, widely believed to have been the site of the legendary battle in which the united Germanic tribes defeated the Roman legions of Varus, forever establishing the border between the Roman Empire and Germania. Also, just miles away, was Externsteine, a distinctive natural rock formation that had been used as a place of habitation and pre-Christian worship since Neolithic times. The Ahnenerbe would later excavate the site, unsuccessfully attempting to prove it had been a religious centre of immense importance to an advanced prehistoric German civilisation.

This combination of historical significance and mythic resonance held an obvious appeal for the Reichsführer, who entertained a lavish fantasy life in stark contrast to his public image of a prim and clerkish bureaucrat.

Born in Munich on 7 October 1900, Himmler came from a resolutely middle class, conservative Catholic background. He was originally a devout Catholic, a loyal patriot and something of a romantic idealist, given to a Volkisch view of Germany's history and virtues, but not, at this stage, any kind of fanatic.

As a boy, he dreamt of leading the life of a simple farmer, but in adolescence this gave way to the desire for a military career as an officer in the armed forces, an ambition confirmed by the outbreak of World War I. Eventually, in 1918, he was accepted into officer training school with the 11th Bavarian Infantry Regiment, but the war ended before he could complete his training and earn his commission.

His military ambitions thwarted by the Versailles treaty, Himmler instead turned to politics, becoming increasingly involved with various right wing nationalist paramilitaries and political parties; this eventually led him to join Ernst Röhm's SA (Sturmabteilung) and the National Socialist Party. Himmler gradually turned his back on Catholicism and his parents' more traditional brand of nationalism, becoming increasingly indoctrinated into the anti-Communist, anti-Semitic party line. During Hitler's unsuccessful Beer Hall putsch of 1923, Himmler was at the head of Röhm's Reichskriegflagge as they marched on the War Ministry buildings in Munich, wielding a banner bearing the Imperial ensign.

Himmler subsequently gained a reputation for his loyalty and efficiency, and rose rapidly through the Party's ranks. On 20 January 1929 he was appointed SS-Reichsführer having previously served as Deputy Reichsführer. Originally conceived of as protection squads for party leaders, Himmler came to view the SS (Schutzstaffel) as a 'Knightly Order' – a racial elite in the mould of the ancient Aryan warrior caste, the Kshatriya, as well as the mediæval Teutonic Knights and Knights Templar.

Under Himmler, stringent new rules were established regarding recruitment. Enlisted men had to prove the 'purity' of their family line back to at least 1800, officers as far back as 1750. Their wives – whether current or prospective – were required to do the same.

In peacetime, the SS was to function as an internal security force responsible for enforcing conformity and spearheading the purification of the race; in wartime, as a ferociously fanatical defender of
Germany's borders.

The SS was also the means through which Himmler hoped to accomplish an even greater project. Just as Hitler and the Nazi party had replaced the Church in his own loyalties, so Himmler sought to supplant Christianity with a pseudo-pagan state religion based on an idealised view of prehistoric German culture, emphasising racial purity and the innate superiority of the German people.

Himmler saw the SS as the ideological vanguard of this new religion, and the instrument through which the German people would be indoctrinated into it. In addition to 'Party' holidays – the anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch and the Führer's birthday – Himmler established festivals on the Summer and Winter Solstices incorporating elements of pagan ritual, including sun and nature worship. Such celebrations were always characterised by a strong SS presence.

SS Officers, meanwhile, were wed in secular ceremonies with distinctly pagan overtones, and their children 'baptised' in similarly pagan-influenced naming rituals. Many of these ceremonies eventually took place at Wewelsburg, often presided over by Himmler himself, along with his personal 'magus', Karl Maria Wiligut.

 The Black Sun is a Nazi emblem consisting of three Swastikas arrayed within a circle to form a sun design. The Black Sun symbol is found in the ornamental floor design of Wewelsburg Castle in Germany, Himmler's "World center" for the Nazi party, the headquarters of the SS.

The design was drawn for Heinrich Himmler from an old Aryan emblem, and was meant to mimic the Round table of Arthurian legend- each spoke of the sun wheel represented one "knight" or Officer of the "inner" SS.

The "Black Sun" of and its attendant mythology has fueled a number of bizarre conspiracy theories involving UFOs, secret societies, the Hollow Earth, and worse, none of which have any real basis in fact. The Wewelsburg sun should not be confused with the alchemical black sun (any more than it already has been), a symbol of hidden spiritual potential.

By 1934,

Wewelsburg Castle had been derelict for many years, so Himmler commissioned an extensive programme of reconstruction and refurbishment. Initially, he appears to have been interested in developing the site as a 'Reich School for SS Leaders' – an officer's college for 'ideological education', managed through the Race and Settlement Office. SS-Brigadeführer Walter Schellenberg, testifying at the Nuremburg trials after the war, described a curriculum consisting of "spiritual training and meditation exercises". Most important of all was instruction in the correct Weltanschauung ('world-view' or ideology).

Eventually though, this relatively modest ambition gave way to a much grander vision. In February 1935, the Wewelsburg project was brought under the direct control of the Reichsführer's personal staff, in line with Himmler's evolving conception of it. Himmler had begun to see Wewelsburg as the 'seat' of his Knightly Order – a cross between Camelot and Marienburg – which would eventually evolve into a vast Teutonic Mecca, the spiritual center of the Aryan World.

The estimated cost of Himmler's grandiose plans was an absurd 250 million Reichsmarks. Simply refurbishing the old castle was now just the start; Himmler intended to expand the site so it absorbed the nearby village of Wewelsburg, whose inhabitants were to be moved to a new 'model village' nearby. The site would be, in effect, an SS City, with the triangular castle forming an arrowhead that would be surrounded by accommodation, offices and facilities that would sprawl across the valley.

Such ambitious plans required workers. In 1939, a concentration camp was established in the nearby
Niederhagen Forest, with most of the prisoners coming from the Sachsenhausen camp in Berlin. Two years later it was given independent status for financial reasons, and re-designated KZ (Konzentrationlager) Niederhagen. Whilst it was the smallest camp of its kind in Germany, its regime was no less brutal than those of Auschwitz or Belsen. Of the 3,900 prisoners interned there, 1,285 of them died; many were simply worked to death, while others were starved or shot.

The extent to which Himmler realised his vision for Wewelsburg is debatable, although it's clear that the reality fell some considerable way short of the dream.

The focal point of the Wewelsburg complex was to be the Obergruppenführersaal – a stone-lined chamber in the North Tower in which Himmler had installed an oaken Arthurian round table seating 12. Formerly the Prince Bishop's chapel, the hall was intended to be used as a meeting place for the 12 most senior SS officers. It was used for this purpose only once, during March 1941, to brief the Gruppenführer on the role of the SS in Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of Russia.

A stylised Swastika – incorporating a sun wheel design and the SS victory runes – dominated the chamber's floor, while the walls were adorned with the senior Gruppenführers' coats of arms. Of course, most of the SS elite – including Himmler himself – were from middle-class rather than aristocratic backgrounds, and lacked hereditary coats of arms; Ahnenerbe experts were given the job of providing original designs for them.

Directly below the Obergruppenführersaal was the 'crypt' or 'land of the dead' – a large, circular chamber with 12 granite columns and a domed ceiling adorned with another swastika design. Here, in a stone well-like structure, the ashes of senior SS officers were to be interred upon their deaths, ensuring they remained with the Order forever. An 'eternal flame' was to be installed in the centre of the room, although this project was never completed. Although there have been rumours of rituals conducted in this chamber, even a cursory glance at it today confirms it was still under construction when it fell to the Allies.

Wewelsburg also served as the repository for the SS Death's Head rings – Totenkopfring – presented to SS officers after three years of service. Formed of a band of oakleaves engraved with a death's head and runes, the rings were further testament to Himmler's obsession with Germanic mythology, in which Thor was said to possess a pure silver ring on which oaths were sworn. When an SS officer died, his ring would be returned to the store at Wewelsburg.

Each of the Gruppenführers' rooms commemorated a different hero from Germanic mythology and history – Widukind, Henry the Lion, and even King Arthur – furnished in period fashion and stocked with books and documents pertaining to the room's subject. Himmler's own room was dedicated to the Saxon King Heinrich I, known as 'the Fowler', who led the German defence against a Magyar invasion during the 10th century, and laid the foundation of what was to become the Holy Roman Empire. While rumours that Himmler thought of himself as the literal reincarnation of the Fowler are likely to have been exaggerated, Himmler undoubtedly took great pleasure in being identified with 'King Heinrich', seeing himself as a kind of 'spiritual' heir to his namesake and as a contemporary defender of Germany from the hordes from the East. On the 1000th anniversary of Heinrich's death, in July 1936, Himmler inaugurated a remembrance festival at Quedlingburg, once the King's seat, complete with wreath-laying and the reading of a eulogy by Himmler in Quedlingburg Cathedral.

Himmler's plans for Wewelsburg were continually evolving, and there was undoubtedly an impulsive, whimsical dimension to his thinking. While inspecting the castle in 1938, he casually requested SS Gruppenführer Taubert – the officer in charge of the site's ongoing development – to look into the possibility of installing a planetarium, another outrageously expensive addition to the project. He also requested a strong room to serve as the equivalent of a medieval treasure keep, in line with his conception of Wewelsburg as the seat of a knightly order.

Neither project was to be completed, however. Work on Wewelsburg came to an abrupt halt in 1943; with the tide of the war turning against the Axis powers, resources were needed urgently elsewhere. It seems that Himmler always held out hope of reviving the project, and in February 1944 he wrote to Taubert to say that in spite of his busy schedule his thoughts often turned to Wewelsburg, and he dearly hoped his plans for it could be resumed after the war. Of course, this was not to be.

In March 1945, the Allied advance reached Wewelsburg and the castle was surrounded by American armour. Himmler, anxious that his dream should not fall into the possession of the enemy, dispatched a hand-picked group of SS commandos to deny it to them. After an initial attempt to slip past the American forces failed, the unit recruited a locally born SS man who guided them past the Allied cordon. On 31 March 1945 – Easter Sunday – the unit destroyed most of the castle with explosives, and escaped back behind German lines. Only the castle's North Tower escaped relatively unscathed, sparking speculation in some circles that it must have had magical properties to escape destruction.

On 2 April 1945, the Americans freed the remaining 42 prisoners at KZ Niederhagen. Himmler took his own life with a poison capsule just two months later, while in Allied custody.


Wewelsburg was initially an enigma to the Allied forces. Allied intelligence had been largely oblivious to its existence prior to its capture. Whilst it was clearly of great importance to the Reichsführer, nothing was known of its true purpose until SS officers began to testify about it at the Nuremburg trials; in particular, the testimony of Walter Schellenberg provides us with much of what we now know about the site.

The Black Sun, the Celestial Swastika, and Other SS Connections

Central to the secret initiation that these senior SS generals received was the real significance of the anagram "SS" itself. For the "rank and file elite" of the SS, the initials stood for the German word Schutzstaffel, a term meaning loosely a special staff or military unit. But to the initiates, there was another meaning of "SS" altogether, a meaning with roots deep in the occult and in ancient Sumerian, Babylonian, and to a certain extent, Egyptian belief. For these initiates, the letters "SS" referred to die Schwarze Sonne, the Black Sun.

The doctrine of the Black Sun, reaching back to ancient Sumer and Akkadia, is that there are two suns, the "white" sun, the sun that we see at the center of our physical solar system, and the "Black" Sun, a "hidden" sun of (spiritual) illumination. In some versions of the myth, it is thought to reside at the center of our galaxy. Other embellishments place it as one of the causes of the immortality and reincarnation of the soul. In Babylonian mythology it was also associated with the coming of the "King of Kings" and the establishment of a New Babylon. And finally, in some variations, not only is it associated with the center of the galaxy, but also with the uttermost "Hyperborea" and "Thule", the legendary stellar home and celestial origin of the Aryan race. The doctrine received further modification in ancient Egypt.

The connection between the SS and Egypt is further evidenced by the case of one of the most famous esotericists of all: R.A. Schwaller de Lubicz. Well known to contemporary students of "alternative" or "revisionist" Egyptology, de Lubicz' claim to fame was his life-long undertaking to reinterpret the monuments, and more importantly, the writings of ancient Egypt, particularly its hieroglyphic system of writing. While many contemporary researchers denigrate de Lubicz's work as being either faulty or slip-shod, and while others denigrate his scholarship simply for his open support of the Nazi regime, it is not so easy to dismiss him as all that.

For one thing, it was de Lubicz who first noticed the weathering on the Sphinx was inconsistent with a Fourth Dynasty origin for the monument, and that it pointed to a much older and far more ancient pedigree. [De Lubicz's observation, in fact, inspired John Anthony West and Robert Shock's investigations which have re-dated the Sphinx to approximately 8,000 B.C. based on geological evidence, a conclusion that sent shock waves through the Egyptology community and continues to spark vigorous debate in academic circles].

 

On the plateau of Giza west of Cairo, Egypt, sits the Great Sphinx of Giza, a statue 240 feet long, with a lion’s body and a human head wearing the headdress of the Pharaohs.

It is surrounded by desert sand. But there’s evidence of erosion. Erosion by wind-borne sand? No. By water!

The edges of the rock are rounded. And there are apparently deep fissures in the rock. The impressions on the stones are not horizontal, as would be caused by sand and wind (like the pyramids in the area); instead, they are vertical. This suggests that the Sphinx has been subjected to heavy rainfall.

The erosion is stronger on the upper parts of the Sphinx and its enclosure walls than around the base.

This erosion of these “upper” surfaces exhibits a pattern of weathering commonly associated with exposure to rainwater run-off.

There is a rolling and undulating vertical profile, with many vertical and sloping channels where joints in the bedrock have been opened up.

French scholar R. A. Schwaller, independent Egyptologist John West, and geologist Robert Schoch examined it. Schoch contrasted this situation at the Sphinx with the state of weathering seen at other rock-cut features of the Giza Plateau.

For example, in various Old Kingdom tombs, erosion by windblown sand has picked out areas of poorer quality rock, but has left the anciently cut facades and doorways not markedly damaged. But the highly rounded weathering on the Sphinx and its enclosure indicates the action of rainwater over a long period.

Could the erosion have been caused by the Nile flooding and washing around the Sphinx at some remote time? The answer is that to erode the monument up to its neck would have required floods of twenty meters or more over the Nile Valley. No, if this was erosion by water, then it had to be rainwater.

There is good evidence that Egypt experienced very heavy rainfall in the earliest period.

According to popular view, the transition from ice age to the present desert environment took place between 10,000 and 3000 BC.

Then rainfall tapered off to its current level of about 20 cm per year by about 2200 BC.

So if we must go back 9,000 years for sufficient precipitation to cause this pattern of rainfall erosion on limestone, thought West and Schoch, then the Sphinx must have been constructed either during or before this transition – say, 7000 BC.

That meant, it could be twice as old as “officially” claimed.

OR 10,500 BC?

Enter Robert Bauval and Graham Hancock. These two writers believe that the Sphinx was built not around 2500 BC… not in 7000 BC… but in 10,500 B.C.

According to their theory, the stars of the Belt of Orion and Leo the Lion, as arranged in the sky, almost match the positions of the pyramids of Giza. And they believe that the time when the pyramids were in perfect alignment with the Belt of Orion was when it was at its lowest point, in 10,450 B.C.

They believe the Sphinx was probably built during this time.

Another great example of the 10,500 BC date are the ruins of Teotihuacan and Puma Punku in Peru. Both were port cities on lake Titicaca, with numerous old wharfs and docks. The only problem is that Lake Titicaca has long since receded from the area. The date experts believe the lake to have had a water level this high? At least 10,000 years ago. Both cities are archaeological marvels with 300+ ton blocks, oddly cut with many planes that perfectly fit other oddly cut blocks (intentionally done as this type of stonework makes them highly resistant to earthquakes). About half the city of Teotihuacan is actually a giant calendar and star map that oddly only lines up accurately even earlier than 10,500 BC.

Conventional archaeology has attributed all this, along with the marvelous Nazca Lines, to one tribe of hunter-gatherers that existed 1,500 years ago. A tribe that didn't have any form of written language or mathematics, extremely basic agricultural practices, and no knowledge of the wheel. This case, along with many others, expose the massive dating errors of "accepted" history.

It is de Lubicz's method, however, that would have been quite at home within the Ahnenerbe and more importantly, within Kammler's black projects think tank. Briefly put, de Lubicz viewed Egyptian hieroglyphics and culture as the visible signs of a highly developed culture of analogical, rather than analytical, thought, science, and practice. [R.A. Schwaller de Lubicz, "Symbol and the Symbolic" (New York: Inner Traditions International, 1978)] For him, analogical thought was synonymous with "action at a distance," and his thought here is quite in line with what was beginning to be bandied about in quantum mechanics, and has become a provable reality in our day, with the phenomenon of photon entanglement. This phenomenon, briefly put, is as follows. Imagine two photons have been simultaneously emitted from a particular atom, but traveling in different directions. Thus, both photons carry the harmonic systems signature, the information, of the original atom and the circumstances of their emission. Then, imagine changing the informational signature of one of the two photons. Because the other photon is an exact analog of the first photon, it will simultaneously introduce the change into the field of its own information, instantaneously, regardless of distance. [That this was a major blow to relativity goes without saying. Photon quantum entanglement, as the phenomenon is called, is one of the newest and most exciting areas of contemporary physics experimentation and research]. But it is important to note that for de Lubicz, this analogical action at a distance or sympathetic magic was expressed within the context of a broadly dualistic world view in which there were two sciences, one of genesis or creation, and one of destruction. In this context, any given hieroglyphic symbol became a synthesis of polarities of particular oppositions of forces, held in balance by the glyph - the information - itself.

Without a doubt, this broadly Hegelian view brought de Lubicz to the attention of the Nazis, and vice versa. But more importantly, it was de Lubicz's knowledge of Egyptian "science-religion" that may lurk in the background of the statements of the Japanese attache to Stockholm's curious statements about Sirius in his secret cable to Tokyo regarding the German atom bomb program, for de Lubicz would have been in a position to point out the significance of Sirius to the Egyptians. For them, it "played the role of a central sun to our entire solar system" and suggested to de Lubicz "the existence of a cosmic system of atomic structure whose nucleus is this 'Great Provider,' the Sothis... of the ancients." [De Lubicz, "Sacred Science: The King of Pharaonic Theocracy" (Rochester, Vermont 'Inner Traditions International', 1981)

De Lubicz would have known as well the ancient symbolism and association with the three colors of the German national flag - black, red, and white - with ancient Egypt and Atlantis, a symbolism of which the Nazis themselves were likely aware. Thus in its Egyptian variation, the "Black Sun" myth is bound up with the star system of Sirius, and with all the associations with death resurrection, and the "life force" that this entailed within Pharaonic religion.

For the SS Ahnenerbe, all this was a potent mix when one recalls that Himmler's stated purpose for it, revealed in a letter he wrote to an Ahnenerbe scientist, was not only to study ancient religion, science, and the occult, but also that its principal establishment was as "an institute for military scientific research." [Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Volume II] Consequently, the Ahnenerbe scientists working on its various secret projects had an ideological basis for the more mundane scientific view that the "Black Sun" was but the extremely strong gravitational force exhibited by the large mass rotating around the galactic center. Ancient texts might be able to afford a key to the recovery of a lost science, a science very different from the ideologically condemned "Jewish physics" of relativity, but quite in line with the "Aryan" physics of vorticular spin polarization, quantum mechanics, and its mathematical prediction of a vacuum energy flux, or "zero point energy." It goes without saying that the Black Sun symbolism formed a central doctrine to the pre-Nazi secret society, the Thule Society. The symbol of the Black Sun was also adopted as an emblem for von Liebenfels' New Templars.
 

   The "Celestial Swastika"
The Rotation of Ursa Minor, or the Little Dipper, around the Pole Star
ca. 4000 BC

The Swastika itself, in this context, becomes not only a well-known symbol from ancient esoteric traditions, but also a talisman of ceremonial magic on a celestial scale, deliberately chosen to mirror the apparent rotation of a well-known constellation around the north pole of the earth's axis of rotation. This whole concentration on quantum mechanics, black suns, action at a distance, and celestial rotation gave a strong ideological influence to Kammler's SS think tank, for as will be seen, vorticular and non-linear physics apparently became two of its primary theoretical and experimental focuses.

Consider what all this means. By war's end and his control of all secret weapons projects in Nazi Germany, Hans Kammler had attained the rank of SS Obergruppenführer, the equivalent rank of a four star general, and only one rank below that of Himmler himself. Given this high rank, it is thus not only possible but very probably that Kammler was one of the chosen "Knights" of Himmler's "round table", and thus it is probable that by the war's end Kammler had a deeply connected relationship to the Ahnenerbe and its occult activities. It may be in part for this reason that his dossier in the US government's archives remains classified to this day. In any case, there is yet another odd fact, one that again potentially connects Kammler with the Ahnenerbe. Heinrich Himmler, who viewed himself as having some sort of "psychic connection" with the famous mediaeval German Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich the Fowler, had the Emperor's remains dug up and reinterred in the cathedral of the little town of Quedlinburg. Quedlinburg is in the Harz Mountains, in the heart of the region that was the center of Kammler's empire of underground secret weapons plants and laboratories.

In any case, the Ahnenerbe in general and Himmler's Gruppenführer initiates in particular did more than dabble in the patently absurd projects mentioned previously. It also mounted secret armed expeditions to South America to recover the well- known crystal skulls to investigate their optical properties. It ransacked ancient texts and the works of Sanskrit and other classical scholars for clues to "Vedic mathematics." The SS inducted the Muslim Grand Mufti of Jerusalem into its ranks with the honorary rank of major, an act with its own dark, and contemporary, significance. [Sebottendorff, for example, one of the occult figures lurking in the background of the secret societies that had connections with the early Nazi movement, praised Islam's "vitality" and congruence with Nazi ideology]. The Ahnenerbe would mount an expedition to Tibet, and return with the only complete copy of the multi-volumed Buddhist Kang Shur to reach the West, a collection reputedly containing much lost information from the pre-classical, ancient "atlantean" world.

The Will-to-Power as the Paradigm of "Occulted Science" and Nazi Secret Weapons Programs

The quest of the SS to investigate the scientific basis of occult notions, no matter how bizarre or flawed those notions were, is thus itself an integral component of Nazi ideology and is philosophical background in German romanticism and orientalism It is Adolf Hitler's personal "will to power that betrays the interest of a potential occultist" so much so that this factor - so prevalent within the occult itself - "has never been given its proper due." [Sklar, op. cit.] especially in connection to secret weapons research and the Kammler Group's "think tank." Hitler himself described this ideological locomotive in no uncertain terms: "A new age of Magic interpretation of the world is coming, of interpretation of the Will and not the Intelligence." [28] In this, he may be seen as reaching back to the lingering effects within German culture of the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer's "The World as Will and Representation". The title speaks for itself. It is significant that the mastermind behind Nazi geopolitics and himself a convinced occultist, General Karl Haushofer, was an avid scholar of Schopenhauer.

It is this connection to Will, rather than to intelligence, that points the way to the connection to physics in general, and to quantum mechanics in particular, for it is in this seemingly upside down world, where the inverted order of cause and effect seems totally at variance with common sense, that the will itself plays a key role. And it was Heisenberg himself who of course formulated one of the most basic precepts of quantum mechanics that, looked at in this way, is but a precept or doctrine of sovereign will: the Uncertainty Principle.

Briefly put, this scientific law states that on the scale of the very small sub-atomic particles that form the subject of its investigation it is impossible to determine at one and the same time the position of an electron and its velocity. If a measurement is taken of one property, the other will fade from view. It is this aspect that spelled the death knell for classical Newtonian mechanics, for it resulted in a physics that relied primarily on probability functions as a determinant of the reality in view. "The reality in view," there's the point of contention, for this meant that even the probability functions us were themselves predetermined by the attribute the experimenter decided to concentrate upon. To that significant extent, the scientist himself predetermined the results of the experiment a priori, in an act of "sovereign will." In short, on the level of the very small, the scientist could, so to speak, "predetermine reality" simply by the way an experiment was configured. If one pressed this doctrine to one of its logical implications, then this meant that at a very fundamental level, physical reality and consciousness - Schopenhauer's "Will" - were intimately related. One had only to study "paranormal" phenomena "scientifically" to grasp hitherto unknown "laws" of this physics. At the level of the very small, gravity, quantum mechanics and consciousness would have appeared to these physicists -free of the theoretical constraints of relativity- to pursue what must have been apparent to them: the profound link between the geometry of the fabric of space, the physics of the very small, rotation, and gravity, and perhaps of consciousness itself.

Thus by dint of its own cultural tillage, German philosophical romanticism, Orientophilia, and physics had, by the time of the Third Reich, but to await the arrival of someone willing to fund and organize the pursuit of the new paradigm.

Hitler was its prophet, its "theorist"; Himmler was its "facilitator" the Dark Eminence who moved the pieces into position; and Kammler was its engineer, the Black Magus who coordinated it all on a day to day basis, and who built the "monuments", machines, and weapons for the New Atlantis. Are these elements combined and contrived by war's end to give the Nazi war machine the prototypes and futuristic blueprints of weaponry far excelling even the hydrogen bomb for the destructive power and/or technological sophistication?

 

THE ALCHEMY OF ATLANTIS: AN INVENTORY OF NAZI SECRET WEAPONS AND THEIR HISTORICAL PROBLEMATIC

"In 1939, with Professor Herbert Wagner of the Henschel aircraft company as a consultant, Fernseh undertook to develope a television installation that would enable pilots to control both planing bombs and rocket bombs after they were launched."

-- Renato Vesco and David Hatcher Childress, "Man-Made UFOs"

There have been a host of books about Nazi secret weapons, detailing what is an incredible inventory of prototypical and futuristic weapons, from heat-seeking, wire-guided, radio guided, and even television-guided missiles, to tanks so gigantic that they are tittle more than impractical mobile pillboxes, to claims of the genuinely fantastic: flying discoid aircraft, or flying saucers, to fuel-air bombs, "death rays", particle beams, electromagnetic pulse weapons, "wind" cannon, and so on. And beyond these, there were even more incredible long-range paper studies of nuclear powered aircraft and "space shuttles", gigantic solar mirrors in orbit to turn enemy cities and regions to toast, and a host of other paper projects almost too incredible to imagine.

"The 8th Army News"
Triest, 28 August 1945, page three

Hitler's alleged claims here could easily be dismissed, as well as those of the postwar neo-Nazi sympathizers who first broke the story of Nazi flying saucers, as the farthest thing from "the purest truth." Dealing with a known sociopath and genocidal maniac such as Hitler and his followers, it became easy to dismiss such claims especially when there was no corroborating evidence forthcoming. Then Renato Vesco's Intercept UFO was published in the 1960 later republished, and then later republished again with additional material by David Hatcher Childress under the title "Man Made UFOs 1944-1994: Fifty Years of Suppression".

Vesco, who unlike the neo-Nazi sympathizers who emerged after the war to first tell the story in the West German press provided a host of specifics, such as the names, types of weapons and laboratories and companies conducting the research on these advanced technologies. But again, as Nick Cook was to discover, the trail seemed to lead back to the same few sources, and it became a story impossible to corroborate. [Nick Cook, "The Hunt for Zero Point"] Vesco had mentioned the British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee (BIOS) reports as substantiation for his claims, but those were, at that time, mostly inaccessible, and in addition, "researchers had been through all the available...BIOS files with a fine-tooth comb and had found nothing..." Vesco couched his account of alleged Nazi "Fireballs" (the so-called "Foo Fighters" seen at the end of the war), within a tapestry of references to these other advanced missile projects undertaken by the Third Reich. But as researcher Kevin McClure put the case, Vesco's "technical" descriptions of the alleged Nazi devices behind the Foo Fighters sightings were based on "pseudo-technical descriptions" that originated "absolutely and only with Vesco." [Keven McClure, "The Nazi UFO Mythos: Renato Vesco, Feuerball and Kugelblitz"] Add to this Vesco's claims for " fuel-air bombs" and the story - Vesco's detailed references to scientists, companies and laboratories notwithstanding - became all too easy to dismiss once again.

Usually dismissed derisively, these claims persisted in the literature, long after Adolf Hitler himself personally mentioned them, in what is usually seen as the demented ravings of a known madman:

"We have invisible aircraft, submarines, colossal tanks and cannon, unbelievably powerful rockets, and a bomb with a working that will astonish the whole world. The enemy knows this, and besieges and attempts to destroy us. But we will answer this destruction with a storm and that without unleashing a bacteriological war, for which we are also prepared.... All my words are the purest truth. That you will see!"

Mayer and Mehner, "Das Geheimnis": The quotation was overheard by Italian officer Luigi Romersa.

But then came the German reunification and the resulting declassification of documents by the American, British, and German governments. The truth is not merely incredible, but staggering, andit poses host of historical problematics, as we shall see.

The Missiles

A Combined Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee (CIOS) report, number XXXII-125, running to more than one hundred and fifty pages, details not only "an experimental model of an additional thrust unit which was to be fastened to either the A-4 (V-2) or the A-9 to give an additional range," ["German Guided Missile Research, Combined Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee, G-2 Division, SHAEF (Rear), APO 413, XXXII-125] but also various "Amerika Rakete" projects for a guided missile with a range of 3,500 miles. These latter rockets, the report notes, with less than complete reassurance, "probably never progressed beyond the drawing board stage." But additionally, there was a V-3 weapon, "a larger version of the V-1 with an incendiary warhead instead of the (high explosive) normally used. Very little information is available concerning V-3 control systems." What, indeed, was this "incendiary warhead"? A thermite bomb? A fuel-air bomb? An actual atom bomb? The report is unclear. As if this were not enough, a lengthy section of the report concerns a whole range of guided missiles being developed under the direction of Dr. Wagner for the Henschel firm. These included the HS-293-B, a rocket power glider with a wire guidance system, the HS-294-A rocket-powered glider "with torpedo" that included a "special device for blowing off fuselage rear section and wings as soon as body touches water surface, fuselage front section then cruising as torpedo under water," a small quantity of which were built for experimentation between 1941 and 1943! [11]

A lengthy section of the report, from page 139 to almost the end of the report, concerned the development of miniaturized television camera guidance systems for various missiles, including the well-known anti-aircraft rocket, the "Wasserfall (Waterfall).


The Bäckebo Rocket, a V-2 rocket using Wasserfall radio guidance, crashed in Sweden on 13 June 1944.The valuable wreckage was exchanged with Britain
by the Swedes for Supermarine Spitfires.
U.S. military scientists subsequently received some of the recovered parts from the British.

The Wasserfall Ferngelenkte FlaRakete (Waterfall Remote-Controlled A-A Rocket), was a radio-controlled, supersonic guided missile for anti-aircraft purpose. It was designed to meet the demand for a missile to intercept hostile aircraft and to fly at 19,812m at 880km/h with ranges up to 48km. This specification was highly advanced for the 1940s and was not achieved by any major combat aircraft in the war. The intention was to position batteries of these missiles to defend population centers; about 200 batteries would be needed to cover Germany.

Wasserfall was essentially an anti-aircraft development of the V-2 rocket, sharing the same general layout and shaping. Since the missile had to fly only to the altitudes of the attacking bombers, and needed a far smaller warhead to destroy these, it could be much smaller than the V-2, about 1/4 the size. The Wasserfall design also included an additional set of fins located at the middle of the fuselage to provide extra maneuvering capability.


Unlike the V-2, Wasserfall was designed to stand ready for periods of up to a month and fire on command, therefore the volatile liquid oxygen used in the V-2 was inappropriate. A new engine design, developed by Dr. Walter Thiel, was based on Visol (vinyl isobutyl ether) and SV-Stoff, or 'red fuming nitric acid' (RFNA), (94% nitric acid, 6% dinitrogen tetroxide). This hypergolic mixture was forced into the combustion chamber by pressurizing the fuel tanks with nitrogen gas released from another tank. Wasserfall was to be launched from rocket bases (code-named Vesuvius) that could tolerate leaked hypergolic fuels in the event of a launch problem.

Gui
dance was to be a simple radio control manual command to line of sight (MCLOS) system for use against daytime targets, but night-time use was considerably more complex because neither the target nor the missile would be easily visible. For this role a new system known as Rheinland was under development. Rheinland used a radar unit for tracking the target and a transponder in the missile for locating it in flight, read by a radio direction finder on the ground).

A simple analog computer guided the missile into the tracking radar beam as soon as possible after launch, using the transponder to locate it, at which point the operator could see both "blips" on a single display, and guide the missile onto the target as during the day. Steering during the launch phase was accomplished by four graphite rudders placed in the exhaust stream of the combustion chamber, and (once high airspeeds had been attained) by the four air rudders mounted on the rocket tail. Commands were sent to the missile using a modified version of the "Kehl-Strassburg" (code name Burgund) joy-stick system used to direct Henschel Hs 293 glide bomb, which had some significant successes against allied ships in the Mediterranean.

Conceptual work began in 1941, and final specifications were defined on 2 November 1942. at the Peenemünde Research Station. The first models were being tested in March 1943, but a major setback occurred in August 1943 when Dr. Walter Thiel was killed during the bombing of Operation Hydra, the start of the Operation Crossbow bombing campaign against V-2 production.


The first launching tests took place across the Baltic in February 1944, and an altitude of 7,010m was reached by the rocket. Seven more prototypes were made and fired by July 1944. Research and development were terminated in February 1945.

Some sources suggest that several of the trial missiles were actually deployed against Allied aircraft, but there is no evidence to support this claim.

The missile weighed 3,545 kg at takeoff; t
he original design had called for a 100 kg warhead, but because of accuracy concerns it was replaced with a much larger one (306 kg) of high  liquid explosive armed with a proximity fuse.  The idea was to create a large blast area effect amidst the enemy bomber stream, which would conceivably bring down several airplanes for each missile deployed. For daytime use the operator would detonate the warhead by remote control.

Wasserfall would have been a powerful and fearsome addition to Germany's air defenses if only more were produced on time.

Many of these tests failed, but by the war's end, a successful test of the television-guided "Tonne" missile was conducted by German scientists for the Allies in Berlin, with the target being a photograph of a little girl's face. The test was successful, much to the impressed, and doubtless shocked, Allied observers. [William Uricchio, "Envisioning the Audience: Perceptions of Early German Television's Audiences, 1935-1944] To this astounding inventory, one may add radio-controlled air-to-surface missiles - one of which sank the Italian battleship Roma on its way to surrender to the Allies - infrared heat seeking air-to-air and surface-to-air missiles, wire guided missiles and torpedoes, biological and chemical warheads for the V-1 and V-2, and possible fuel-air and atomic warheads as well. [Friedrich Georg, "Hitlers Siegeswaffen, Band 1"] In addition, the Heinkel and Messerschmitt companies were undertaking modifications of their He-177 and Me 264 heavy bombers to carry atom bombs. Where were these modifications being made?

In Prague.

Prototypical Stealth (Radar Absorbent) Materials


But Hitler's boast overheard by Luigi Romersa included more than just a prototypes for the "smart" weapons that would become such staples of the American military for decades to come. It also included a claim to possess invisible aircraft and submarines. Surely this, at least, was fantasy? Not so. There exists a British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee (BIOS) report entitled "Production and Further Investigation of Wesch Anti-Radar Material, CIOS Black List Item 1 RADAR, BIOS Target No. 1/549," whose significance is rather obvious from its title. The objective of this team was to acquire some 500 feet of this material for secret testing by the British Admiralty.[Report 132] The report details the production of various RAM materials (Radar Absorbent Material) by the Germans, via techniques that involved shredding and heating rubber, and combining zinc oxide, finely ground iron powder (the powder was ground into micro-spheres), which was all then pressed into sheets, and then transferred to press moulds, trimmed and heated under small pressure. This material was actually used on the hulls of some late Type XXI U-Boats, as well as on U-boat Schnorkel devices, to scatter Allied radar to return distorted or indeed, no radar signals.

Yet another type of RAM technology was being studied by the Germans for its effects on electromagnetic wave propagation. The report on this material is cited in full here:

"Zeulenroda: The following are the only war research activities engaged in: Measurements were made on materials for absorbing electromagnetic radiation. One of these materials consisted of spiral steel shavings imbedded in paraffin, which was named EISENSPÄNE. Another material tested was manufactured by I.G. Farben and was called MOLTOPREN. No papers were available on this work but the results were given from memory as shown in appendix B. The purpose of this work was for the concealment of submarines."

I.G. Farben, and missing papers, once again. And submarine stealth was not the only thing the Nazis were after:

A large price was offered by the German Government for the development of "Schwarzflugzeug" [Black Airplane], a non-reflecting material for use on aircraft.

German Type XXI U-Boats, also known as "Elektroboote", were the world's first actual submarines designed to operate entirely submerged, rather than as surface ships that could submerge as a temporary means to escape detection or launch an attack.

The Type XXIs had much better facilities than previous classes, with a freezer for foodstuffs and minor conveniences for the 57-man crew such as a shower and wash basin. It was much quieter, and enjoyed a hydraulic torpedo reload system that allowed all of its six torpedo tubes, which were in the bow, to be reloaded faster than a Type VIIC could reload a single tube. The Type XXI could fire 18 torpedoes in under 20 minutes. The total warload was 23 torpedoes, or 17 torpedoes and 12 sea mines. Greatly increased battery capacity, roughly three times that of a Type VIIC, gave these boats enormous underwater range. They could travel submerged at about five knots (9 km/h) for two or three days before recharging the batteries, which took less than five hours on the radar-invisible snorkel.

Because of its streamlined hull design, the Type XXI could travel faster underwater than on the surface, albeit only for a limited amount of time. This, combined with longer dive times at reduced speeds, made them much harder to chase and destroy by ASW surface ships. It also gave the boat a 'sprint ability' when positioning the boat for a line-of-sight torpedo attack. Older boats had to surface in order to sprint into position. This often gave the boat away, especially after aircraft became available for convoy escort.

Between 1943 and 1945, 118 boats of this type were built by Blohm & Voss of Hamburg, AG Weser of Bremen, and F. Schichau of Danzig. The boats were built faster than earlier types as the hull was constructed from 8 pre-prepared sections which were assembled after being transported from the various factories they were made in. However, Allied mythology says only one, U-2511, had begun a combat patrol by the end of World War II. This was in part a result of the lengthened training process, as the crews had to be trained to operate the new, sophisticated technology. Most boats were scrapped or scuttled after the war, but eight were taken by the Allies for evaluation and trials. The United States received U-2513 and U-3008, which were commissioned into the United States Navy. U-3017 was commissioned into the Royal Navy as HMS-N41, and U-2518 became French submarine Roland Morillot. U-3515, U-2529, U-3035, and U-3041 were commissioned into the Soviet Navy as B-27, B-28, B-29, and B-30 respectively. Those boats influenced new Soviet submarine classes known by the NATO reporting names Zulu and Whiskey, although the Whiskey class was smaller and less sophisticated.

A ninth XXI also saw service after the war: U-2540, which had been scuttled at the end of the war, was raised in 1957 to become the research vessel Wilhelm Bauer of the Bundesmarine. It is the only XXI remaining.

Specifications

Displacement: 1621 tons/1819 tons, 2100 tons fully loaded
Length: 76.7 meters overall, pressure hull 60.5 meters
Beam: 5.3 meters pressure hull, 8 meters overall
Draft: 6.3 meters
Height: 11.3 meters
Propulsion: 4000 hp (3 MW) surfaced = 15.6 knots (29 km/h), 4400 hp (3.3 MW)
submerged = 17.2 knots (32 km/h)
Range: 25,000 kilometers (15,500 miles) at 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced, 550 km (340 miles) at 5 knots (9 km/h) submerged
Crew: 57  

This research may have paid unexpected dividends to the German secret weapons research project. In any case, the existence of actual "protostealth" Schnorkel devices on late war German U-boats attests to the success of some of these experiments.

This report also corroborates yet another allegation, often derisorily dismissed by mainstream researchers, that in May of 1945, a small flotilla of the new Type XXI U-boats, with their revolutionary hydrogen peroxide underwater "turbine" propulsion allowing extraordinary undersea cruising speeds, met, and annihilated, a flotilla of British destroyers. [Henry Stevens, "The Last Battalion" (German Research Project)].

The allegations included the German use of new types of wire-guided, and magnetic proximity torpedoes.

At least one corroboration of this strange encounter occurs in the BIOS report:

"Vierling has heard of electrical homing devices for torpedoes and their firing by a proximity effect. Torpedoes used magnetic fields varying at about 500 cycles per sec. Torpedoes were built by AEG in Berlin. Some work was done also at Gdynia. These torpedoes were reported to have sunk 12 Destroyers in one engagement in Arctic waters. ["Production and further Investigation of Wesch Anti-Radar Material," British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee 1/549, Report 132"].

Computers

The Allies, as is known, perfected early digital computing machines during the war, which machines were instrumental in breaking the "unbreakable" German Enigma machine's ciphers, but also of incalculable value in assisting the Manhattan Project engineers with difficult calculations needed for the atom bomb. In some rarely encountered but sophisticated versions of the Allied Legend, this constitutes another reason for the German failure to develop truly long range rockets and, of course, the atom bomb. But here too, the declassified reality is quite at odds with the post-war spin.

A computing machine was used at Göttingen for researches in airplane stability and ballistics. Machine could solve equations mentioned in two or three minutes with errors less than 3%. Only one such machine has been made. It uses ordinary vacuum tubes, a multiplying principle and two cathode ray tubes, one of which has a spiral scan. One tube draws the curve which is the solution and the other indicates the complex roots of the solution.

The Göttingen computer, however, appears not to have been the only computer designed and built in the Third Reich. Indeed, since the reunification, reports and actual photographs have surfaced of an enormous, "Eniac" sized computer built by none other than the Deutsche Reichspost.[25] The question is, why would the postal service need such an enormous, and expensive, computer? One reason has already been encountered in part one: such a computer would have been invaluable to the research that Baron Manfred von Ardenne and Dr. Fritz Houtermans were conducting for the Reichspost on the atom bomb, and for running the difficult calculations of neutron free path and cross sections that required.

The "Superbombs"

Before  the curtain of silence and spin came down after the war, a number of small articles appeared in the Allied press about the actual state of German atom bomb research. One of these was an article that appeared in the "Evening Standard" on August 7, 1945, one day after the "Little Boy" atom bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. It is worth citing this article in full:

GERMANS TIMED ATOM BOMB FOR OCTOBER

The Germans had an atom bomb which would have been ready by October.

A colossal blast effect was claimed for the German bomb. It was said it would wipe out everything inside a radius of six miles, said B.U.P. to-day.

The German atomic plans were uncovered four months ago, when an Allied search party walked into a small silk factory at Celle, north of Hanover.

A laboratory of two rooms was buried away in the heart of the factory. A famous research scientist was still at work. He was flown to Britain the same day.

This man, with others, had been working on the atom bomb for months. The Nazi Government poured out money on it. Apparently they did not expect immediate results. [Mayer and Mehner, "Hitler und die Bombe"]

There are a number of disquieting things about this article. First, one gains the impression from the report that the "laboratory" was not even known to the Allies until the factory was occupied. Second, there is already evidence of a "spin" in the report, as the German program is understood to have been underway for only a few "months". But the final and most unusual thing is that its blast effects, some 6 miles radius, or 12 miles in diameter, is far beyond the blast damage radius of even a large atom bomb, much less a fuel air bomb. The only known weapon with this extraordinarily sized blast radius is a fully-fledged hydrogen bomb.

Professor Lachner of Vienna maintained that the German atom bombs were deliberately intended by the Nazis to be used as the detonators for hydrogen bombs. But was there sufficient basic theory for the Germans to have thought of the hydrogen bomb at that early stage? [It should be recalled that Dr. Edward Teller actually first thought of, and proposed to the Allies, the hydrogen bomb in 1944].

1. The "Molecular" Bomb: The Hydrogen Bomb?

"The idea of a "Superbomb" was first patented prior to World War Two in Austria, and a modification of the idea was patented in Germany in 1943 [German patent 905.847, March 16, 1943, cited in Mayer and Mehner,  "Hitler und die Bombe"]. Its inventor, Dr. Karl Nowak, explained the reason for his invention as being to create a superbomb without the radioactive fallout effects that were evident from atomic and thermonuclear explosions! In other words, the Nazis were already looking past the thermonuclear age toward the creation of second and third generation weapons systems that would give the same offensive and strategic "punch" but without the side effects!

"In theory, the bomb is workable, but was way beyond the technological capabilities of Germany, or any other power, in that time period. Basically, the idea was to create a state of matter in which, through ultra-low temperatures approaching absolute zero, matter would be super-compressed. The idea was then to detonate this material, subjecting it to sudden stress and heat, to create a sudden and massive expansion and explosion, and therewith, an enormous, H-bomb sized blast. Thus, there may have been a basis in actual German secret research for the incredible claim of the Japanese military attache in Stockholm's 1943 report to Tokyo that the Germans were investigating the properties of super-dense matter for weaponization."

2. The Fuel-Air Bomb

"At the "small end" of the "bombs of mass destruction scale," however, there are equally baffling, and problematical, assertions regarding Nazi research into the fuel-air bomb, the only known conventional explosive device with enough power to produce the blast and heat effects of a small "tactical" nuclear weapon. It goes without saying that today's "tactical nuke" would have been World War Two's strategic weapon. The first allegations of this type of bomb did not come with Gulf War One in the early 1990s, but with Renato Vesco. And his claims there, as elsewhere, were quietly ignored. But once again, declassification has verified his assertions, and to an extraordinary degree:

"g) Liquid Air bomb

"As the research on the atomic bomb under Graf von Ardenne and others was not proceeding as rapidly as had been hoped in 1944, it was decided to proceed with the development of a liquid air bomb. Experiments using ordinary powdered coal were not at all successful, but extremely good results were obtained from a mixture consisting of 60% finely powdered dry brown coal and 40% liquid air. The technical man responsible for this work was Dr. Mario Zippermayr. The first trial was made on the Doberitz grounds near Berlin using a charge of about 8 kg of powder in a thin tin plate container. The liquid air was poured on to the powder, and the two were mixed together with a long wooden stirrer.

"In an area of radius 500 to 600 meters trees, etc. were all completely destroyed. Thereafter the explosion started to rise and only the tops of the trees were affected, although the intensive explosion covered an area 2 km. in radius. Zippermayr then had the idea that a better effect might be obtained it the powder was spread out in the form of a cloud before the explosion. Trials were made with a paper container impregnated with some waxy substance. A metal cylinder was attached to the lower end of this container and hit the ground first, dispersing the powder. After a short time interval of the order of 1/4 second a small charge in the metal cylinder exploded and ignited the dark funnel shaped dust - liquid air cloud.

"Bombs with charges of 25 and 50 kg. of powder were dropped on the Starbergersee, and photographs of the explosion were taken. Standartenführer Klumm kept a photograph of the result and showed it to Brandt (Himmler's personal adviser). The intensive explosion covered an area 4 to 4.5 km radius, and the explosion was still felt on a radius 12.5 km. When the bomb was dropped on an airfield, much destruction was caused 12 km away, and all the trees on a hillside 5 to 6 km away were flat. On a radius of 12.5 km. only the tops of the trees were destroyed".

-- British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee, "Information Obtained from Targets of Opportunity in the Sonthofen Area," BIOS Target numbers C 28/8.211, C 25/549, C 6/137, C 30/ 338, C 4/268, C 22/2182, C 21/6

Several important considerations are worth mentioning here. First, note the truly massive size and area of devastation caused by the relatively small fuel-air bomb, for the area covered by the second test is commensurate with the blast from a large atom bomb: 6 kilometers' radius. Second, note that Zippermayr has had a similar insight to Dr. Nowak's "molecular bomb": compression of material and then rapid dispersion over an area prior to detonation. This is only one step short of a modern fuel air bomb with its chain molecules and electrical, instantaneous, rather than slower chemical, detonation. So in other words, regardless of whether or not the Nazis actually detonated atom bombs during World War Two, they did have a weapon of mass destruction as powerful as an atom bomb, and one that did not have radioactive side effects. Moreover, the weight of this bomb, while large, was within the capabilities of existing German bombers to carry. Finally, it is to be noted that this test took place under the direct auspices of the SS, Himmler's representative himself being present for it. And that would place the weapon firmly within the orbit of Kammler's "think tank". But possession of a fuel-air bomb by Nazi Germany now raises some important historical problematics.

The Historical Problematic

German possession of even a prototype fuel-air bomb during World War Two causes a number of historical problems, and it is worth considering them and their implications.

1. The Cold War

First, the test of such a device during the war would give lie to the contemporary "public" history of the fuel-air bomb, since they are only supposed to be the offshoot of American thermonuclear research and dating from the early 1980s. Doubtless, the modern fuel-air bomb is nothing like the early German prototype, with its chain molecules and simultaneous electrical detonation, it is a lighter, and much more powerful device.

Second, if the technology existed for such enormous conventional bombs capable of reaching strategic large scale destruction on the order of small atom bombs, why were untold billions spent on much more expensive atomic and thermonuclear bombs, whose side-effects included deadly radioactivity, and why was the charade continued for so long? The existence of such weapons indicates that at some very profound, and little appreciated, level, the Cold War was a partial sham.

Third, the basic idea for such a weapon had, in fact, been explored by Austria (prior to its annexation by Germany), and then subsequently both by Italy and Germany in the years immediately prior to the war. The idea is simple, and the effects obvious. So why did it take this long to obtain the weapon? Or is there a history that has not yet come to light? Given what we have already encountered regarding allegations of the German use of some weapon of extraordinary strategic explosive power on the Eastern Front, it seems likely that some similar type of weapon was already in use. The Zippermayr test may thus only have been a test, not of the concept itself, but of how large of a weapon could actually be made. The results, as have been seen, were probably beyond even the Nazis' wildest destructive dreams.

2. The Alchemy of Atlantis: the "Mission Brief" of the Kammler Stab 

But what do all these fantastic projects indicate about the nature of German secret weapons research? We may draw a number of conclusions from the evidence presented thus far, and in so doing, speculatively reconstruct the "mission briefing" of the secret weapons think tank being run by Kammler's SS Sonderkommando:

(1) Overlapping technologies were to be developed that could be employed in across a wide variety of various weapons systems (Stealth and RAM technology, etc);
(2) Every available method for the creation of prototypical "smart weapons" was to be pursed (wire, radio, and television-guidance systems), i.e., German technological and engineering competence were to be exploited to the maximum;
(3) This technological competence was to be pursued in (then) unconventional ways and combinations to create not only new weapons, but a new doctrine of warfare;
(4) The first generation of these weapons were then to be extrapolated upon, and second and third generation technology trees and long range goals mapped out;
(5) The ultimate quest was for the attainment of weapons of mass destruction beyond the acquisition of atomic and thermonuclear weapons;
(6) Post-nuclear systems were then to be developed ideally, and initial research on those systems undertaken; and finally, as we shall see,
(7) Every known theoretical principle of physics was to be pondered and extrapolations for weaponization theorized, and, to the extent possible, experimented upon and utilized.

In other words, the Kammlerstab's mission brief was to think "outside the box" entirely, even if that meant outside the box of Nazi party ideology, or, when it suited it, inside it. The basis was the will to power, by whatever means possible.

3. Whose Military-Industrial Complex?

President Eisenhower, as he was leaving office, gave his celebrated warning to the American people about the spiritual and cultural dangers of "the military industrial complex". With the influx of Nazi "Paperclip" scientists, many if not most of whom - including Dornberger, Oberth, and Von Braun - were members of Kammler's "think tank", this warning by someone in the know must surely be interpreted differently than current standard explanations. Having fought the world's first "military-industrial complex" and doubtless seen at least some of its extraordinary inventory of weapons and theoretical papers, President Eisenhower is surely raising another ominous, though overlooked, specter: Just whose military-industrial complex is he really warning about? What possible spiritual and cultural dangers were there to the American people from good old American companies like Boeing, DuPont, Lockheed, Hughes, and so on, unless, in importing ex-Nazi scientists and their unusual methods and insights and experimental results (often achieved at the cost of enormous human suffering), we inadvertently imported an underlying ideology at variance with traditional morality.

QUANTUM NUMEROLOGY AND VORTICULAR PHYSICS, NAZI STYLE

"And look what happened next. No sooner had people started showing an interest in Schauberger again than a man with clear ties to the us intelligence community turns up on his doorstep, tempts him over to the United States andshuts his operation down - permanently."

--Nick Cook, "The Hunt for Zero Point"

The bewilderment of Reichminister of Armaments Albert Speer when confronted by prosecutor Jackson's allegations of a German chemical weapons test of extraordinary power near Auschwitz is not an isolated instance. [In the light of the previous chapter's information, another plausible explanation of Speer's ignorance of the weapon, as well as an explanation of what the weapon might have been, now present themselves, for a fuel-air bomb would fall well within the parameters of the test described by Jackson, and since, once again, the test occurred under SS auspices, it is not surprising that Speer did not know of it].

Bewilderment seems to be the normal state of mind when confronted by the even more sensational allegations that have percolated through the press and UFOlogy journals since the war's end of Nazi development of prototype "flying saucers." How could anything so outlandish be true, much less be publicly reported?

A starting point for entry into this much-maligned aspect of UFOlogy is what German physics actually was doing prior to and during the War under the Nazis. Much has been written of the deleterious effects of Nazi ideology on banning "Jewish physics," i.e., relativity, from German science. This left quantum mechanics as the only genuine physics that could equally be claimed to be "Aryan" and pursued by Nazi physicists with a vengeance. Quantum mechanics, in the state in which it then existed, could be summarized as having the following emphases and implications for the German scientists involved:

(1) The rejection of relativity meant to a certain extent that the pre-relativistic idea of an aether lumeniferous regained some currency, via its quantum mechanics version of zero point energy or vacuum flux. German scientists were therefore not free to pursue relativistic science, but were free to investigate the enigmatic properties of this new "quantum aether." Indeed, with various esoteric and occult doctrines percolating in the background, such as the notion of "Vril" energy, and Reichenbach's early and well-known experiments in the 18th century on "life force" energy, the Germans would have been positively encouraged by the underlying ideology to undertake experimental examination of its properties as far as existing technology would allow;
(2) Reichenbach's experiments, plus the implications of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, may have influenced German scientists to posit a connection between consciousness, quantum physics, and this underlying "quantum aether". The strange Ahnenerbe experiments mentioned earlier would seem to indicate that some such experiments in consciousness were being undertaken;
(3) Pre-war standard physics papers by Gerlach had indicated connections between spin and resonance effects;
(4) The paradoxes of quantum mechanics had also become known, leading Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen to posit "quantum loopholes" in relativity's own "velocity of light speed limit" for faster-than-light transference of information;
(5) One German physicist of some repute, O.C. Hilgenberg, a student of gravitation expert Walter Gerlach, had taken Gerlach's work one step further;
(6) German physicists thus had strong internal impetus as well as external ideological pressures to investigate the properties of rotating media and fields, especially since the results of Georges Sagnac's rotational version of the Michelson-Morley experiment were known to them;
(7) The Germans knew of Tesla's extraordinary claims for beaming electric power, as well as of his high voltage direct current impulse experiments which revealed superluminal electro-acoustic longitudinal wave forms;
(8) The Germans would likely have known of E.T. Whittaker's pre-relativistic papers, which were a mathematical study of such wave forms.

Given this series of known physical papers and experiments, and given the Kammlerstab's "alchemy" of combining technologies and concepts to seek underlying unifying principles and methods, might they have put all these together to come up with the beginning theoretical outlines of a physics completely different than the public consumption physics proffered since the end of the war, up to, and including the 26 dimensional monster called "String Theory"? If so, are there any indications that they did so, or were beginning to? While the indications in terms of actual papers are slight, those indications, coupled with the revelations that have come from Germany since its reunification, suggest that the answer to both questions is "yes."

Gravity, Vortices, and Quantum Numerology

Dr. Ing. Ott Christoph Hilgenberg was a student of the renowned Nobel laureate Walter Gerlach, whose work in magnetic spin polarization in 1921 had earned him the Nobel Prize. Hilgenberg, however, while within the "mainstream" of physics, was not one to allow his mind to be constrained by conventional concepts, as any glance at his two little known, but quite unconventional and thought-provoking papers will attest.

In 1931 Hilgenberg published what may best be called an arcane paper entitled "Gravitation, Tromben, und Wellen in bewegten Medien", or "Gravitation, Beats, and Waves in Moving Media". The title itself is quite suggestive, for it is the first indication that, even before the Nazis, and after relativity, at least one serious and respected German physicist is still thinking of the old idea of an aether, but thinking about it in a way quite different from the static aether concepts of the 19th century that led to the famous Michelson-Morley experiment, and Sagnac's rotational version of it. For Hilgenberg is thinking of a dynamic aether, spurred in part no doubt by the implications of Sagnac's version of the famous experiment. Hilgenberg's paper was arcane and abstruse in the extreme, advocating the idea of gravitation as a vertical ether sink. Thus, as in relativity, gravity was the consequence of a complex geometry, only in Hilgenberg's case, this meant that "mass" was a geometric result manifest, for example, in a rotating body's interior. This led Hilgenberg to propose the very unconventional idea that the earth - or any other such rotating massive body -expanded and contracted, in a huge wave-like pattern over time.

In 1938 Hilgenberg followed this paper up with a mathematical and theoretical physics tour de force entitled "Quantenzahlen, Wirbelring-Atommodelle und Heliumsechserring-Aufbauprinzip des Periodensystems der chemischen Elemente", a mind-twister that is no less impressive in English: "A Quantum Number, Vortex Atom Model and Hexagonal-ring Construction Principle of the Periodic System of the Chemical Elements". Hilgenberg had developed the mathematics for a system of modelling complete atoms according to vorticular rotational principles of the now long-discarded aether! The combined effect of these two papers and their mathematical and theoretical development allowed Hilgenberg to predict a number of effects completely at variance with relativistic physics, and long before similar observations in the late 20th century began to signal significant problems with the relativistic-Big Bang cosmology, e.g., heterodyning effects on light coming from a body moving toward the observer, or, to put it simply, why red-shift effects sometimes accompany bodies moving toward an observer rather than away from one.

Under Hilgenberg's influence, Carl Friedrich Krafft took this "vorticular quantum mechanics" one step further, and posited atoms as essentially a geometric or topological construct of the aether that acted as "ether pumps", taking in or giving off energy based on the rotations of the various rings of dynamic aether around them. He developed this notion even further by positing various combinations of vorticular, rotating geometries as the basis for the then known sub-atomic particles. Krafft, whose views were totally eclipsed by war's end with the victory of the Allies - which likewise might be seen as a victory of relativity - was left to self-publish his works in this strange world of "non-linear physics", which were duly and promptly ignored by the more conventionally minded linear physics of relativity and its proponents. [No amount of explaining, however, can seem to quell the anti-relativist side of things for the simple feet that in most respects the theory of General Relativity has enormous predictive power, and therefore, scientific value and credibility. It is only recently that some crucial observations have arisen to challenge its assumptions]. But is there any indication that all this theory about the vorticular and rotational aspect of a dynamic aether was ever pursued beyond the stage of theory?

Indeed there is, but it requires a detour by way of a bit of aerodynamics, courtesy of Renato Vesco once again.

Disks, Boundary Layer, And Turbines

Vesco maintained an unusual approach throughout the various reprintings of his book, namely, that German experimentation with disk shaped aircraft actually began as an experiment to transform the entire lift surface into the intake vent for a jet turbine. That is to say, on his view, the earliest German "saucers" were nothing more than standard suction aircraft, though admittedly of very unusual design. These experimental aircraft were further the offshoots of German experiments to suction the boundary layer from the lift surfaces of aircraft. The "boundary layer" is that small layer - only a few molecules of air thick - of air that "sticks" to a lift surface, such as a wing, and, as an aircraft moves faster, this layer increases the drag on the lift surface, and therefore weakens its efficiency and requires more energy to move the craft. As speed increases and depending on the configuration of the wing itself, great turbulence can build up behind the wing as the result of the thickening of the boundary layer, increasing the aerodynamic resistance. "It seems clear, therefore, even to a layman in aeronautics that the objective should be to move the point of transition as far to the rear of the moving body as possible in order to minimize the expenditure of motive energy required to propel the body through the air. This is especially true in high speed flight, since the power required increases at about the cube of the speed." [Vesco and Childress, "Man-Made UFOs: 50 Years of Suppression"] Thus, prior to the war British, American, and particularly German researchers concentrated their efforts to develop various methods to deal with this problem.

Various methods were tried and pursued during the war, including the use of micro-porous sinterized metal called "Luftschwamm" (literally, "air sponge") as both a lift surface and an intake vent for a jet turbine. The goal was simply to suction the boundary layer itself from the lift surface, thereby dramatically decreasing drag, and increasing efficiency and performance at high speed. According to Vesco, the Germans gradually reached some intriguing conclusions in these experiments:

"The first was that it was not advantageous to transform ordinary aircraft into planes with a controlled boundary layer because the suction principle was deprived of its best attributes and the difficulties of construction did not compensate for the limited advantages....

"In addition, it was demonstrated that inasmuch as they were planning a special turbine-powered project, it would have been advantageous to combine the two mechanisms into a single whole by feeding the turbine with air taken from the wing orifices instead of by the means of the usual forward-ram air intakes.

"....It seems, in fact, that by reworking the old experiments on "potential frictionless current," the German technical experts may in the final days have succeeded experimentally in reducing aerodynamic friction on appropriately shaped bodies to very low values."

"This idea had also occurred to the British as well, but apparently the Germans had had no little success in combining micro-porous "sinterized" air permeable lift surfaces and turbine intakes, for a British post-war report, "A.R.C. No. 9672: Notes on German Theoretical Work on Porous Suction" - all the notes taken from the examination of German researches on porous materials (for which a special team of investigators had been formed), were compared with similar British work done during the war".

The report, as Vecsco notes, "still bears the label 'Top Secret". What the Germans were apparently trying to do was simply build a disk-shaped aircraft, the entire surface of which was both the turbine intake, as well as the lift surface. This was, so to speak, the "Mark I" flying saucer: a standard suction aircraft, albeit, with a very unconventional lift surface, which was one and the same as its fuselage and air intake.

However, Vesco maintained more in his book, namely, that the "Foo Fighters" - the strange balls of light that Allied and German pilots began to see accompanying their formations near the end of the war - were in fact an even more revolutionary radio-controlled anti-aircraft weapon, used to jam Allied radars via very small, ceramic-cased miniaturized klystron tubes, or to actually down Allied planes by firing ionized gases to short out, or even explode, an aircraft's ignitions or engines. In this respect, Vesco's assertions became more detailed, and simultaneously, more fanciful and easily dismissed. For one thing, Vesco claimed that these were secret German anti-aircraft weapons, a claim that seemed to fly in the face of absurdity, since the official history of their sighting never associated the loss of any Allied aircraft with them. In fact, they appeared quite harmless according to all standard versions of the history of their appearance.

Once again, only recently has the German perspective on "Foo Fighters" been verified by a February 1945 report called "An Evaluation of German Capabilities in 1945". This report, among other things, lists a German "phoo bomb" as well as atom bombs. Miniaturized klystron tubes, as well as German advances in silicon and germanium crystals, two elements essential in the making of semiconductors which in turn are the basis of the transistor, were actually under development as well. [Henry Stevens, "Hitler's Flying Saucers: A Guide to German Flying Disks of the Second World War"] Most of this research was burned by the Germans in the face of the Allied advance into the Reich, and the rest fell into American hands.

And this raises a significant problem, for the miniaturization of the klystron tube to a scale in some cases only a tenth as large as similar tubes in the Allied inventory, raises the specter of how far the Germans actually progressed in their semiconductor research. In any case, as researcher Henry Stevens notes, this bit of information provides the "missing provenance" to the origins of the transistor, and "explodes an argument made by the late Col. Philip J. Corso" that "transistors were, at least in part, based upon alien technology." [Stevens of course is referring to Corso's well-known and controverisal book, The Day After Roswell"].

One of the unusual aspects of Vesco's claims, and again, one that brought him under a certain amount of criticism, was his claim that an Italian engineer and turbine specialist named "Bellonzo" had been involved in the Nazi saucer projects. As no Bellonzo could be found, this assertion was apparently a fabrication, until one Dr. Giuseppi Belluzo, indeed a specialist in steam turbines, showed up to corroborate the story. Why is this significant? Because in 1980 the German magazine "Neue Presse" featured an article about the German fluidics engineer Heinrich Fleissner. Fleissner was an engineer, designer and advisor to what he calls a "Flugscheibe" project based at Peenemünde during the war. It is interesting to note that Fleissner's area of expertise, fluidics, is exactly the specialty involved in investigating problems with boundary layer flow. Fleissner reports that the saucer with which he was involved would have been capable of speeds up to 3,000 kilometers per hour within the earth's atmosphere and up to 10,000 kilometers per hour outside the earth's atmosphere. He states that the brains of the developmental people were found in Peenemünde under the tightest secrecy. .... What is of most interest to us here are three facts. First, that Fleissner worked at Peenemünde on a flying saucer project. Second, that a hint of this design has survived to this day. Third, the surviving design can be linked to photographic evidence of German saucer, circa World War Two.

According to Fleissner there was a saucer project at Peenemünde and it apparently involved the "suctioned boundary layer" concept we have already discussed. Stevens continues with his summary of Fleissner:

"Almost ten years after the war, on 28 March 1955, Heinrich Fleissner filed a patent application with the United States Patent Office for a flying saucer (Patent number 2,939,648).... The engine employed by Fleissner rotated around the cabin on the outside of the saucer disk itself. It was set in motion by starter rockets...The difference is that this engine was really a form of ram-jet engine. It featured slots running around the periphery of the saucer into which air was scooped. The slots continued obliquely right through the saucer disk so that jet thrust was aimed slightly downward and backward from the direction of rotation. Within the slots, fuel injectors and a timed ignition insured a proper power curve which was in accordance with the speed and direction of the saucer much like an automobile's fuel injection is timed to match the firing of the spark plugs. Steering was accomplished by directing the airflow using internal channels contained an rudder and flaps which ran alongside the central cabin. The cabin itself was held stationary or turned in the desired direction of flight using a system of electromagnets and servo-motors coupled with a gyroscope".
    

But Fleissner was not awarded his patent until five years later! The question is, why the delay? One reason for the delay is that the joint Canadian-American suction-saucer project, Project Silverbug, was also under development at the same time. Fleissner's patent was incomparably superior. At about the same time as his patent was granted the Canadian-American project was canceled.But why was the Fleissner design superior? Perhaps because the patent detailed the way the earlier Peenemünde saucer was able to function both inside and outside the atmosphere. In short, the power plant for the unusual ram-jet was capable of utilizing both jet fuel for in-atmosphere flight, and once outside the atmosphere, the suction vents could be closed, and the fuel shifted to a mixture of liquid oxygen and hydrogen. "Is this performance enough to impress the U.S. Air Force and civilian population of the late 1940s and early 1950s? The answer is clearly in the affirmative."

But what has this to do with an Italian steam turbine expert? Very simply, because when the craft was in its "rocket mode, when the saucer is burning only liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen, the products of this combustion are only heat and water. Another way to say heat and water is steam." And steam, of course, hisses, a sound sometimes associated with close observation of UFOs.

From this simple, though unconventional, configuration of known technologies, the Germans would have progressed by elementary science and engineering principles to the next, "Mark II," stage. How could such a craft's range be extended? The answer -one which likewise occurred to American physicist Thomas Townsend Brown - was that the jet turbine itself could be coupled with a large electrical generator to become a source of electrical power. With sufficient super-cooling (remember Nowak's "molecular bomb"?) and sufficient electrical charge, even inert gases such as nitrogen, which forms the bulk of the earth's atmosphere, could be burned as fuel. Of course, while the theory is simple the engineering is monstrously difficult, but the advantages were plainly to be seen, "A saucer which could gather its fuel along the way has one obvious advantage. It could stay aloft for days if not weeks." The next step, "Mark III," was imply to apply already existing German research in nuclear powered "conventional" craft to this unconventional airframe.  such a saucer ever actually built? An article by Jim Wilson in the November 2000 issue of "Popular Mechanics" discloses a project to design a chemical-nuclear powered saucer craft for long-duration orbital missions, a craft tipped with nuclear missiles and bombs. The project was allegedly based on wartime German designs, and its development was assisted by captured German personnel.

All this, extraordinary as it sounds, is however nothing more than the unconventional blending of very conventional technology and ideas, a methodology we have encountered before in the German secret weapons black projects. What happens therefore, when these conventional technologies are not only combined in unconventional ways, but with the very unconventional physics that the Germans may have been developing? With this question, we are at the entrance into the "Mark IV" saucer prototypes, saucers based on combinations of turbines, vorticular physics, and field propulsion. With it, we are similarly at the very deepest secret levels of Kammler's "think tank."

Viktor Schauberger: Rotational Physics and Extreme Temperature Gradients

The story of Viktor Schauberger, an Austrian forester and naturalist, is well-known to any who have investigated claims of Nazi development of flying saucers. Yet, there are aspects of this story that have escaped even Nick Cook or meticulous researchers such as Henry Stevens. These aspects concern three key areas:

(1) His concern with "implosion", extremes of temperature gradients, and vorticular motion were coupled with his detailed study of ancient mathematical doctrines and "occulted physics" within ancient doctrines and philosophical texts. In short, Schauberger was the ideal candidate, from the SS's point of view, to lead a project involved with areas of physics and esoteric systems that were central to the SS ideology;
(2) His project was directly connected to the SS and, much to Schauberger's own moral disgust and distaste, was forced to use slave labor from concentration camps. Thus, what many have missed, is that this fact places Schauberger's saucer project firmly within the orbit of the Kammlerstab;
(3) Schauberger realized the implications for his "implosion" physics were such that a "super-super bomb" of unbelievable power could be constructed. This means, in effect, that quirky though some of Schauberger's terminology and ideas might seem from a conventional physics standpoint - he was, after all, a "naturalist" and self-taught physicist and inventor - his ideas were well within the framework being developed in quantum mechanics and the unusual "aether vortex" theories of physicists and engineers like Hilgenberg, Krafft, or even the great Gerlach himself.

In a nutshell, Schauberger's theories bring us to the very edge of what appear to be a wartime effort - a well funded, and deeply black effort - on the part of the SS to understand the relationship of the zero point energy, rotating fields, and gravity.

1. His Basic Conceptions

Schauberger began his little known and quite unconventional career as an "unorthodox physicist" as a forester for the Austrian government. One observation -a breathtakingly simple one -launched him on his career. One day Schauberger observed a trout in a clear, fast moving stream. The trout was stationary in the swift current, using a minimum of effort to remain in place: a flick of a fin here, a small movement of the tail there. As he pondered this well-known, but little understood fact, he came to the realization that the trout was using far less energy to remain motionless than conventional physics would allow. After all, the fish should have been swimming like crazy just to stand still. But that was not all. Schauberger then wondered how the trout, again with so little apparent effort and expenditure of work, could suddenly leap from the water several feet, and land upstream against the current. Schauberger decided to study the phenomenon.

What he found was the fish seemed somehow to employ extremes of temperature to achieve their stationary place, or, conversely, to leap suddenly from the water against a swift current.

As molecules "condensed", they cooled, and gave off energy in the form of heat. But Schauberger added one factor that brought him into the realm of the unconventional vorticular physics that Hilgenberg, Gerlach, Krafft, and others in Germany were developing: whenever such "condensing" took place naturally in nature, it was accomplished by a spiraling motion toward the center of a vortex, a form of motion he called "implosion." Schauberger speculated that, by deliberately forcing matter into such a motion, by deliberately compressing it via a spiral vorticular motion, matter might reach such a state that particles in atoms becomes "unglued" and transform into a new form of energy. In short, what Schauberger was proposing was a form of cool plasma, brought about by vorticular motion. [Stevens, "Hitler's Flying Saucers"; Callum Coats, "Living Energies: Viktor Schauberger's Brilliant Work with Natural Energy Explained"] Schauberger supplemented this idea with all manner of study of natural examples of these types of spirals, well known to mathematicians to incorporate the Golden Section, and the Fibonacci sequence. In his own quirky way and terminology, Schauberger was talking about "cold plasmas" and cold fusion, concepts well in advance of any physics of his day, conventional or otherwise.

These ideas led Schauberger - like his more orthodox quantum mechanics contemporaries - to the conclusion that energy was relatively free and limitless if one only knew how to tap into it. And with extreme temperature gradients, rotating media and compression of matter to an intense plasma state - Schauberger thought he knew how. These ideas quickly brought him to the attention of a fellow Austrian who was interested in energy independence for his own reasons: Adolf Hitler.

In what surely must be one of the most surreal meetings ever held between an "orthodox mainstream physicist", a political leader, and an "alternative science" proponent, Schauberger was invited - summoned would be a more appropriate word - to Berlin for a private audience with Reichskanzler Hitler. A measure of the importance that Hitler attached to this meeting may be gleaned from the fact that once Schauberger had accepted Hitler's invitation, his diplomatic papers were expedited in one day. Callum Coats then describes the surreal meeting:

"Hitler....greeted him warmly as a fellow countryman, telling him that he had studied all the reports about Viktor's work thoroughly and was very impressed with what he had learned.

"Thirty minutes had been allocated for the discussions, which Prof. Max Planck had been requested to attend as scientific adviser shortly before he was rudely deposed from his position as Privy Councilor. This exchange of views eventually lasted 1 1/2 hours, during which Schauberger explained the destructive action of contemporary technology and its inevitable consequences. He contrasted this with all the processes of natural motion and temperature, of the vital relation between trees, water and soil productivity, indeed all the things he considered had to be thoroughly understood and practised in order to create a sustainable and viable society.

"When Viktor had finished his explanations, Max Planck, who had remained silent, was asked his opinion about Viktor's natural theories. His response was the remarkable and revealing statement that 'Science has nothing to do with Nature.'

Nothing further came of the meeting, but the lecture had undoubtedly made an impression on Hitler, if not on Max Planck. It was in 1943 that Schauberger's formal contact and work on a saucer project for the SS began.

(Schauberger) was declared fit for active duty and was inducted into the Waffen-SS, very much under duress. He came under the control of Heinrich Himmler, who forced him into research to develop a new secret weapon. Provided with suitable accommodation at Schloss Schönbrunn, the nearby Mauthausen Concentration Camp to supply the workforce of prisoner engineers, Viktor was threatened with his life if he did not comply with orders and carry out this research.

In spite of these threats, however, Viktor put his foot down and demanded from the SS Command the absolute right to select the various engineers he needed. He further demanded that any technicians he chose were to be removed entirely from the camp, fed properly, dressed in normal civilian clothes and billeted in civilian accommodation, otherwise they would be unproductive. As he explained, people who live in fear of their lives and under great emotional stress could work neither consistently nor creatively. Surprisingly the SS agreed and so Viktor selected somewhere between twenty and thirty engineers, craftsmen and tradesmen front Mauthausen, to be accommodated in various houses near the plant.

It is to be noted that the induction of Schauberger into the SS, the use of concentration camp labor, and the SS's behavior in allowing Schauberger full latitude to pursue his project in the manner he wished, even as regards the housing of the concentration camp workers, are all classic signatures of Kammler's "think tank" group. In short, this is very strong evidence that Schauberger's team was one component of the Kammlerstab.

Few of the scientists and engineers Schauberger collected for his project understood what he was trying to construct. And it is difficult to get a measure of just exactly what Schauberger did accomplish, since all of his wartime German patents have simply disappeared, no one knows where.

2. His Disks and Turbines

It seems certain, however, that Schauberger's disks approached the boundary between the German "suction" saucers and field propulsion craft proper, as a glance at Schauberger's own postwar reconstructions of what these craft looked like will demonstrate. A postwar design exists for a home electricity generator based upon a simple, though quite unusual, jet turbine. This "Tornado Generator" employed a turbine that in turn was made up, not of blades, but of hollow, antelope-horn-like spiraling tubes. Once air was forced into this turbine and its tubes, it was then compressed, via the spiraling motion of the air through the horns, until it escaped, expanded, and pushed the whole tube-turbine assembly along. This expanding air was then recirculated to the turbine, where it was again compressed, and so on.

Needless to say, the construction of such a complicated turbine would have required the most exacting machining and engineering skills. There is every indication that a similar device or turbine became the basis of Schauberger's wartime research. Coats reproduced the following series of photographs and schematics of Schauberger's wartime "Repulsine" saucer in his book "Living Energies":
     

 

  

   German Schematic of the "Compression" Turbine of the Repulsine

Nick Cook, who followed the Schauberger trail via Coats and his research on the Austrian naturalist's strange ideas back to Germany, commented at length in his book, "The Hunt for Zero Point", as follows:

"Something about this whole strand of development had conspired to make it the most classified form of technology in existence. Even more so than the bomb.

"Unlike the bomb, however, this was a secret that had held for more than 50 years.

"Days after the end of the war, US intelligence agents found Schauberger in Leonstein and apprehended him. Exactly as the (Nazi UFO) Legend had it, the agents, who were almost certainly Counter-Intelligence Corps -the same outfit that had detained and interrogated Skoda's director Wilhelm Voss - were remarkably well informed about his entire operation. It was as if, Schauberger noted later, someone had guided them directly to him.

"Very few people would have been in position to familiarize US Intelligence with the parameters of Schauberger's research or its exact location, but one of them would most certainly have been SS Obergruppenführer Hans Kammler".

Cook continues:

"That night, back at my hotel, I applied myself to a study of the Schauberger effect that had been written up by a researcher called Callum Coats. I had picked up a copy of one of his books at the Schauberger Institute. In it, there was a description of what happened when a Repulsine was rotated at 20,000 rpm. The high rotation speeds appeared to cause the air molecules passing through the turbine to pace so tightly together that their molecular and nuclear binding energies were affected in a way that triggered the anti-gravity effect. 'A point is reached where a large number of electrons and protons with opposite charges and directions of spin are forced into collision and annihilate with one another,' Coats wrote. 'As lower rather than higher forms of energy and the basic building blocks of atoms, they are upwardly extruded as it were out of the physical and into virtual states.'

"Virtual states? What the hell did that mean?

"....'I stand face to face with the apparent "void", the compression of dematerialization that we are wont to call a "vacuum",' Schauberger had written in his diary on 14 August 1936. 'I can now see that we are able to create anything we wish for ourselves out of this "nothing".'

That is, the vacuum for Schauberger and his rotational, vorticular concepts, was but another "supercompressed" and "supercooled" state of matter.

In any case, one test of such a Schauberger saucer allegedly took place in Prague in 1945, breaking loose from its test anchor, it quickly flew upward hitting the roof of the building. Given the extraordinary latitude accorded to Schauberger by his SS controllers - doubtless up to and including Kammler himself - it is evident that "the German scientific leadership was interested in implosion and in what Schauberger had to teach them but they did not necessarily want to be limited by the use of air to achieve these results. Instead, they may have wanted to use Schauberger ideas but actuating these principles with electronic components." [Stevens, Hitler's "Flying Saucers"] This will lead to the most fantastic projects of all in the Kammler Group's esoteric think tank. Whatever can be said, Schauberger's unorthodox approach to jet turbine design certainly, and by all accounts, was wildly successful, so much so that he became the object of a curious attempt by some Americans to develop the idea.

3. Implosion and the USA

As was seen, Viktor Schauberger and his unorthodox ideas came to the attention of US Intelligence at the end of the war. And thus was launched the strangest episode in Schauberger's already strange career, the "American Episode". [The best and most complete history of this episode is in Callum Coats' "Living Energies". My treatment of it here relies upon Coats, with the exception of my interpretation of its significance. Coats himself notes that the data for this period is precariously slim: "Before embarking on this last and lamentable chapter in Viktor Schauberger's life, I would like to state at the outset that significant and verifiable detail about it is extremely difficult to ascertain, mainly because all those involved, with the exception of Karl Gerchsheimer with whom I spent two days, have passed away in the interim. In whatever information is available concerning this tragedy, there is a profusion of conflicting statements, interpretations and timetables which, 37 years after the event, makes the unraveling of what precisely took place in this, for all concerned, abortive endeavour rather problematic."]

The difficulties Schauberger cxperienced during his stay in America were similar to those he encountered first in Austria, and then later during his famous visit with Hitler and Planck. First, being self-taught, he did not possess the physicist's technical language with which to express his ideas. Thus, he invented his own technical language, and often the translation between the two was difficult. Second, Schauberger having already witnessed the theft and disappearance of his patents by the Nazis, was understandably reluctant to be completely forthcoming to his American "friends." Finally, Schauberger no longer had working prototypes of any of the devices he had built.

Schauberger was first brought to the attention of a group of private American "investors" by one Karl Gerchsheimer, who emigrated from Germany in 1922, eventually settling in Texas and marrying an American wife in 1937. According to Coats, it appears that Gerchsheimer became involved with the us military during World War Two in its Counter-intelligence Corps, eventually becoming the man in charge of all transport, logistics, and accommodation for the American army of occupation in Germany after the war. He returned to the usA in 1950 and established a metal fabrication company, manufacturing a number of items for NASA under contract. In this capacity Gerchsheimer befriended wealthy American Philadelphia steal magnate Robert Donner. Gerchsheimer's familiarity with Schauberger's work, doubtless acquired during his Counter-intelligence years in Germany, and his disenchantment with Dr. von Braun's rocket program, led him to propose to Donner that they visit Schauberger in Germany personally, to offer him the opportunity of private development of his "implosion" ideas. Gerchsheimer sold the project to Dormer - an intense patriot - by maintaining it would ensure American technological dominance for decades to come.

A meeting in Bavaria was finally arranged between Gerchsheimer, Walter Schauberger (Viktor's son), and Viktor. Eventually squeezing out the European competition for his ideas with promises of large funding, Gerchsheimer was able to persuade Viktor to come to America. As part of the contract, negotiated for an American stay of three months, it was agreed that "Walter Schauberger, a physicist and mathematician, was to accompany his father and would be expected to stay for a year in order to assist in the scientific interpretation of Viktor's ideas for which there was often no recognized scientific terminology." [Coats, "Living Energies"] Schauberger also stipulated that his trusted machinist, Alois Renner, who had collaborated with him in the construction of several of his devices, be brought to the USA as well. Gerchsheimer was of the opinion, however, that Walter Schauberger "neither knew nor understood much about his father's theories." Eventually, the two Schaubergers flew to Dallas, and then were driven to Sherman, Texas, where they were virtually interred as the "house guests" of Donner associate Harald W. Totten on his ranch.

Gerchsheimer quickly became disenchanted with Schauberger's ideas, which appeared to him to be increasingly so much gobbledygook. Having communicated these concerns to Robert Donner, who became concerned for the success of his project, Donner flew to Brookhaven's National Atomic Research Laboratories to seek expert scientific opinion. He secured the services of a technician who also spoke German, Eric A. Börner, who was sufficiently familiar with the terminology of nuclear physics "to be able to translate and transmit any information to the scientific evaluators that the Schaubergers might provide."

Viktor Schauberger spent about 10 days from August 20th to August 31st writing reports to Börner. He had been instructed to write them in his own words, without regard to attempt to use "proper" scientific terminology. Because of the actual physical distance between the Schaubergers and Eric Börner, and the intermediatorship of Gerchsheimer, the Schaubergers gained the impression that it was Börner himself who headed an important particle accelerator project then underway at Brookhaven. And this in turn magnified their fears about the possible motivations behind the sudden American interest in their "implosion" concepts.

Walter Schauberger admitted that in the process of producing their reports, it dawned on them that a bomb could possible be produced through implosion that was magnitudes more powerful than the hydrogen bomb. Assuming Börner to be more influential than he was, Viktor and Walter became convinced that all the information they were supplying to him was being passed directly to the US government and the military.

While Coats himself downplays this potentiality, it is worth recalling that a similar "compression-decompression" principle lay behind the "molecular" bomb of Dr. Nowak, and hence, their concerns may have come less from a misunderstanding of Börner's role, and more from an acquaintance with the work being done by the SS in Nazi Germany. In any case, I do not believe it is entirely fair to the Schaubergers to discount the possibility that the whole "private funding" venture via Robert Donner and Karl Gerchsheimer was not an operation designed to place into the hands of the US military and its research facilities the fundamental outlines of Schauberger's concepts.

In any case, a meeting was held on the Totten Ranch in early September 1958. Present were the two Schaubergers, Robert Donner, Boerner, and possibly Viktor Schauberger's machinist, Alois Renner. Based principally on the reports he had received, Börner reported to the group that Project implosion was "a viable proposition." Börner believed that "the solution of the problem of energy lay in the proper interpretation of Max Planck's equation E=hv, formulated in 1900, and the Freidrich Hasenohrl-Albert Einstein equation E=Mc2." [Coats rightly notes that is was first Hasenohrl who had postulated the equation in 1903 in the form of m=E/c2. Hasenohrl's equation is slightly different than Einstein's which is properly E=Mc2, where the capital M stands for a mass difference between two observed masses, rather than simply a lower case "m", which stands simply for mass. The point is picky, but important, as the mass difference as Einstein formulated it is crucial to the point he is developing in Special Relativity].

]. Doubtless Börner had in mind a rather remarkable paper that Walter had included in his reports, a paper that related these two fundamental equations, plus Kepler's Third Law of Planetary Motion. [Coats, "Living Energies", contains a synopsis of this rather remarkable idea. Needless to say, the paper is not the twenty-six dimensional monster of modern string theory]. In any case, with Viktor's health failing and his insistence to be returned to his beloved Austria as quickly as possible, the situation quickly deteriorated between the Schaubergers and Donner. Donner essentially held the two Austrians hostage until Viktor signed a contract handing over all of his ideas, inventions, and conceptions to the Donner-Gerchsheimer consortium. Only with considerable pressure was Donner even persuaded to provide Viktor with a German translation!

Coats himself states:

"I have studied this document myself and it does state in quite unequivocal terms that not only were all Viktor's models, sketches, prototypes, reports and other data to become the sole property of the Donner-Gerchsheimer consortium, but that Viktor was to commit himself to total silence on anything connected with implosion thereafter.... The deplorable upshot of all this, however, is that all Viktor's models, prototypes, drawings, detailed data, including Professor Popel's original report implying what might be termed "negative Friction" was an actuality, have remained the possession of the Donner-Gerchsheimer consortium. That this report was actually part and parcel of this project is confirmed by Viktor's reference to it in one of his reports to Börner dated 23/24 August 1958".

What does all this mean? For one thing, it means that during the precise period that Nick Cook notes that all references to anti-gravity research began to disappear in the British and American Press, an American industrialist, with obvious ties to the defense and nuclear research agencies of the USA, had successfully obtained all of the papers of one of Nazi Germany's most deeply classified research projects scientists. For another, it seems to indicate that there may have been more to the science Schauberger had propounded than orthodox mainstream science will admit to, or that the contemporary military will allow to be discussed. In any case, it is clear that Schauberger's ideas fit in quite well with the vorticular and dynamic aether ideas of the vacuum energy flux potential, or Zero Point Energy, apparently under theoretical development in Nazi Germany both by "orthodox" and by less mainstream scientists. There is every indication that these ideas themselves were put to the test.

"Death Rays ": An Unusual Installation at the University of Heidelberg

During World War One, as is well known, Nicola Tesla approached first the US, and then European military establishments with the idea for a "death ray", a high energy beam capable of melting "airplane motors" at some distance. Between the World Wars, in almost every western country, science fiction movies played on the concept, with one very popular movie with Boris Karloff, ever the quintessential "mad scientist", playing a crazed inventor tinkering with death rays and world domination. Similar "Buck Rogers" type gadgetry delighted movie goers in Britain, Germany, France, and Italy before the Second World War.

 Kraftstrahlkanone Schematic reproduced by Henry Stevens

Then, as the Nazi UFO Mythos emerged, astonishing and specific claims began to be advanced, again by the same circle of a few disenchanted postwar Nazi sympathizers, of astounding beam weapons, of Motorstoppmittel (Means to Stop Motors), a device that resembles modern electromagnetic pulse weapons designed to knock out electronic circuitry, of electromagnetic rail guns, and of a mysterious weapon the Germans were working on called a Kraftstrahlkanone, a "Strong Ray Canon". The device was first reported by Henry Stevens. ["German Research Project, The German Death Rays"].

This odd looking L-shaped weapon comprised some sort of crystal, then a series of hollow tubes, each focusing whatever beam was generated to a narrower and narrower point, until it emerged from a small hole, with allegedly deadly effectiveness, though limited range. What the crystal was, we do not know. What sort of beam was generated, we do not know, though the hollow tubes in declining ratios would seem to indicate that it was some sort of acoustic wave, though why a crystal would have been used is unclear. For these reasons, the weapon was usually dismissed as a flight of fancy, and Stevens critiqued for reproducing it. However, with very recent experiments and advances in physics, we are in a position to conjecture what the weapon may have been, and what principle the Germans may have discovered - decades early, to be sure - that may have been behind its operation.

An experimental, and highly theoretical and mathematical paper entitled "On the Existence of Undistorted Progressive Waves (UPWs) of Arbitrary Speeds 0<v<oo in Nature" by Waldyr A Rodrigues Jr. and Jian-Yu Lu was published in October of 1997. Investigating a class of Undistorted Waves, i.e., a class of wave forms that do not diminish in form or force over distance, they show that various solutions for these waves can be found within the standard equations for such waves. If this paper were merely another mathematical swipe at relativity - demonstrating solutions to certain equations that the "relativity police" would issue a speeding ticket for - then it would be easily dismissible.

Unfortunately, the authors' main points are not the abstruse mathematical demonstrations and proofs, but rather, a method for generating such waves. First noticing that solutions for Maxwell's equations in a waveguide had both subluminal and superluminal solutions,[36] they went on to propose a simple method for generating and for measuring the velocities of such wave structures. The method was called "Finite Aperture Approximation," basically, a method of squeezing acoustic or longitudinal waves through a very small hole, and observing the waveform interference pattern that emerged on the other side, and calculating the velocity, not of the wave, but of the interference pattern itself. If one knows the radius of the aperture and the strength and frequency of the pulse being squeezed through it, one knows the approximate depth of the Finite Aperture Approximation's resulting wave interference pattern.

I.E., the scalar homogeneous wave equation, the Klein-Gordon equation, the Maxwell equations, and the Dirac and Weyl equations have such solutions, even in the vacuum. [Ibid].

The results of experiments with at acoustic longitudinal pulses led the authors to conclude "these results... give us confidence that electromagnetic subluminal and superluminal waves may be physically launched with appropriate devices." Additionally, the authors of this unusual paper are "quite sure" that such a wave interference pattern "can be launched over a large distance." Then come the bombshells:

"If we take into account this feat together with the results of the acoustic experiments described in section 2, we arrive at the conclusion that subluminal electromagnetic pulses...and also superluminal X-waves can be launched with appropriate antennas using present technology ... Nevertheless, the electromagnetic X-wave that is an interference pattern is such that its peak travels with speed c/cos (ni) > 1. The question arises: Is the existence of superluminal electromagnetic waves in conflict with Einstein's Special Relativity?"

While this is not the place to summarize their lengthy mathematical critique of Special Relativity, based on their experiments, it is worth noting that the existence of this little known and recently discovered class of waves, or more specifically, wave-interference systems, "implies a breakdown of the Principle of relativity in both its active...and passive...versions." [The authors' critique of these two versions of Relativity and their dominance in theoretical and experimental physics is highly mathematical and, in a word, thought-provoking].

What emerges from a comparison of this paper and the alleged Kraftstrahlkanone is that apparently the Germans may have discovered and been conducting research into a similar, if not identical, phenomenon, a phenomenon that others would call a crucial component of scalar physics: electromagnetic wave-interference to produce a wave-system of superluminal and deadly force. They were, it seems, experimenting with some weaponized form of a Finite Aperture Approximation device. But why a crystal? In part, perhaps, because as is well known, crystals under stress, and acoustic bombardment would be one form of stress, give off minute packets of electrical energy via the piezo-electric effect. But they also give off minute packets of sound, or "phonons", as well.

One possible explanation of the Kraftstrahlkanone workings is based solely on the schematic. Like so many of the "wonder weapons", however, its principles of operation can be interpreted along a variety of lines. However, a translation of the German accompanying this device yields another principle of operation:

"The KSK armament...is based on the Noar procedure: Around a central axis lie eight weapon-tubes bound in two tiers. With the discharge, four energy beams leave the gun sheathing with a millisecond delay between the firing of the first four tubes and the second four tubes. At target, these two energy beams are united, the effect on which is greatly increased strength .... The destructive effect on target is increased with increased tube length of the weapon because the beam weapon :

1. becomes stronger the longer the time in the barrel and
2. through increased graduations inside the tube, the potency can be increased...."

--Henry Stevens, "Rumored German Wonder Weapons, Report Four: The German Death Rays"

While the corroborative evidence for this weapon, if it ever existed, is scanty, the principle on which it is based - pulses leaving the weapon at different times but arriving on target at the same time - is exactly that of scalar weaponry, which creates from two or more such pulses an interference pattern on target, as detailed in a diagram by Lot. Col. (Ret) Tom Bearden (right).

It is to be noted that Bearden maintains throughout his numerous books that this basic principle of so-called scalar weaponry was first found by the Germans during the Second World War, and subsequently exploited and weaponized by the Soviet Union in the decades after the war. The weapon is alleged to have been employed on the German saucers.
 

When a Vril 7 was downed by the Russians in 1945 an underbelly mounted KSK gun was destroyed with debris recovered from the battle site. Postwar the strange metal balls and tungsten spirals that made up the weapon could not be identified. But recently it has been speculated that the Triebwerk-connected balls formed cascade oscillators that were connected to a long barrel-shrouded transmission rod wrapped in a precision tungsten spiral, or coil to transmit a powerful energy burst suitable to pierce up to 4” of enemy armor! The heavy gun installation, however, badly destabilized the disc and in subsequent Haunebu models lighter MG and MK cannon were supposedly installed (although it is not apparent from any photographic source, being an internal installation of six MK-108s in an upper and lower triple gun pack).

--Rob Arndt


  

PW Intelligence Bulletin No 2/32

Sketch of the Ludwigshafen-Heidelberg Quartz Reflector
High- Voltage Disintegration Ray Installation
   

But beyond this allegation, is there any other indication that the Germans were after exotic "post-nuclear" generation weaponry? There is indeed some indication that the Germans were involved with extensive research into "Tesla" technology and weaponry and other exotic particle beam technology at the University of Heidelberg. As Mayer and Mehner report, there is in available documentation that some type of atomic research was being conducted at Ludwigshafen by none other than I.G. Farben. But this research "had in reality more to do with the development of the so-called 'death rays'." [Mayer and Mehner, "Die Atombombe und das Dritte Reich"] In a file dated 1 December 1944 on this research, it was noted that the work force was moved from Ludwigshafen to Heidelberg in July of 1943

This facility in Heidelberg was completely underground, being some 50 meters long and 25 meters wide, with a roof from 8 to 10 meters high, of .75 and 1 meter thickness. The entire Bunker complex, as detailed in a diagram consisted of a large parabolic reflector made of quartz, a "polytron," a power circuit running the circumference of the Bunker, a storage area for various electrical equipment behind the quartz reflector, a generator and a transformer, a "stand" on which various targets for disintegration were placed, and a control-observation booth to the side of the stand. The quartz parabolic reflector was approximately one centimeter thick. An American intelligence report declassified only in 1998 described the experiments conducted with this and similar apparatus as follows:

"Experiments: The experiments involved a large, elaborate atom-smashing apparatus, the main features of which were four "Sprühpole" (positive) and one "Fangpol" (negative), each about 6 m high. Liberated protons were conveyed through a quartz tube to the Sprühpole, from which they were "fired" at an object placed on a quartz plate up to 800 m distant. This resulted...in the complete disintegration of the object.

"The first two experiments of this kind ... took place in Dec 43 and Jan 44. In one a 10 cm cube of steel (grade ST0012) was disintegrated within four-tenths of a second, The object in the second experiment was water, contained in a large quartz tube, tiled so that the "rays" would strike the largest possible surface. The water disappeared in two tenths of a second.

"The most spectacular experiment was conducted early April 1944, when some 75 rats were made to disappear in the same way. The experiment was photographed from the quartz-enclosed observation tower, and PW claims there was no trace of smoke or flame, nor did any ashes remain on the iron plate. His explanation of this apparent violation of the laws of physics is that the rats were somehow reduced to a gas, which was absorbed by the iron plate.

"PW's Evaluation: PW doubts that the principle involved in the experiments described above could be adapted to military use in less than two years. The apparatus is extremely complicated and far too large to be moved readily". [Harald Fath, "Geheime Kommandosache-S III Jonastal und die Siegeswaffenproduktion: Weitere Spurensuche nach Thüringens Manhattan Project"].

This experimentation sounds like a much more sophisticated high voltage direct current form of Tesla's direct current impulse experiments, as well as of the unusual accidental disappearances of tools and equipment in a US Navy arc-welding facility that prompted an investigation led by none other than T. Townsend Brown during World War Two. [Farrell, "Giza Death Star Deployed"]

Indications of Zero Point Energy and Scalar Physics Experimentation

There are a number of strong indications that the Germans were also experimenting with a variety of "Tesla" like devices that could, conceivably, also be called Zero Point Energy devices. In 1978, the British government finally declassified a British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee (BIOS) report on two curious circuits devised by German naval engineer and inventor, Hans Coler (or Kohler). Entitled "The Invention of Hans Coler, Relating to an Alleged New Source ol Power", B.I.O.S. Final Report no 1043, Item No. 31, Summer 1946, this report consisted of tests and findings on two strange circuits conducted at the University of Berlin between the World Wars under the auspices of none other than Dr. Schumann, discoverer of the Schumann resonance of the earth.[The report is reprinted by the Integrity research Institute, 1422 K Street NW, Suite 204, Washington, D.C. 2005].

A mere glance will explain why the device attracted the immediate attention of the German Navy, which classified it as a possible source of quiet and limitless energy for submarine propulsion.

It will be noted that this hexagonal construction of coils and magnets and two "rotating" sub-circuits has absolutely no source of power. Yet, to the mystified Coler and Dr. Schumann, it nevertheless managed to produce, or better, transduce, power seemingly from nowhere.

Little is known how much farther the Germans took this device, or for that matter, how far the British took it for the two decades and a half after the war that they had to work on it until its declassification. What is unusual is that Dr. Schumann was involved with secret German research on "batteries" as late as 1943, and was subsequently brought to the United State as part of Operation Paperclip. It was this same Dr. Schumann who had noted in 1926 that Hans Coler's device exhibited "no fault, hoax, or fraud on the part of its inventor." [Henry Stevens, "Hitler's Flying Saucers"] Such "free energy" devices seemed to have come very early to the attention of the leadership of the Third Reich - witness the meeting between Hitler, Planck, and Schauberger - and more especially to the attentions of the SS. Devices involving pulsed Tesla coils, suspiciously similar to Tesla's own "Impulse Magnifying Transformer" were constructed.

One such device, the so-called Karl Schappeller Device, bears close scrutiny, since it bears resemblances to another device found by Nick Cook and described in his "Hunt for Zero Point". This odd device is described by Henry Stevens as follows:

"The Schappeller device is really composed of two separate units, the rotor and the stator. The stator is constructed as follows: its surface is round or ball-shaped, being composed of two half-shells of steel. These half-shells contain the internal structure and are air tight. Attached at each "pole" of each half-shell is an iron bar magnet, most of whose structure is internal. This means that the bulk of the magnet is inside the steel ball, one opposite the other. There is a space between the two bar magnets at the very center of the sphere.

"Insulation, a ceramic material, is placed on the inside of the steel ball leaving a hollow central area. Within this hollow area and around the space between the magnets are wound two internal coils. These originate at the bar magnet poles and each terminate at the center of the sphere with a connection leading out of the sphere to the rotor. These coils are composed of a hollow copper tube filled with a special and secret substance called the "electret". Upon leaving the sphere the electret filled copper tubes are replaced by conventional copper wire.

An electrical connection is made from the outside surface of one pole to one pole of a special type of battery which is grounded at the other pole... This electret is a permanent magnet within the sphere... The actual composition of Schappeller's electret remains a secret but another electret has been made by Professor Mototaro Eguchi. It consists of carnauba wax and resin, perhaps also containing some beeswax. It was kept in a strong electrical field while baking slowly until it solidified".

It is important to note that this device bears strong resemblance in some respccts to a device called "the Bell" uncovered by Nick Cook and his researchers.

Returning now to the Schappeller device and its operation, for Schappeller the "neutral area", called the Bloch wall in a bar magnet, where the polarity is neither "north" nor "south", was of great interest and significance. In the Schappeller device it is noted that the empty area between the two magnets corresponds with this Bloch wall of neutrality. It is this "neutral area" that is the area electrically charged by grounding when the device is put into operation. The result is a "new kind" of magnetism, a glowing magnetism in which, according to Schappeller's interpreters, electricity is stationary and magnetism is radiated. At the Bloch Wall, "the point of zero magnetism, no spin and magnetic reversal, is the point, so Schappeller theorized, energy enters and is radiated, in the form of gravity. Thus, according to one interpreter, gravity is a quadropole (four poles, rather than two poles), 360 degree radiated push.

But most astonishing about the little known Schappeller were his extraordinarily revolutionary, and prescient, views on thermodynamics, views that, in his day, would have had him roundly dismissed as a crackpot, but some 35 years later, became an exciting new area of physics and chemistry research. That area is non-equilibrium thermodynamics and systems kinetics.

Schappeller had something to say about the Second Law of Thermodynamics. He said there was another and unknown thermodynamic cycle which runs opposite the Second Law. To name this idea we will call it "Reverse Thermodynamics". It is the reverse of the Second Law of Thermodynamics in that it leads to an increase in entropy. Schappeller built his spherical device primarily to demonstrate the principles behind this Reverse thermodynamics. It was not designed as a practical machine.

Both Schappeller and Schauberger were implying a physics based, not on inanimate lifeless processes, the physics we have come to know, but on animate, creative processes but Schappeller's views on Thermodynamics were truly revolutionary, and some decades ahead of their time, until Ilya Prigogine won the Nobel prize in chemistry precisely for his pioneering work on self-organizing principles evident in systems driven to a high state of non-equilibrium in 1977. [Ilya Prigogine, and G. Nicolis, "Self-Organization in Non-Equilibrium Systems: From Dissipative Structures to Order Through Fluctuations", (J. Wiley & Sons, New York) 1977] The new paradigm, a breathtakingly simple, and yet far-reaching one, was simply that equilibrium had been replaced with non-equilibrium in physics, especially for systems analysis.

RAM Four-Wave Mixing

The German experiments with prototype Radar Absorbent Materials (RAM) was mentioned previously. In these experiments, according to Lt. Col. Tom Bearden (USAF, Ret.), that the Germans in late 1945 discovered that radar waves on such non-linear material resulted in the phenomenon of a superluminal, longitudinal "pressure" wave. In doing so, the Germans had brought the paradigms of physics far beyond the conventions of the "linear" physics that was being perfected in Allied laboratories, largely under the aegis of the Manhattan Project. Consider the information that has been assembled thus far:

(1) They did not reject a concept of aether, but rather, replaced the static nineteenth century idea with a dynamic aether;
(2) This aether then gave rise to the forces and particles of conventional physics via various morphological combinations of vorticular, rotating structures, thus, its principle manner of thinking was non-linear and, in a word, purely topological;
(3) These views were simultaneously allied both with occult doctrines of "primal matter" or life force or "Vril" or whatever one wishes to call it on the one hand, and with the construct called the Zero Point Energy that resulted from the equations of quantum mechanics, a very "German". "Aryan" science;
(4) They were pursuing exotic ideas and technologies in unconventional combinations, the most salient features of which can be summarized as a concentration on:

(a) Pulsed high voltage and "focusing" effects;
(b) High rpm turbines and other such rotating devices;
(c) Non-equilibrium;
(d) Finite Aperture apparati;
(e) Radioactivity and nuclear particle research;
(f) The effects of extremes of temperature on the density state of matter as a means of generating enormous explosive destructive power; and finally,
(g) The use of quartz and other crystals in generating some of these effects.

With these thoughts in mind, we now approach what may be the most sensational experiment the Germans undertook during the War. The device was called simply, "The Bell", and its shocked and dumbfounded discoverer was Nick Cook.

The Brotherhood of the "Bell"

In the 1960s, a movie with Glenn Ford and a young Dabney Coleman, playing a small part as a government agent, was made. The movie was about a secret society allegedly at work behind the scenes in American society and politics, to manipulate research grants and control the direction of society. In the movie, Ford plays a member of this society who is served his "due bill" for all the favors the society has granted him, and forced to betray a Hungarian friend in order to deny that friend a crucial academic post and grant. His friend is named Dr. Hlavaty.

I have always thought that perhaps the movie's Dr. Hlavaty was not so fictional, being perhaps based on the brilliant Hungarian physicist, Vaclav Hlavaty, who attempted a six-dimensional solution to the Unified Field Theory that had eluded Dr. Einstein. Whatever the truth of that hypothesis, it is perhaps interesting to note that the "Brotherhood of the Bell" seemed to exist for no other purpose than to suppress certain types of research, or at least, to keep it out of the public eye.

It should come as no surprise, then, that there was a "Brotherhood of the Bell" during World War Two, for one of the most strange objects the Germans were experimenting on was a device that was known simply as "The Bell". So sensitive and secret was this device, that when it was evacuated from its underground secret laboratory in Lower Silesia prior to the Russian occupation of the area, the SS shot the approximately 60 scientists - doubtless on Kammler's orders - that were involved with this strange object. [Nick Cook, "The Hunt for Zero Point"]

The Bell consisted apparently of two counter-rotating cylinders, and resembled a Bell in its general shape. It stood approximately 12 to 15 feet high, and was approximately 9 to 12 feet in diameter. Into this device, an unknown purplish metallic-liquid looking substance known only as "Xerum 525" or "Serum 525" was poured, apparently to be mechanically rotated at high speed, and possibly electrically rotated as well, by the device. The result was that organic objects placed within the field of the Bell swiftly decayed without putrefaction, decomposing into a black goo, and then finally, into dust, within a matter of hours, and not several weeks. So strong was the field that resulted from the Bell, that on its first test the technicians and scientists involved were all killed.

Subsequently, the Bell was operated only for one or two minutes at a time, and housing below ground in a room bricked and tiled with ceramic tiles, which were then covered in thick rubber mats. After each test, the mats were burned, and the room washed down by concentration camp inmates with brine. When Cook was shown the installation in which the Bell was housed, he was also informed of its high electrical consumption.

What was the mysterious "Xerum 525?" When I first read of this substance which had to be stored in lead lined cylinders, I first thought it sounded like a radioactive isotope of mercury, or perhaps some other radioactive material suspended in solution of some sort. More recently, allegations have surfaced concerning the neutron emitting properties of so-called "red mercury" or mercury antimonate oxide, supposedly a source for detonating thermonuclear warheads without the necessity for detonating an atom bomb, and a powerful conventional explosive in its own right. Whatever the mysterious substance was, it seems clear that it was highly radioactive, and that the Germans were subjecting it to extremely high mechanical and electrical rotations to study the resulting field effects, effects that Cook's advisors could only qualify as "torsion" fields. These fields are thought by some contemporary physicists to have direct relevance to the study of gravity, and of time. [In this regard it is perhaps interesting to note that, years prior to the publication of Nick Cook's book, well-known science-fiction-horror-thriller author (whose genre and style is so compellingly unique), Dean Koontz, published a novel called "Lightning", the theme of which was a wartime German experiment with a time machine that, coincidentally (?) consisted of rotating cylinders!] Close to the Bell's underground testing Bunker the Germans had built a large concrete henge-like structure, in the pillars of which were high grade steel hooks, an obvious testing frame for what must have been an extremely powerful propulsion device.

What happened to the Bell? No one knows. Like Kammler, it goes completely missing at the end of the war, and its scientists, as already stated, were murdered to a man by the SS to keep whatever precious secrets it, and they, had uncovered.

AFTERMATH

"I believe there is a very real UFO problem. I have also come to believe that it is being manipulated for political ends."

--Jacques Vallee

"This is a story of how key Nazis, even as the Wehrmacht was still on the offensive, anticipated military disaster and laid plans to transplant Nazism, intact but disguised, in havens in the West.... It is story that climaxes in Dallas on November 22, 1963 when John Kennedy was struck down. And it is a story with an aftermath -America's slide to the brink of fascism."

--Mae Brussel, "The Nazi Connection to the John F. Kennedy Assassination", The Rebel (November 22, 1983)

THE ANTARCTIC SHANGRI-LA

"The Hitlers sat together on a couch in their suite....At about 3:30 P.M. Hitler picked up his 7.65 caliber Walther pistol...On a console was a picture of his mother as a young woman. He put this pistol barrel to his right temple and pulled the trigger".

--John Toland, "Adolf Hitler"

Adolf Hitler was as mythical in death as he was brutal and large in life. Because of the curious circumstances of his suicide, and the inability of the wartime Allied powers to cooperate on an extensive and through proof that he did die, a whole mythos of his survival grew up after the war, and continued for some many years afterward. Betrayed even by Himmler himself, who had secretly begun peace negotiations with the western Allies through the Swedish government, and with one time designated "Deputy Führer" and former party chief Rudolf Hess in a British prison cell, and his designated replacement Reichsmarschall Göring claiming leadership in the chaos of the collapsing Reich to the quick denunciation by Hitler for treason, the Führer relinquished power before his suicide to an unlikely candidate, Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz, who for a brief period of little more than a week, was Nazi Germany's second dictator before he ordered its armed forces to surrender. The selection of Dönitz by Hitler is significant, for Dönitz was in an usual position to coordinate the escape of fleeing Nazis to South America and other places via the new type XXI U-boats just entering service.

But before proceeding to that story, it is worth looking at the Hitler and various other Nazi survival myths in a broad overview, in order to have a basis on which to distinguish possible fact from deliberate myth and misinformation. For these various Nazi survival myths and legends, Hitler's survival is not so much a fact, as a grotesque parody of an icon, a disturbing possibility that hovers over every version. For example, the standard view of Hitler committing suicide on 30 April 1945, is itself not without its own occult significance, for this is the date of the eve of a "witches' sabbath," the Walpurgisnacht. Moreover, in mediaeval Cathar doctrine - a doctrine well-studied by the SS Ahnenerbe - suicide was a permissible act, if done in concert with another, with a soul mate. Hitler and his newly married mistress of many years, Eva (Braun) Hitler, both committed suicide together.

These non-standard Hitler and Nazi survival myths run the whole spectrum, from fanciful and implausible stories of underground bases in the Canadian Arctic, or on Antarctica itself armed with some of the exotic weaponry described previously chapter, to more "mundane" and plausible stories of Nazi colonies in South America or secret weather stations and commando teams operating in Greenland during the war, to the well-known and best documented case, that of Operation Paperclip, America's wholesale importation of Nazi scientists and doctors after World War Two to assist the United States in continued covert development and research on a whole host of black projects. In one rather interesting version of the Hitler survival myth, he and other Nazi bigwigs underwent plastic surgery before the end of the war, and were spirited off to Antarctica or South America. One version of this myth even has an elderly Hitler ministering to the poor as a Catholic priest! It is the thesis that there is some truth to some of these Nazi survival myths, excluding the Hitler survival myth, and that all need to be viewed against the backdrop of the Nazis' own plans for postwar survival and continuance under a variety of fronts, organizations, or in concert with new "host" governments such as the United States or the various governments of Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East. We will proceed by examining the more audacious survival myths, through some accounts of South American colonies, to Paperclip, and finally, to Bormann's top secret plan for postwar survival and economic resurgence. What will emerge from this examination is a disturbing picture that suggests deliberate Nazi misinformation in the immediate post-war period, and a deliberate attempt to disguise ongoing projects inside the black projects of the new "host" governments and corporations A slight, though discernible connection emerges that substantiates the thesis of part one of this book, namely, that the secret weapons think tank, the Kammlerstab, survived the war more or less intact, and continued its work in a variety of host countries, most particularly in the United Kingdom and even more so in the United States, either in concert with them, and sometimes independently of them.

The Antarctic Survival Myth

 

Of all the high-ranking German military leaders, Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz is the most often overlooked, and yet he may have been the most crucial for the story of Nazi survival and continued secret weapons research. After all, the secret preparations and voyage of the U-234 to Japan, with its precious cargo of enriched uranium and infrared fuses, could not likely have taken place without his express knowledge, participation, and authorization. Thus, outside Kammler's "think tank", he was perhaps the one military leader of a conventional service arm to know the full extent of Nazi Germany's actual advances in atom bomb and other nuclear research.

Best known for his orchestration of the Nazi U-boat campaign against British, Canadian, and American shipping, his alleged role in the various survival myths is little known outside a small circle of UFOlogy and World War Two researchers. And of all the Nazi military leaders, his selection by Adolf Hitler as the second Führer of the Third Reich is, at best, problematical, unless viewed in the light of these late war technology transfers and escaping Nazis. Why would Hitler have chosen Dönitz, a World War One veteran of the High Seas Fleet of Kaiser Wilhelm, with the Kriegsmarine's well-known imperialist culture and leanings that he represented, to be his successor?

A conventional answer is afforded by the circumstances outlined above: betrayed on all sides - by Himmler and Göring themselves - a desperate Hitler reached out to what he thought was the most loyal conventional military service arm of the Wehrmacht, the Navy. But the survival mythos contributes a very different perspective from which to view Hitler's possible motivations.

Dönitz himself does nothing to allay those suspicions, either during or immediately after the war. According to Henry Stevens, who has almost single-handedly investigated every lead - no matter how implausible the detail - of the Nazi UFO and survival legends, Dönitz on more than one occasion alluded to the Navy's role in exotic secret weapons research and in the construction of very secret bases far from the Reich homeland.

In 1943, the Grand Admiral is reported to have stated that "the German submarine fleet is proud of having built for the Führer, in another part of the world, a Shangri-La on land, an impregnable fortress." [Henry Stevens, "The Last Battalion and German Arctic, Antarctic, and Andean Bases" (Gorman, California: "The German Research Project", 1997), citing Col. Howard A. Buechner and Capt. Wilhelm Bernhardt, "Hitler's Ashes" (Metarie, Louisiana: Thunderbird Press Inc.)] Strange language for an admiral well-known for cold calculation in military strategy and tactics, and not well-known to be inclined to mystical statements. Then again, in 1944, the Grand Admiral doled out a little more information: "The German Navy will have to accomplish a great task in the future. The German Navy knows all hiding places in the oceans and therefore it will be very easy to bring the Führer to a safe place should the necessity arise and in which he will have the opportunity to work out his final plans." [Ibid., citing Buechner and Bernhardt] But it was Dönitz's almost insane remarks at Nuremberg that seemed to point clearly to one of the two polar regions as the "site" for these "plans". At Nuremberg he boasted of "an invulnerable fortress, a paradise-like oasis in the middle of eternal ice." [Ibid., citing Willibald Mattern, "UFOs Unbekanntes Flugobjekt? Letzte Geheimwaffe des Dritten Reiches?" (Toronto: Samisdat Publisher, No date)]

Whatever the trustworthiness of Steven's sources, these statements, plus the unusual behavior of some U-boats at the end of the war, and the Germans' well-publicized pre-war Antarctic scientific expedition, certainly seemed to spur the United States into a sudden and intense post-war military interest in Antarctica. Again, since the basic facts are well-known to but a small circle of World War Two and UFOlogy researchers, it is worth recalling them in some detail.

  • U-530 surrendered at Mar del Plata, Argentina, on 10 July 1945
  • U-977 surrendered at Mar del Plata, Argentina, on 17 August 1945
  • U-465 was scuttled off the coast of Patagonia in August 1945
  • Another U-boat of unknown number surrendered to the Argentine Navy on 10 June 1945 

[Ibid., citing Buechner]

When the U-530 and U-977 surrendered so late after the European War's end, Allied intelligence was more than a little concerned, and dispatched agents to interrogate the German officers. They certainly did not believe that the German captains had taken their ships on a South Atlantic excursion of three to four months just to surrender to the Argentines, as Captain Schäffer of the U-977 and Captain Wermoutt of the U-530 actually, and apparently in all seriousness, stated. Stevens summarizes the Allies' real concern - Nazi survival in no uncertain terms:

"The Allies first believed that these U-Boats had taken persons of special importance, perhaps even Adolf Hitler, from Germany to South America. In light of this possibility both captains were held for questioning. Captain Schäffer, who surrendered last, was taken to America for a month or so then to England for another period of questioning. Both captains maintained that there had been no persons of political importance deposited in South America. Eventually the captains were released although Schäffer found living in Occupied Germany intolerable and relocated to South America. Captain Schäffer even went on to write a book explaining his voyage and actions".

Unfortunately, nobody really believed Schäffer. Bernhardt, who himself was aboard U-530, claims that American and British Intelligence had learned that U-530 and U-977 did visit Antarctica before landing in South America but the exact nature of their mission eluded them. [Ibid., citing Buechner] A glimpse into this extraordinary mission and the high importance afforded by the German Navy High Command (the Oberkommando der KriegsMarine or OKM) to it can perhaps be afforded by a glance of the alleged performance characteristics of the U-530. In the spring of 1945, an old-fashioned type U-boat with the number 530 was dry-docked after being damaged by a freighter which had rammed it. As was typical for the Kriegsmarine, a new submarine, probably a type XXI or further development of it, was launched at approximately the same time, and was given the same service number, an obvious ploy to confuse Allied military intelligence. But why was the U-boat that actually sailed to the South Atlantic and that later surrendered to Argentina probably a type XXI or some derivative? Because Captain Wilhelm Bernhardt, a pen name of an actual crew member of Captain Wermoutt's U-530, let out a significant piece of information; he stated that her submerged speed was approximately 30 knots, an unheard of speed for a submerged submarine in that day. The only submarines in service in any navy in the world capable of that performance at that time were the German type XXI U-boats.

The type XXI U-boat, like most U-boats in the German Navy by that time, was fitted with the special Schnorkel device that allowed its main diesel engines to operate while submerged underwater. It is quite possible that these newer Type XXI U-boats also had the newer Schnorkels fitted with the special anti-radar coatings examined previously. But the Type XXI was also outfitted with the special "Walther" turbine, an underwater jet" device that utilized hydrogen peroxide that allowed great underwater cruising speeds. In effect, these turbines were "silent" engines allowing great underwater speeds for limited durations of time. Thus, the Type XXI had brought submarine technology and warfare to a new and sophisticated level by the war's end. But would even the Type XXI have been able to brave the North and then South Atlantic Oceans, by that point in the war all but Allied lakes?

There is some indication that not only were they successful in doing so, but wildly so.

Previously mention was made of special new guidance systems the Germans had adapted to missiles, and torpedoes. These systems included wire-guidance, as well as magnetic proximity fuses. Stevens reports that on 2 May 1945, a flotilla of U-boats, many of them Type XXIs, carefully husbanded by Donitz at Kristiansand fjord in Norway, departed in a wolf pack for Iceland, making the traditional run through the straits between Iceland and Greenland. The British consistently maintained a flotilla of destroyers, accompanied occasionally by heavier units of light and heavy cruisers, on station in these straits throughout the war.

What happened next has been deleted from what passes as history, at least in the countries of the former Allied Powers. What happened was the last great sea battle of the Atlantic. The German U-boat convoy ran straight into an Allied naval battle formation,   The result was stunning. using the new torpedoes... the Allied ships were totally annihilated. Apparently the Allies never quite realized what they had run into. Our only third-party report of the event was an article in a South American newspaper which learned of the event. A quote (sic) from the only survivor of the attack is often quoted by the underground German writers although this writer has not seen a copy of the newspaper: "May God help me, may I never again encounter such a force" - British destroyer captain.

This was reportedly carried in "El Mercurio", Santiago, Chile, and "Der Weg" a paper published by exiled Germans living in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The use of new torpedoes -whether wire-guided, acoustic-seeking, or magnetic proximity-fused, leads once again back to Kammler's "think tank" secret weapons empire. These torpedoes, plus the high-submersible speeds and "proto-stealth" capabilities of the Type XXI U-boats would have been more than a match for the British destroyers on station between Iceland and Greenland.

But as we have previously noted, the Coler coil came to the quick attention of the Kriegsmarine in the early days of the Third Reich, which immediately classified it at the highest level, and funded further research.

It is not hard to understand the Kriegsmarine's interest in the Coler device. It is the perfect generator for submarine use. It produces no exhaust and burns no fuel. It could be linked directly to existing electric-drive vessels and run under water indefinitely. Did the Germans actually accomplish this? The underground German writers say that this indeed happened. This theme runs throughout the writing of Bergmann whose specialty is the link between German submarines and German flying saucers.

This is an incredible, if not outlandish, claim. Yet it is worth pondering for a moment. The Coler devices, developed in 1933, [British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee, 1946: "The Invention of Hans Coler Relating to an Alleged New Source of Power"] and their unusual ability to transduce electrical power out of something were known to the Germans fully six years before the war had even started, and were developed in secret for twelve years after that (and then presumably by the British for another twenty three years after that!). We do not know, of course, nor is the British Government saying (if indeed it knows), to what state the Germans brought this device, but whatever the state, they bad fully twelve years in which to do it. But whether perfected or not, notice what else is being implied by the assertion that it was brought to some state of pre-trial use on submarines: the Germans were deliberately after a method of submarine propulsion that would have allowed indefinite submerged cruising, much as a modern nuclear submarine, but by a device much simpler in design and construction, and presumably, much less risky in operation. Whether or not the Germans were able to bring it to a state of practical use is thus, in one sense, immaterial, since the classification of the device alone indicates the nature of their interest.

In any case, the odd circumstances of the late-surrendering U-boats, not to mention the alleged naval debacle suffered by the British so late in the war when everything seemed - from a naval and military standpoint -so secure and safe, focused Allied and particularly American eyes quite quickly and forcefully on Antarctica.[It goes without saying that the high priority that the British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee placed on recovering a Coler device and its inventor after the war tends to corroborate the notion that the British had learned the hard way that it had been brought to some state of practical use for submarine propulsion.]

 

 "U.S. Naval Aviation News"
January 1947

Whatever the Allies learned, there was a sudden, intense interest in Antarctica. This interest was so strong that in 1946, as Allied troop were returning home from the War and all thoughts were turned to peacetime pursuits, the United States Government, under President Harry Truman, found it absolutely imperative that a full military expedition be mounted against Antarctica. This campaign was called Operation High Jump.

While the operation was billed in American newspapers, magazines and even the occasional newsreel as a mapping expedition, its actual military character is easily seen from a glance at its composition. Commanded by America's premier polar explorer, Admiral Byrd, the flotilla included an aircraft escort carrier (the Philippine Sea), two seaplane carriers (the Pine Island and Curritich), two destroyers (the Brownsen and Henderson), two escort ships (Yankee and Merrick), two fueling ships (Canister and Capacan), and a submarine (the Sennet). Additionally, four thousand troops equipped with helicopters, reliable, fixed-wing DC-3s, and a specially designed armored vehicle were also at the Admiral's command.

Outfitted for a stay of eight months, the expedition encircled the German claimed territory of Neuschwabenland (New Schwabialand), Admiral Byrd stationing the naval vessels off the coast, and then advanced the ground troops and aerial reconnaissance from the pole toward the German territory. Allegedly the German "base" was quickly found, overflown, and either an American flag, or a bomb, depending on the version of the story, was dropped on the position.

In any case, the four escort craft accompanying the scout aircraft were lost without a trace. This single event "throws the whole Highjump exercise into a curious light, for "it somehow changed the whole character of the Byrd expedition. Within 48 hours Admiral Byrd had given orders which canceled the expedition and made preparations to leave Antarctica. The mission had lasted closer to eight weeks than to eight months. No official reason was given for the sudden withdrawal." [Stevens, op. cit.] Byrd was returned to Washington D.C., debriefed, and his personal and operational logs from the mission were seized and remain classified to this day, fueling an endless stream of rumors and conspiracy theories

  

In 1947, the prestigious Chilean newspaper "El Mercurio" carried an article from its correspondent Lee van Atta aboard the support ship Mount Olympus. The title of the article was: "Admiral Richard E Byrd refers to the Strategic Importance of the Poles".

It has often been alleged that this item never appeared and is fiction, but now we have the cutting in question, and so it exists. In the past it has often been misquoted in translation by occult enthusiasts, the usual interpolation in the text being "flying objects" having the ability "to fly from pole to pole at incredible speeds".

The article reads in true translation as follows:

"Admiral Byrd declared today that it was imperative for the United States to initiate immediate defence measures against the possible invasion of the country by hostile aircraft operating from the polar regions. The Admiral stated: - 'I don't want to frighten anyone unduly but it is a bitter reality that in the case of a new war, the continental United States will be attacked by aircraft flying in from one or both poles.'  As regards the recently terminated expedition, Byrd said that the most important the most important result of the observations and discoveries made is the current potential effect which they will have on the security of the United States".

But the expedition, in keeping with its cover as a mapping expedition perhaps, was composed also of small contingents of news media and reporters from other countries, one of which was Chile. A reporter working for the Chilean "El Mercurio" in Santiago, one Lee van Atta, accompanied Admiral Byrd, who "made some astounding statements, all dutifully recorded" and reported by van Atta, and dutifully ignored in the American press. In its 5 March 1947 edition, "Byrd announced to me today that it is necessary for the United States to put into effect defensive measures against enemy airmen which come from the polar regions. The Admiral further explained that he did not have the intention to scare anyone but the utter reality is that in case of a new war the United States would be in a position to be attacked by flyers which could fly with fantastic speed from one pole to the other".

At that time in history, of course, there was only one nation that had undertaken anything like an extensive exploration of the southern polar continent: Nazi Germany.

The Neuschwabenland Expedition

In late 1938 the Germans undertook an expedition to Antarctica, specially outfitting a seaplane carrier, the Schwabenland for the purpose, and placing it under the command of one of Germany's most experienced polar navigators. At a cost of some millions of Reichsmarks, the expedition was under the personal direction and mentorship of none other than Luftwaffe chief, Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring [It is also to be noted that apparently the then Deputy Führer and Party chief, Rudolf Hess, was also privy to whatever secret purpose and findings this expedition had. Some people allege that this was in part a hidden motivation for Hess's inexplicable flight to Great Britain in 1941 to conduct secret "peace" negotiations with representatives of the British Fascist movement] which leaves one to wonder what possible purpose Göring would have in sponsoring such an expedition. That it was military in nature seems beyond doubt, for the Nazis spared no effort to outfit the expedition as thoroughly as possible. New canning techniques were invented for the food needed on the voyage from and back to Germany, and new clothing was designed, including allegedly a "grey almost bullet-proof seamless and metallic appearing suit...made of whale skin." [ Ibid., citing Christoph Friedrich, "Secret Nazi Polar Expeditions" (Toronto: Samisdat Publishers, No date)]

The inspiration for the expedition may have had hidden occult motivations as well, for the occult Thulegesellschaft or Thule Society subscribed to a Nordic Atlantis hidden beneath the polar ice, whence sprang, so the legend goes, the Germanic race. [This fact would also place the expedition within the brief of the SS Ahnenerbedienst] In any case, small teams of specially selected biologists and other scientists accompanied the expedition to run laboratory experiments on board the refurbished Schwabenland.[The expedition is the subject of a fascinating novel by William Dietrich called "Ice Reich" (Time Warner, 1998). Dietrich's thesis is that the Germans were after unknown microbial and bacteriological life forms that were frozen in the ice and that could be transformed into biological weapons.]

The Germans chose the region of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land, an area of the continent claimed by Denmark. In blatant disregard for international law, the Nazis overflew the entire area, dropping thousands of little Swastika flags on the region with little spikes to embed them in the ice, and claimed it for Germany, renaming the region Neuschwabenland. but they did more than just fly and drop flags.

The German pilots extensively photographed the region, and reported mountain ranges in excess of 12,000 feet altitude, rocky crags projecting above the fields of ice. But most amazingly, they allegedly found ice-free ponds, heated geothermally, in which grew various unknown species of algae. They also discovered the southern tip of the fault line that runs from New Zealand, through Neuschwabenland, and up the Atlantic Ocean, the famous Atlantic "trench". The Germans concluded that such features might indicate the presence of rocky caverns on the continent, heated geothermally, the perfect place for a hidden base in the world's most isolated, desolate, and inaccessible wilderness. [Stevens, op. cit.]

Most intriguingly, the scientists aboard the Schwabenland were not idle in analyzing the potential foodstuffs of the continent:

Emperor penguins were captured for return to Germany for study. Walruses were shot and their bodies dissected. Their bodies were tested for fat, protein, vitamin and other nutrient content. The biological findings made during this expedition would occupy German university scientists for months to come but the aim of this focus was secret. It is known that German dieticians (sic) were commissioned to prepare tasty and nutritious meals using only what was available in Antarctica. [Ibid., citing Friedrich. Clearly, if these allegations are true, then the Germans were preparing for a relatively large and permanent presence on the Antarctic continent.

Then, via an unusual zigzagging route between Africa and South America - itself one of the intriguing mysteries of the expedition - the Schwabenland returned to Germany, reaching port on 10 April 1939. [Stevens, op. cit.] Göring presented the expedition members with Commemorative medals. Then, all further mention of the expedition in the German - or any other press - ceased.

So what do we have at this juncture?

  • Allegations from German writers of known or suspected Nazi sympathies of a continued German presence on the Antarctic continent during and after the war;

  • Actual suspicious U-boat activity in the South Atlantic at the end of the war;

  • Allegations of German research that could have been for no other purpose than establishment of a permanent German presence on the continent;

  • Allegations of discoveries of small thermally heated ponds with unknown types of algae on the continent's interior;

  • Allegations of Grand Admiral Dönitz that the U-boat fleet was involved in the construction of a secret base or bases far from the Reich, one base of which was surrounded by "eternal ice";

  • Allegations of a last sea battle in the Atlantic prior to the German surrender, with things going surprisingly disastrously for the Allies;

  • An actual large postwar American military adventure to the continent within two years of the end of the war, with small accompanying international press contingents, an expedition outfitted for eight months that stayed only eight weeks; and finally,

  • An actual newspaper report of Admiral Byrd trying to warn America of a military threat from "enemy aircraft" flying from pole to pole at tremendous speed.

All of this would seem to imply at a minimum that something was going on in Antarctica, and that someone in the United States Federal government was quite worried about it.

Indeed, when the United States returned to Antarctica some twelve years later, it did so once again with force, this time, nuclear force, and once again, under the cover of an "international co-operative effort," the International Geophysical Year of 1957- 1958. This means that if there were indeed Germans on a secret base somewhere on that frozen continent, they had some twelve years to do whatever they were doing. In terms of the Nazi legend, supposedly they were busily perfecting their strange wartime research.

  

In any case, as Henry Stevens points out, this period, from 1947 to 1957-58, is in fact the "golden age" of the flying saucer, encompassing the Kenneth Arnold sightings, the alleged Roswell UFO crash and recovery, to the famous "buzzing" of the Capital and White House by UFOs that supposedly made even the unflappable Harry Truman anxious.

The famous 1952 Washington D.C. sightings prompted a nervous and unconvincing Pentagon press conference - the only one ever given by a general officer from the Pentagon - on the subject of UFOs.[Stevens further speculates on the possible motivation for the UFO overflights of sensitive areas of Washington DC: "Was this overflight in retaliation for the Byrd overflight of the German base in Antarctica and designed to show the Americans they had no control over their own airspace?" Stevens offers no evidence for this speculation. But supposing Stevens is correct for the sake of argument, then suffice it to say that overflights of the American capital by Nazi flying saucers so long after the war's end would certainly have shaken the national security apparatus of the United States much more than overflights by apparently benign extraterrestrial ones, and the response would have been to clamp the lid down on government research of the phenomenon, exactly as happened, since the supposedly defeated enemy was not, if this is true, really defeated after all.]

Under the cover of the geophysical year, the United States again sent a naval task force to the Antarctic. The use of military force-including atomic weapons! -was "covered" by the ridiculous story that the USA and USSR, in a rare moment of nuclear co-operation during the height of the Cold War, were interested in seeing how much of the continent could be "recovered" for use by warming it with nuclear explosions! Accordingly, it would be necessary to explode a few small nuclear "devices" for above the continent to warm and melt the ice as a proof of concept![26] A Stevens aptly quips, "You already know exactly where in Antarctica they planned to explode these atomic bombs." Three bombs were thus detonated at an altitude of approximately 300 miles above the target, one on 27 August 1958, one on 30 August 1958, and a third on 6 September 1958. [Stevens also notes that these bursts may have something to do with the "ozone hole" over the South Pole and the US government's reluctance to discuss the idea or the events that may have caused it. Additionally, perhaps it is possible that one atom bomb from each of the world's then nuclear powers, the US, the USSR, and the UK, were used.] If these bursts were indeed intended secretly against an actual target, then why so high? Stevens hypothesizes that they were to knock out any German equipment in the region by the strong electromagnetic pulse that results from a nuclear detonation.

While this is a plausible explanation if the intention were to occupy the alleged base via a ground assault or assaults within the time frame of the bursts, no such contingent is known to have accompanied the small armada of two destroyers, two destroyer escorts, and a small aircraft carrier. This explanation, however, does bear some weight in connection with the allegations of the capabilities of German bases at the other pole. With the Geophysical Year expedition of 1958's atomic detonations, the alleged German base on the Antarctic continent fades, the Germans themselves supposedly gradually evacuating it during the interim period from Byrd's expedition to the final coup de grace for more favorable climes in South America There the case for Nazi survival and continued research becomes much stronger.

Spitzbergen, Greenland, and Arctic Canada: The Other German Polar Survival Myth

The Western Allies, the Russians, and the Germans all relied heavily on weather reports to plan and execute their campaigns, and for this purpose, accurate up-to-the-minute reporting on Arctic conditions was crucial. To this end it is not surprising to find the Germans in particular outfitting special commando units - usually Waffen SS - to operate independently in Spitzbergen Island north of Norway, in Greenland, and in Arctic Canada. Such teams were delivered to their operational areas via U-boat. Spitzbergen in particular seemed to trade hands between the British and the Germans, as each side mounted commando operations to destroy the other's weather stations and listening posts. On one such occasion, the most famous perhaps, the German battleship Tirpitz, sister ship to the Bismarck, sailed to the island where one such British station was operating, leveled her 15 inch heavy guns at it, and promptly dispatched it, no doubt to the complete shock and surprise of the British manning it. Other allegations have a secret German weather base and listening post operating in Franz Josef Land, the islands to the north of Finland and the Soviet Union.

However, with the allegations of German bases in Greenland, one again enters the realm of the surreal. These bases were allegedly comparatively large, as were the contingents of Germans operating them. While they were supposedly known by the Greenlanders and occupying American forces, most efforts to find them ended in failure. One post-war German source places as many as three independent SS battle groups (Kampfgruppen) operating in Greenland, under the code name of Thulekampfgruppen (Thule battle groups). The connection to the occult interests of the Third Reich are once again in evidence.

Predictably, these "Thule battle groups" become the subject of another series of survival legends, as former SS officers supposedly reported seeing U-boats loaded with rates designated "Thule 1 K" and so on departing Germany in the final days of the war. Sworn to secrecy by the SS, the "clear implication is that the 'Thule 1 K' is the Thule Kampfgruppe 1" and that it had "no intentions of surrender; and that there was still a mission to accomplish." The Americans, so the story goes, were unsuccessful in locating them bases for two reasons: the area was too large, and the bases were "like the German fortifications built in Neuschwabenland...tunneled deep underneath the glaciers of ice (into presumably solid rock) and that they were bored to a length of 2000 meters." [Ibid., citing O. Bergmann, "Deutsche Flugsheiben und U-Boote  Überwachen die Weltmeere", Hugin Gesellschaft für politisch-philosophische Studien (Horstl, Germany: 1989)] This allegation is surely implausible, since the transport of sophisticated mining and boring equipment, let alone enough explosive, for such a task by U-boat would have been an enormous undertaking, one quite beyond the labor capabilities of small SS battle groups.[Consider the fact that the huge underground factories in Germany were built over several months by thousands of slave laborers working around-the-clock with the best available existing mining and tunneling technology.] But this is not the end of the surreal aspects of the story. Should the bases have been detected, they were supposedly defended with exotic electromagnetic weapons, one of which had a short range, but that could cause the ignition of aircraft engines to fail completely.

After the war, the Vienna "Wiener Montag" reported in its 29 December1947 edition that Eskimos reported to American authorities that an SS battle group of fully 150 men had been encountered.[Again, the number 150 is realistic for a battle group, but quite below the labor requirements for the construction of such large bases.] Besides these allegations of large bases and battle groups and exotic weaponry, there is a similar account circulated by the distinctly pro-Nazi novelist Wilhelm Landig in his 1971 novel "Götzen gegen Thule", a novel he billed as "full of realities" (voller Wirklichkeiten), of a large German base in the Canadian Arctic, near the magnetic North pole. This base, he alleges, was serviced by the German military using special long-range aircraft and, of course, flying saucers! As if that were not enough, Landig maintains that these aircraft were not equipped with normal machine guns or cannon for their defensive weaponry, but utilized a Metallstrahl, essentially an electromagnetic "rail gun" used to propel tiny pellets with extreme velocity, a kind of hyper-velocity shotgun that would more than rip apart any Allied aircraft, and do so at great distances.[Ibid.]

All of these allegations would remain merely fanciful if it were not for the discovery by American UFOlogist William Lyne -himself definitely outside the "mainstream" of the UFOlogy community - of a piece of German equipment that, quite literally, he bought at a second-hand store in White Sands, New Mexico! [Lyne is the author of a rather extraordinary book of UFOlogy - a field in which the extraordinary seems to be the norm - called "Space Aliens from the Pentagon", the main theme of which is his adamant insistence that UFOs are entirely terrestrial and man-made, and being used to advance a fictitious "alien agenda" and psychological operations campaign. Lyne, notwithstanding the more often than not unbelievable aspects of his book, was, in addition to Stevens, one of the few UFOlogists to take the Nazi origins myth of UFOs seriously prior to the publication of Nick Cook's the "Hunt for Zero Point".]

 6 January 1994
"Albuquerque Journal North" article
featuring William Lyne and his mysterious Nazi Compass

The unusual thing about this piece of equipment was not only its circular central Swastika - a clear reference to the occult Thulegesellschaft since that version of the Swastika appeared on its emblem - but also its designation as a Peiltochterkompass, a "daughter compass." Investigating this strange piece of equipment further, Lyne concluded that it was no ordinary compass, since it appeared not to operate by any magnetic means, which might explain how it ended up in White Sands, New Mexico! Lyne and his mysterious compass even became the subject of an article in a local American newspaper.

Why is Lyne's find so important to the allegations of Nazi bases in the Canadian Arctic that were being supplied by long range aircraft?

Very simple.

If there were ever any truth to the allegations of German bases in these heavily forested regions, then normal magnetic compasses would be of virtually no use for navigation purposes in the region, since standard compasses are notoriously inaccurate at the polar regions with solar energy cascading down and causing local disruptions of the magnetic field. Some other method, therefore, had to be found to orient aircraft for safe navigation. Landig alleges that this was done by means of a compass that oriented itself to the sun by reading polarized light, rather than magnetic field lines. [Stevens, op. cit.] Lyne therefore seems to have found some version of this compass in an area of America known for its secret research laboratories some twenty years or so after Landig's surreal allegations first appeared!

But according to Landig there is even more to consider, for according to him the German base in the Canadian Arctic was actively researching and developing so-called "free energy" devices, devices that would tap the so-called "zero point energy" of quantum mechanics. In this connection, the research was allegedly carried out under the auspices of the SS Entwicklungstelle IV, or SS "Developmental Installation IV," an entity, if it existed at all, that would have fallen under the mission brief and jurisdiction of Kammler's SS Sonderkommando, for it was responsible for "research into making Germany independent of foreign energy sources."

So with Landig's fantastic allegations, we come full circle back to the exotic energy sources, the technologies, the occult, and the SS research being conducted by Nazi Germany. Therefore, before proceeding to examine more seriously substantiated instances of Nazi survival in the next chapter, it would be worthwhile to summarize the accumulated allegations and evidences of this and previous chapters:

(1) Fact: The Germans undertook an expedition to Antarctica whose hidden purpose was clearly military in nature, since one cannot imagine the likes of Reichsmarschall Göring sponsoring an expedition for any other purpose;
(2) Fact: The United States on two separate occasions over the wide time-frame of eleven to twelve years undertook two large military expeditions to that continent, both under appropriate cover stories for mapping (the 1947 Byrd expedition, Operation High Jump), and for the 1957-58 Geophysical Years (to study the effects of atomic blasts on Antarctic weather!);
(3) Fact: Admiral Byrd, the leader of the first American expedition, was recorded in a South American newspaper as warning of "enemy" aircraft capable of violating American airspace with ease, and of flying form pole-to-pole with tremendous speed;
(4) Fact: The German Navy showed great interest in the "free-energy" ideas and coils of Hans Coler, for the ostensible purpose of creating a means of submarine propulsion that would allow German U-boats to stay submerged more or less indefinitely;
(5) Fact: Admiral Byrd's diaries and logs from his expedition are still classified;
(6) Fact: Coler's inventions were highly classified by the German Navy, and later by the British, who only declassified them over thirty years after the war's end;
(7) Fact: The Germans had also apparently contrived a sophisticated compass for possible use in polar regions by aircraft, and possibly by other less conventional aircraft;
(8) Fact: the alleged time span of the German Antarctic base's survival is coincident with "golden age" of the UFO, from the Arnold sightings, the Roswell crash, up to and beyond the great 1950s Washington D.C. UFO flap;
(9) Fact: SS General Dr. Ing. Hans Kammler had assumed total control of all the Third Reich's secret weapons research by the end of the war, a position which would have made him privy to the German Navy's research;
(10) Fact: It is evident from the movements of General Patton's divisions in the closing days of the European war that Kammler's SS secret weapons empire was the deliberate, and principal, target of these military operations;
(11) Allegation: Grand Admiral Dönitz on more than one occasion alluded to the role of the German U-boat fleet in the construction of secret bases in polar regions;
(12) Allegation: These bases were staffed by SS troops, and presumably technicians conducting ongoing secret research into "zero point energy" or "free energy";
(13) Allegation: Said research fell under an SS entity called S-IV, recalling Kammler's S-III mentioned briefly in part one;
(14) Allegation: These bases were said to be defended by exotic types of weaponry, including electromagnetic "rail guns" to devices that could interfere with and halt standard electrical engine ignitions systems;
(15) Allegation: There were secret SS teams working on "areas of physics" even more exotic than atomic and thermonuclear energy;
(16) Allegation: There is a connection to Nazi occult interests in the polar regions via the myth of "Thule", the pre-war occult Thule Society (Thulegesellschaft);
(17) Fact: The highest levels of the SS were initiates into Himmler's occult inner circle at Wewelsburg, making it likely that Kammler himself was such an initiate;
(18) Fact: The 1944 German atom bomb test at Rügen island took place at a location with its own occult pedigree and significance for the pre-war Germanic, and very occult, Order of the New Templars.

What emerges from this list is disturbing indeed. Clearly, a prima facie case can be made that the Nazi leadership had invested significant resources in the investigation of any and all avenues to power, occult and otherwise, and to new sources of energy. And equally clearly, the Nazi leadership was willing to think "outside the box" and to go to any lengths - often quite literally - to research those matters. What also emerges from this list is a preoccupation with areas of physics, and areas of the globe, almost completely neglected - at least publicly - by the wartime Allies. Moreover, what also emerges is a disturbing sense, that maybe, just maybe, there was something to the survival myths after all, for one thing seems clear from the pattern of events after the war, particularly in respect to Antarctica: such myths were inevitably connected to the exotic research pursuits the Germans were conducting, and such myths seem clearly to have been the hidden motivation for American counter-strikes.

THE "NAZI LEGEND"

The "Legend" of a Nazi origin of many wartime and postwar UFO reports received a big "credibility boost" when a researcher and reporter for the prestigious "Jane's Defense Weekly", British reporter Nick Cook, wrote a book on anti-gravity and quantum zero point energy research called "The Hunt for Zero Point".

Cook's book is a personal chronicle, summarizing in anecdotal fashion his own personal research into American anti-gravity projects - a "hunt" as he calls it-that quickly led him to a very unsuspected source: Nazi Germany. Recounting how many of the best reports of "foo fighters" or UFOs during the war were submitted by the 415th Night Fighter Squadron, and occurred in a triangle over southern Germany from Frankfurt-am-Main, Metz, and Strasbourg in the year 1944, Cook then recounts his discovery of the book that gave birth to the Legend, German Major Rudolf Lusar's "German Secret Weapons of World War Two":

"Seeking clues to the foo-fighter mystery, I discovered a copy in the reading room of the Imperial War Museum. In it, Lusar described in meticulous detail, in language that often made the depths of his bitterness clear, the technical achievements of 'a small, industrious and honest nation which lost the war'.

"Secret Weapons made somber reading. Although German technical achievements were visible in developments such as the V-1 flying bomb, a direct forerunner of the modern-day cruise missile, and the V-2 ballistic missile, it was the vast extent of Germany's underpinning technology base, as revealed by Lusar, which showed just how far ahead of the Allies the Nazis had been in certain key areas.

"Jet engines, rocket engines, infrared and thermal-imaging systems, proximity fuses, missiles guidance seekers....technologies that are integral to most modern aircraft and airborne weapon systems were all listed and described. In the late 1950s, when Lusar's book first appeared, these technologies were still in their infancy in Britain and America.

"Yet the Germans had been working on them a decade and a half earlier.

"But there was another side to the book, one which was so sensational that immediately on its appearance it had set alarm bells ringing in Washington.

"This side of the book related to so-called German "wonder-weapons" beyond the V-1 and V-2.... Other esoteric developments detailed by Lusar showed that the Germans had been working on bringing down Allied aircraft with sound waves, air vortices, intensely focused beams of light and jets of compressed air.

"In 1958, the U.S. Air Force commissioned a "special studies group" within Air Force Intelligence headed by an Austrian-born technical consultant called Dr. Stefan Possony to carry out a detailed appraisal of Lusar's book. The research effort was branded "secret" and has only recently come to light....

"A section in Lusar's book was devoted to "flying saucers" which he asserted, in no uncertain terms, were the product of German wartime inventors. "Experts and collaborators in this work confirm that the first projects, called 'flying disks', were undertaken in 1941," Lusar wrote. He even went on to name the key individuals involved. These were "the German experts Schriever, Habermohl, and Miethe, and the Italian Bellonzo".

The premise of reputable aerospace journalist Nick Cook's book "The Hunt for Zero Point" is that German scientists developed exotic antigravity technologies, including flying saucers, during World War II. This has been elaborated on the Internet into a cultish historical mythology of saucer types developed by the Nazis during and after the second World War. A key reference in this thesis is a book that appeared in Germany in the 1950's, Rudolf Lusar's "Die Deutschen Waffen und Gehimwaffen des 2.Weltkrieges und ihre Weiterenwicklung" ("German Weapons and Secret Weapons of the Second World War and their later Development").

The dialogue on Cook's book since its release includes efforts to portray Lusar as "..the isolated testimony of a disenchanted German major with definite Nazi sympathies" and his book as a collection of "fantastic stories". It is also asserted that the engineers mentioned by Lusar never existed.

The whole thing might be dismissed, but in a USAF technical description of a secret flying saucer being developed in Canada with US government support was declassified. This was just what Lusar asserted.

Well, one way to decide is to go to the original. Through a bookseller one can purchase a copy of Lusar's book. Based on the criticism one would expect a raving tract full of flying saucers and Nazi sympathy. In fact the book is an encyclopedia of German weapons technology. In 268 densely-packed pages it provides the dry technical details of every major weapon developed by the Third Reich - from rifles and hand grenades through tanks, artillery, aircraft, rocketry, submarines, naval vessels, chemcial and nuclear weapons, radar, infrared detection, and on and on.

Lusar's articles are technically and factually correct and to the point. Indeed, the articles on advanced jet and rocket weapons indicate the author understands the technology involved very well, with the technical parameters correctly described (more so than many other books in the 1950's

The saucer pops up suddently, complete with a line drawing, on page 151, in a section devoted to 'Special Devices'(The other two such devices are the jet backpack and the helicopter). It is not given special treatment - understandable, given that the performance of the saucer described is considerably less fantastic than that of the V-2 or A9/A10 ICBM covered elsewhere in the book.

So the case for Lusar's book being some kind of neo-Nazi saucer tract falls apart. Before discussing its credibility further, consider this complete translation of the German original:


Flying saucers

Flying saucers have been appearing around the world since 1947, emerging suddenly here or there, coming and going at extraordinary speeds, with rotating flames shooting from the edge of their disks. Radars have tracked them; fighters have pursued them. Nevertheless no pilot has yet to ram or shoot down a "flying saucer". The world, including the engineering world, stands before either a profound mystery -- or a technical miracle. Only slowly have the facts emerged, that German researchers and scientists took the first steps during the war to develop these "flying saucers". They built and tested aircraft with characteristics bordering on the marvelous.

Confirmed information from specialists and workers on these first projects, called "flying disks", indicates that development began in 1941. These devices were designed by the German experts Schriever, Habermohl, Miethe and the Italian Bellonzo. Habermohl and Schriever designed a broad planar ring, which rotated around a fixed control cupola. This disk wing could be rotated into the appropriate position as required for vertical takeoff or horizontal flight. Miethe developed the 42-m-diameter discus-shaped disk, into which adjustable jet nozzles were installed. On 14 February 1945, Habermohl, working in Prague, tested the first "flying disk". In three minutes the craft reached an altitude of 12,400 m and a horizontal flight speed of 2000 kph ( ! ). The design was planned to reach speeds of 4000 kph.

Extensive preliminary tests and research work were necessary before construction could begin. Because of the high speed and the extraordinary thermal stress, suitable heat-resistant materials had to be identified. The development, which cost millions, was near completion at the end of the war. At war's end the existing prototypes were destroyed. However the work in Breslau, where Miethe worked, fell into the hands of the Soviets. They took all the materials and specialists to Siberia, where work on these "flying saucers" is successfully continuing.

Schriever escaped from Prague in time. Habermohl might be in the Soviet Union, since he disappeared without a trace. It has been disclosed that the formerly German technical designer Miethe is in the USA and has developed such "flying saucers" for the USA and Canada at the A. V. Roe Company. The American Air Force received the instructions years ago not to shoot at "flying saucers". This is an indication that there are indeed American "flying saucers" which must not be endangered. The devices observed so far are in the sizes of 16, 42, 45 and 75 m in diameter and develop speeds up to 7000 kph ( ? ). As early as 1952 "flying saucers" were observed over Korea. Such devices were also observed and reported by the press during NATO maneuvers in the Alsace in the autumn of 1954. The fact that "flying saucers" exist can no longer be denied. It is likely that continued official refusal to acknowledge there existence in America is due to development there not having been completed yet. Any disclosure might be of use to the Soviet Union in their own program. Further it seems that there is a reluctance to proceed with the technology. It has been recognized that these new "flying saucers" are vastly superior to normal airplanes - including modern turbojet-driven aircraft - in flight performance, load-carrying capacity and agility, thereby making them utterly obsolete. .

Note in later editions: A news report from Washington at the end of 1955 indicates that the US Air Force will soon flight test aircraft, which completely correspond in their appearance to the common conception of a "flying saucer". Air Force Undersecretary Donald Querles stated that these flight models could take off perpendicularly and would have the form of a disk. They would not need expensive runways for operation.


This single article neatly summarizes Cook's entire book. The German's developed saucer technology during World War II. It was taken over by the Americans after the war. It was successfully developed, but never advanced because it represented a threat to the technology adopted by the American military-industrial complex. The difference is that these saucers are powered by conventional jet engines, not any exotic antigravity drive.

Another criticism of Lusar is that he is merely summarizing reports made in the European press in 1950-1954. In particular these are a report on flying saucers in "Der Spiegel" of 30 March 1950, which contains a paragraph on Schriever and an artist's concept of the saucer; an interview with Richard Miethe in "France-Soir" of 7 June 1952; and an interview with a Georg Klein, in "Die Welt am Sonntag" of 14 February 1953. This is certainly true, especially as regards the interview with Klein. However note Lusar's use of the word confirmed in his article ("..Confirmed information from specialists and workers on these first projects..") This would seem to indicate that he had some kind of independent confirmation of the reports.

It is also asserted that the German engineers he mentions as being involved in the saucer project cannot be found in any documentation after the war. Some deny that any of them exist. However this is unconvincing. The same can be said of a nearly all of the shadowy German high-technology specialists who worked on missile projects in post-war Spain, Egypt, and Argentina. These names appear nowhere on the American Object List of Scientists.

Let's consider each of these engineers in turn:

• Rudolf Schriever certainly existed. He was interviewed, together with photographs, in several German newspapers between 1950 and 1953. He is not heard of after 1953. Some Internet sources say he died in a car crash that year (oddly enough, nobody has followed up on the possibly sinister implication of this). Schriever is a not uncommon surname in Germany, and is concentrated around Bremen, which is where Lusar's Schriever is said to have lived. Schriever's activities are attested in a CIA press roundup from Africa:

Inventor in West Germany Perfects "Flying Saucer" -- "Conakry", La Guinee Francise, 20 November 1952:

"The first patent for a "flying saucer" was recently applied for in West Germany by Rudolf Schriever, a former pilot, who claimed to have perfected an "elliptical flying object" after 11 years of research.

"The inventor claimed that the craft, equipped with motors, has a diameter of 40 meters and can rise and descend vertically or remain motionless in the air. He estimated its maximum speed as 4,000 kilometers per hour".

• Richard Miethe is said not to exist, there being no confirmation of his existence aside from Lusar and the "France-Soir" interview. However that interview with Miethe, when read in its entirety, is convincing and has several obscure details of his postwar service in Egypt that are verified by other sources. On 15 July 1959, a "UFO New York" newsletter, ridiculed the Canadian Avro saucer story and reported that personal contact with Avro indicated they knew nothing about a Miethe. But given that the project was so secret that it was not declassified until 1995, such a denial is not surprising. In modern Germany those bearing this name are heavily concentrated on the easternmost border, particularly around Gorlitz.

• No trace is said to exist of a Habermohl, and it is asserted that this is not even a German name. That is certainly true. However Habermehl is a proper German name, of average occurrence, with an estimated 1296 persons bearing this name in modern Germany. They are concentrated in Vogelsbergkreis, in Hessen, north of Frankfurt.

• Professor Giuseppe Belluzzo (not Bellonzo) was a leading Italian turbine specialist and built the first turbine-powered train in Italy in 1907. Belluzzo was born in Verona in 1876. He taught in Milan and then Rome, and was the author of more than fifty technical books. He was also involved in installing turbines in Italian cruisers and battleships. He later went on to a career in fascist politics. He was elected to Parliament and was Minister of National Economy from 1925 to 1928. In the early 1950's he also gave several press interviews asserting involvement in development of Nazi turbine-powered flying saucers. He died in Rome on 21 May 1952.

• Georg Klein is not mentioned by Lusar. In the "Welt am Sonntag" article he is described as a Lead Engineer and ex-functionary in Albert Speer's ministry during the war. He not only describes the project, but asserts that he, together with Speer, personally witnessed a flight test. It can be seen that a lot of Lusar's content was taken from this source. Attempts to link Georg Klein with a historical personage have so far failed - unfortunately Klein is the 15th most common surname in Germany. Various summaries of his interview is also from the CIA archives:

German Engineer States Soviets Have German Flying Saucer Experts and Plans - Athens, "I Vrdayni", 13 May 1953

"Vienna (Special Service) -- According to recent reports from Toronto, a number of Canadian Air Force engineers are engaged in the construction of a "flying saucer' to be used as a future weapon of war. The work of these engineers is being carried out in great secrecy at the A. V. Roe Company factories.

"Flying saucers have been known to be an actuality since the possibility of their construction was proven in plans drawn up by German engineers toward the end of World War II.

"Georg Klein, a German engineer, stated recently that though many people believe the flying saucers to be a postwar development, they were actually in the planning stage in German aircraft factories as early as 1941.

"Klein said that he was an engineer in the Ministry of Speer and was present in Prague on 14 February 1945, at the first experimental flight of a flying saucer.

"During the experiment, Klein reported, the flying saucer reached an altitude of 12,000 meters within 3 minutes and a speed of 2,200 kph. Klein emphasized that in accordance with German plans, the speed of these saucers would reach 4,000 kph. One difficulty, according to Klein, was the problem of obtaining the materials to be used for the construction of the saucers, but even this had been solved by German engineers toward the end of 1945, and construction of the objects was scheduled to begin, Klein added.

"Klein went on to state that three experimental models had been readied for tests by the end of 1944, built according to two completely different principles of aerodynamics. One type actually had the shape of a disc, with an interior cabin, and was built by the Miethe factories, which had also built the V-2 rockets. This model was 42 meters in diameter. The other model had a shape of a ring, with raised sides and a spherically shaped pilot's cabin placed on the outside, in the center of the ring. This model was built at the Habermohl and Schriever factories.

"Both models had the ability to take off vertically and to land in an extremely restricted area, like helicopters.

"During the last few days of the war, when every hope for German victory had been abandoned, the engineers in the group stationed in Prague carried out orders to destroy completely all their plans on their model before the Soviet forces arrived. The engineers at the Miethe factories in Breslau, however, were not warned in sufficient time of the Soviet approach, and the Soviets therefore succeeded in seizing their material. Plans, as well as specialized personnel, were immediately sent directly to the Soviet Union under heavy guard, coincidental with the departure from Berlin of the creator of the Stuka, who later developed the Mig-13 and -15 in the Soviet Union".

According to the report, nothing is known of the whereabouts of Habermohl since his disappearance from Prague; Schriever died recently in Bremen; and Miethe, who escaped in a Messerschmidt 163, is in the US.

Klein was of the opinion that the saucers are at present being constructed in accordance with German technical principles and expressed the belief that they will constitute serious competition to the jet-propelled airplanes.

Klein further stated that it was very possible to construct flying saucers for civilian air travel; they could carry 30-40 passengers at a speed of 4,000 kph. He added, however, that the tremendous amount of material necessary for their construction did not warrant their being built exclusively for civilian air travel. His opinion was shared, he stated, by Giuseppe Belluzzo, the Italian specialist with whom Klein has been corresponding for some time.

And a further report with some additional details:

Describes Saucer Experiments - Capetown, "Die Landste", 9 January 1954

"A German newspaper recently published an interview with Georg Klein, famous German engineer and aircraft expert, describing the experimental construction of flying saucers carried out by him from 1941 to 1945. Klein stated that he was present when, in 1945, the first piloted flying saucer took off and reached a speed of 1,300 mph within three minutes. The experiments resulted in three designs: one, designed by Miethe, was a disk-shaped aircraft, 135 feet in diameter, which did not rotate; another, designed by Habermohl and Schriever, consisted of a large rotating ring, in the center of which was a round, stationary cabin for the crew. When the Soviets occupied Prague, the Germans destroyed every trace of the flying saucer project and nothing more was heard of Habermohl and his assistants. Schriever recently died in Bremen, where he had been living. In Breslau, the Soviets managed to capture one of the saucers built by Miethe, who escaped to France. He is reportedly in the US at present".

The declassified 1955 report on the Avro "Silverbug" saucer indicates that at that time it was still purely a design, with not even wind tunnel work being completed. Officially this design led only to the Avro Avrocar, a modest subscale prototype used to study the operation of a saucer in ground effect in 1959-1961. Officially Miethe or the Germans had no involvement with the project, and the Silverbug was conceived by Avro Chief Engineer John Frost in 1951-1953.

And yet consider the similarity of performance figures for Lusar's "ridiculous" saucer and the smaller Avro Silverbug research

The most likely scenario is that there was indeed a German turbojet-powered saucer project; that the persons named did indeed work on it; that it was indeed investigated by both the Americans and the Soviets in great secrecy after the war.

However, it is also apparent that it was a technological dead end (given the fact we are not flying in saucer airliners). The same was true of a lot of Nazi technology about which there is no question - the ramjet, the flying wing, the delta wing, the rocket fighter, the Sänger Antipodal boost-glide bomber. All of these were investigated at enormous expense after the war, often with the assistance of captured German engineers. Prototypes were tested, and the technology was often found to offer advantages. But in no case did the technology divert the course of current aerospace technology.

This may be because the technology didn't work as advertised. The Avrocar had stability problems and was not officially known to have been pursued further. The Silverbug design has a lot of complex draggy rotating machinery and inlets. It may be that wind tunnel tests revealed it could never reach the advertised supersonic speeds (the Air Force report has a whiff of skepticism in this regard). Heavily classified 'black' programs have always been a good place to bury Congressional examination of expensive technical failures.

It may also be, as Lusar hinted and Cook asserts, that the technology worked but would be disruptive to the entrenched aerospace-industrial complex.

It should also be noted that, following a decade of experimentation with aerospace technology after the war, the world selected a few 'best solutions' and has stuck with them ever since. 'Good enough' trumped 'better'. This is certainly the position of advocates of flying wings, hovercraft, WIG aircraft, single-stage-to-orbit rockets, and intercontinental supersonic, hypersonic, or rocket transports. All of these technologies have their fans, who are certain that just a little more development would bring the technical advantages into production. But the accountants and bureaucrats are not interested.

A failure of imagination?

Officially the Silverbug never flew. UFO fans have however noted the similarity between the Canadian Silverbug and some of the UFO's sighted and photographed over the years in the Pacific Northwest.

"THE PHOENIX RISES: RISES": THE BORMANN PLAN

"The documents I had before me... contained firsthand evidence that the Reichsleiter had survived the war and succeeded in escaping to Argentina. It was attested by the Argentine authorities themselves, in highly classified intelligence reports and positions papers drawn up for their own secret and official use."

--Ladislas Farago, "Aftermath; Martin Bormann and the Fourth Reich" (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1974) 

As the war turned irrevocably against the Third Reich, top Nazi leaders began to plan for the future, among them the Nazi Party's Reichsleiter Martin Bormann, Adolf Hitler's secretary and virtual shadow, and financial administrator of the Party's, as well as of Hitler's own personal and considerable, fortune. While much of this story is known to the general public in broad outline, few appreciate the degree of organization, planning, and success it had, and, unfortunately, may be continuing to have. Even fewer appreciate its significance, for what began in the secret societies of post-World War One Germany as the most explosive political movement in modern history would end by once again going underground, and operating behind a variety of false fronts that included corporations, black projects, secret societies, and criminal and paramilitary syndicates. It would thus exercise a considerable, though hidden, moral and cultural influence on the world that emerged after World War Two.

With the failure of the final large German offensive in Soviet Russia at Kursk in 1943, the Nazi leadership had but two courses of action: (1) continue the war and hope for the realization of their secret weapons projects in time to provide a military resuscitation, or (2) begin the process of moving capital, technology, and personnel to ensure the survival of the Party by other means. The Nazi leadership chose both courses of action.

At first the movement of resources abroad -monetary, technological, and human - proceeded haphazardly. Money and loot from a plundered Europe made its way into secret Swiss bank accounts, or in the case of hard assets - precious minerals, bullion, art, diamonds and other gemstones and so on - made its way overland through France into "neutral" but decidedly pro-Axis Nationalist Spain.

But it soon became apparent that haphazard efforts would not ensure the survival of the Party, nor the furtherance of its ideals, nor the spread of its power in the postwar world, nor the continuance of its research projects, which would have to be continued if it ever hoped to regain power and influence. Organization and long-range planning in depth and breadth had to occur if Nazism were to survive covertly. To this end, Reichsleiter Martin Bormann orchestrated a top secret meeting on 10 August 1944, at the Hotel Rotes Haus in Strassburg, in occupied France. Representatives of all the major German industrial and armaments firms were present, including the huge firms of Krupp, Thyssen, and of course, I.G. Farben. Also present were Bormann himself, Hjalmar Schacht, president of the Reichsbank, and his son-in-law, the famous SS commando, Colonel Otto Skorzeny, leader of the daring air mission to rescue Benito Mussolini in 1943. At this meeting, "provisions were made not only to move great sums of money outside Germany but also to camouflage foreign assets on paper for the resurrection of a financial-industrial empire, of sorts, once the Reich collapsed. This empire was to be controlled by the SS." [Henry Stevens, "The Last Battalion and German Arctic, Antarctic, and Andean Bases".]

As a result of this plan, the well-known SS-run ratlines were formed to assist fleeing SS and other Nazis, to provide for their financial security, relocation, and false identities. The most famous of these was of course the ODESSA group, or the Organization Der Ehemahligen SS Angehörigen, or "Organization of Former SS Members." Another famous organization was 'Die Spinne' or The Spider. In any case, under the Reichsleiter's powerful protection, the SS, in concert with the Kriegsmarine, began to smuggle enormous quantities of gold, precious gems, art and both genuine and counterfeit cash out of Germany. To a lesser extent, machine tools, steel, technicians and other personnel began to be quietly siphoned off Germany industry and smuggled out of Europe.

The financial treasure trove was then laundered by the SS via a variety of methods, for example, through Evita Peron's Swiss bank accounts, through dummy corporations, through the South American drug trade, and so on.During this immediate post-war period, most of this fortune was controlled by Otto Skorzeny.

The German industrialists who had been set up abroad with SS money dating back to the deal at the Rotes Haus in Strassbourg in 1944 were asked by Skorzeny to pay back their loans. Both Thyssen and Krupp did so, as presumably did others. To give the reader an idea of the sums collected by Skorzeny, Eva Peron alone had an estimated $800 million dollars in bank deposits, in 1945, and 4,600 carats of diamonds and other precious stones, 90 kilograms of platinum and 2,500 kilograms of gold. [Ibid]

With these monies, the SS purchased huge tracts of land in South America and elsewhere, and large corporations were established in which "research which (sic) had begun in Germany could be carried through." These "secure areas" or Sperrgebiete often saw the establishment of whole towns, airfields, highways and all the amenities of civilized German life. Local security was, of course, provided by the SS or "contract labor" from the host country. The most famous of these colonies, perhaps, is the Colona Dignidad in Chile, a "colony" notorious for the disappearances of the too-inquisitive reporter, and implicated in the us overthrow of the Chilean Marxist government of Salvadore Allende in the early 1970s and the training of Chilean dictator Pinochet's DINA "interrogators". [Peter Levenda, "Unholy Alliance: A History of Nazi Involvement with the Occult" (New York: Avon Books, 1995)] And of course, secure areas in the Andes and other remote South American locations are also reputed to be the sites of secret Nazi laboratories continuing the research on "flying saucers" and other wartime Nazi black projects. [Stevens, "The Last Battalion"]

Whatever one may think of the truthfulness of the last allegation, it is true - and generally well known - that such colonies of Nazis did and still do exist in South America, with connections to the South American underworld and governments that one can only imagine. But there is good reason not to dismiss even the "continued research" allegation too quickly, for it conforms to a well-known pattern of secret post-war West German corporate and military research on the continent on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, Africa.

In the final months of his administration, President Jimmy Carter accused South Africa's apartheid government of having tested an atom bomb in the Indian Ocean. German and American newspaper reporters quickly uncovered - in spite of Praetoria's denials - a tapestry of corporations and dummy corporations that clearly led back to West Germany's Bundeswehr, and to a multitude of personnel and military officers with ties to the Third Reich. The goal was clear: The Federal Republic was supplying massive technological assistance to South Africa (and to Israel as it turned out) in the areas of uranium enrichment and plutonium transmutation via centrifuges and other processes, in return for which uranium-rich South Africa bartered the raw atomic fuel itself. Germany could thus fulfill its post-war treaty obligations by not developing or deploying atomic, biological, or chemical weapons on German soil, while at the same time using South Africa to construct and test a bomb of essentially German design. If this sounds familiar, it is, for after World War One, Germany side- stepped the Versailles treaty-which forbade the Germans possession of tanks, aircraft, and heavy artillery beyond a certain caliber - by concluding a secret protocol in the Rapallo treaty with the other pariah of the day, the Soviet Union. Thus, as early as 1922, German officers were training in tank warfare in the Soviet Union with their Russian counterparts, among them the future Colonel-General Guderian who would lead the Second Panzer Army during Operation Barbarossa to the very gates of Moscow.[The often overlooked story of the West German bomb and its very secret development was covered in the "New York Times" book by Zdenek Cervenka and Barbara Rogers, "The Nuclear Axis: the Secret Collaboration Between West Germany and South Africa" ("New York Times", 1978)]

In yet another important study challenging the standard assumptions of the origin and transmission vector of the human AIDS virus and the history of the discovery of HIV, Dr. Leonard G. Horowitz makes a solid case for its genesis within secret American biological warfare research at Fort Detrick, Maryland. But there is more to Horowitz's investigations than this, for there is a German connection lurking deep in the background, and once again, it goes back to Bormann and presages the 1944 Rotes Haus meeting in Strasbourg:

"In the Spring of 1944, Merck and Company, Inc. received a large cash infusion from Martin Bormann.... This at the time Merck's president, George W. Merck, was advising President Roosevelt, and initiating strategies, as America's biological weapons industry director. According to CBS News correspondent Paul Manning, the lion's share of the Nazi gold went to 750 corporations, largely including Merck, to secure a virtual monopoly over the world's chemical and pharmaceutical industries. This was done not only for Germany's economic recovery, but to assure the rise of 'The Fourth Reich'.

"Merck, then, along with Rockefeller partner I.G. Farben, received huge sums of money from the Nazi war chest to actualize Hitler's proclaimed 'vision of a thousand-year Third Reich (and) world empire'. This was outlined with clarity in a document called 'Neuordnung,' or 'New Order,' that was accompanied by a letter of transmittal to the (Bormann led) Ministry of Economics. 'Bury your treasure,' Hitler advised Bormann, 'for you will need it to begin a Fourth Reich.' [Leonard Horowitz, D.M.D., M.A., M.P.H., "Emerging Viruses: AIDS and Ebola: Nature, Accident, or Intentional?" (Sandpoint, Idaho: Tetrahedron Inc., 1999)]

Bormann apparently ignored his Führer, and in a momentary burst of Christianity, heeded Christ by not burying his treasure, but investing and increasing it.

In any case, as late as 1988, as the Soviet Union was nearing its collapse, Russian premier Mikhail Gorbachev appeared to be trying to point a finger of blame for the AIDS epidemic in Africa in Germany's direction. Via Russian diplomatic channels and contacts in the former Belgian Congo, now Zaire, the Russian government had learned of a Zairean physician who had formerly worked for the West German OTRAG corporation, or Orbital Transport and Missiles, AG. This doctor's OTRAG laboratory had been tasked with isolating viruses from the African green monkey that were capable of such rapid reproduction that it could destabilize the human immune system. The laboratory's assignment was to develop a mutant strain "that would be a human killer," since the green monkey variety was harmless to humans. [Horowitz, "Emerging Viruses"]

But it is really the OTRAG establishment in Zaire that is itself of the greatest interest, for it fits the pattern of post-war SS relationships with South American governments and false from corporations. OTRAG was granted a lease by the Mobutu government to 29,000 square miles of Zaire, a lease that gave OTRAG "complete sovereignty and control over the area." What was the purpose of this land? Ostensibly, it was to develop and test their cheap satellite launch capability for private industry, an application with obvious military overtones. In other words, what one has with the OTRAG-Zaire enclave is something like an Area 51, but owned by a private corporation. The enclave is nothing less than a testing facility for missiles and laboratories for biological, and presumably other types of weapons development. According to the German Information Service of South Africa, OTRAG executives included former Nazis, some from the wartime V-2 rocket project. [Ibid] This in itself should give one pause, for it indicates that German rocket research was continued, not just by former Nazis working for von Braun's NASA in the USA, or building massive boosters for Korolev in the Soviet Union, but also for West Germany itself! Moreover, OTRAG's shares were subsidized by the West German government, Chancellor Helmut Schmidt's denials notwithstanding. Finally, in what is a clear indication that OTRAG's purpose and goals were not simply to contrive cheap satellite launch capability, "Penthouse" magazine ran an expose of the German company, disclosing its ties to the Dornier and Messerschmitt-Belkow-Blohm aerospace and armaments firms which were quietly developing and testing German cruise missiles on OTRAG's Zaire range, with the aid of cruise missile technology provided to them by the American Boeing Corporation. Dornier and Messerschmitt were, of course, clearly tied to the Third Reich's war machine and had deep ties to its black projects.

Bormann 's Special Evacuation Command and the Link to the Kammlerstab

1. Box tail fins
  2. Steel gun breech assembly
  3. Detonator
  4. Cordite (conventional) explosives
  5. Uranium-235 "projectile", six rings (26 kg)
in a thin can of steel
  6. Baro sensing ports and manifold
  7. Bomb casing wall
  8. Arming and fusing equipment
  9. Gun barrel, steel, around 10 cm diameter,
200 cm length
 10. Arming wires
 11. Tamper assembly, steel
 12. Uranium-235 "target", two rings (38 kg)
 13. Tamper/reflector assembly, tungsten carbide
 14. Neutron initiator
 15. Arched fuzing radar antennas
 16. Recess for the boron safety plug (not shown)

Earlier we noted that Carter Hydrick theorized that it was none other than Martin Bormann who arranged the surrender of the U-234 and its precious cargo of enriched uranium, infrared proximity fuses, heavy water, and possibly even atom bomb designs or an actual functioning atom bomb to the United States. [It should be noted that Hydrick does not maintain that the Nazis were successful in building and successfully testing an atom bomb during the war, much less of trying to transport blueprints or a functioning model to the Japanese in the U-234. I maintain this possibility on the basis of the research presented, and on the corroborative evidence presented by Robert Wilcox in his "Japan's Secret War", that the Japanese successfully tested a bomb shortly after the bombing of Nagasaki. An infusion of actual bomb designs to the Japanese by the Germans late in the war might account for their relatively quick ability to develop and test a weapon under such difficult circumstances as the Japanese economy and military were in at the end of the war. However, it should also be noted that the Japanese had independently designed their own workable bomb along similar lines as existing German designs, as well as along the lines employed in the Little Boy Hiroshima Bomb]. Recent research by Nick Cook would tend to corroborate Bormann's role in, and therefore probable accurate knowledge of, the full scope and extent of Kammler's secret black projects empire. Bormann's position as controller of Nazi Party finances as well as of Hitler 's estate would have given him control over yet another source of funding for these projects, a source completely independent of the state.

It is in this total context both of Carter Hydrick's meticulous research, as well as of Bormann's own Rotes Haus plan for Nazi survival, that we may place Bormann's 1945 establishment of a special SS evacuation Kommando, an act that placed jurisdiction over the Ju-290 four engine and Ju-390 six-engine heavy-lift ultra long range air transport of Luftwaffe Kampfgeschwader 200 under the direct control of none other than SS General Hans Kammler. The intention is clear: as much of the actual research files and equipment of the Kammlerstab as could be evacuated from Germany for destinations unknown was to be handled by Kammler personally. This special evacuation command held these aircraft in readiness near Lower Silesia in late 1945. By this point, Kammler's power, backed by the Reichsleiter himself, was so great that he could refuse a request by Reichsführer SS Himmler for the use of one of these aircraft. [Nick Cook, "The Hunt for Zero Point"]

Kammler, "with such aircraft at his disposal" would have been able to fly a large cargo of "documents, personnel and technology pretty much anywhere" that he wanted to. "Spain, South America - Argentina even -would have represented no problem to such a long-range platform."  Cook himself quips, "What was the point of chasing Kammler, if he'd already shipped everything out?"

This revelation, coming late in the story of research into Nazi secret weapons and the Nazi UFO legend, gives a clear indication that more than just money, bullion, gems, art treasures or personnel were involved in Bormann's survival plan. Clearly, Bormann meant to preserve and continue the research already under way in the Reich by transplanting the technology and continuing its development elsewhere, either under independent Nazi control - as the various "survival" myths maintain - or under the nominal control of a host government, or via some combination of both modalities.

If Carter Hydrick is correct that it was Bormann's intention to surrender the bulk of this technology to the United States - and I believe he is - then this puts Himmler's last ditch and clumsy efforts to negotiate a separate peace with the Western Allies via Sweden into a new light. As has already been suggested in this work, Himmler was perhaps offering them the vast cache of secrets he thought he controlled through Kammler's 'think tank'. And, as has been seen, it is very possible that the American intelligence community already knew of this treasure trove via their SS contacts through Allen Dulles and SS General Wolff, and had made 'other arrangements' that included neither Himmler nor the British. Thus, by the time of Kammler's refusal to his SS boss to allow him the use of a Ju-290 or Ju-390, effective control and disposition of the SS black projects had slipped from Himmler's hands and into Bormann's. Himmler could neither surrender nor even barter for his life, because he had nothing left with which to bargain. Kammler, and Bormann, however, had a great deal to offer the Americans in exchange for their lives.

Paperclip, Compartmentalization, and Capitalization

According to Nick Cook, Operation Paperclip, the covert project to bring former Nazi scientists and engineers to the United States to work on America's own aerospace and military black projects after the war, was the primary beneficiary of the Kammlerstab's think tank secrets, blueprints, and patents. "The state-within-a-state had been transported four thousand miles to the west and somehow, I just knew, Kammler had come with it. The intuitive feeling I'd experienced in all these years in obscure corners of the US aerospace and defense industry had suddenly acquired a face".

But an important question remains to be answered here. Could these Nazis have continued their lines of research quasi- independently, even while ostensibly working for the us military? Could they have again reconstituted themselves as a similar "state within a state," a black projects coordination office within the structures otherwise nominally under the control, of the American government and military?

Clearly, it would be difficult, especially if there were no means of independent financing of these projects, altogether apart from the US government's own "black budget." But we have already seen that a crucial component of Bormann's postwar survival and resuscitation plan was capitalization. Three conduits in particular were often utilized by ODESSA and other post-war Nazi secret organizations:

(1) drugs and thereby organized crime,
(2) the Church, i.e., various "ministries" within Protestantism and diverse religious orders and congregations within the Roman Catholic Church, and
(3) false corporate fronts and dummy corporations, holding companies, and banking institutions. The United State, particularly in the last few decades, seems to have been a fertile ground for all three types of activity, at least in general terms.

As for maintaining the secrecy of such an independent and "occulted" entity, this is a solved problem, for the Manhattan Project was just such an entity, with only a very few at the highest echelons of its myriad compartmentalized "need-to-know" departments possessing the whole picture. In the postwar atmosphere, particularly with the Cold War ensuing, it may actually have been quite easy to accomplish. With US government defense contracts and black projects run increasingly on a cost-plus basis, all expenses for such research was funded, with an addition margin tacked on for corporate profit. This, added to the other genuinely off-the-books funding that Bormann and the SS envisioned, would have supplied twin sources of funding of almost limitless wealth.

But the most important consideration with respect to this question is the fact that the very classification and compartmentalization of black projects would itself operate as a favorable environment to run an "unofficial" black project within an "official" one. With projects split over several locations, its needed technologies farmed out to various companies, various departments of government, and coordinated from some secret center, it would seem a relatively easy, rather than difficult, thing to do.

The Nazi Party had been constituted, from its early secret society beginnings, and up until the very day of the German capitulation, as a state within a state. Within that structure, Himmler had constituted the SS as a state within the state within the state. And within that Kammler had assembled and coordinated a vast machinery of horror and weapons research that lived, parasitically, on the body of its host, the SS and the Party, themselves murderous parasites living off the misery of Germany and Europe. Kammler had done it once, and may very well have done it again, "with a little help from his friends". As was mentioned previously, perhaps President Dwight Eisenhower, when he warned of the morally and spiritually corrupting dangers of the military-industrial complex, had in mind a phenomenon that was not so much home-grown, as much as one that had been transplanted.

THE KECKSBURG ACORN RINGS THE BELL

"When you started on the path that you did, sooner or later the trail was going to lead you to Germany."

--Nick Cook, "The Hunt for Zero Point"

"This is a story of how key Nazis....anticipated military disaster and laid plans to transplant Nazism, intact but disguised, in havens in the West..."

--Mae Brussel, "Rebel Magazine" [Cited in Jonathan Vankin, "Conspiracies. Crimes, and Cover-ups" 

The "Bell"

The most sensational piece of information on Nazi secret research to come out since the reunification of Germany - indeed, since the origins of the Nazi "UFO" Legend itself- is the story told by Nick Cook in his "Quest for Zero Point", which appeared in the U.K. in 2001. The story is, additionally, the only real solid piece of corroboration of the Nazi UFO Legend to appear since the war, based, as as it is, on a secret and recently declassified Polish war crimes trial affidavit of a former SS general.

"The Bell" (German: die Glocke) represented something at the very pinnacle of Kammler's grisly and super-secret SS "Wonder Weapons" empire. Cook's book represents the only publicly accessible information on this bizarre object in the English language, the equally macabre experimentation that surrounded it, and the stringent security the SS held it under. The following are the salient features of The Bell, according to Cook:

(1) The Belli was reportedly a metallic object, approximately 9' in diameter and 12-15' tall;
(2) It loocked like a "Bell", hence its codename to the Germans, die Glocke;
(3) It was comprised of two counter-rotating cylinders, rotating a purplish liquid-metallic looking substance code-named "Xerum 525" by the Germans, at high speeds;
(4) "Xerum 525" was apparently highly radioactive, being purple in color, and housed in cylinders with lead lining 3 cm thick;
(5) The Bell apparently required high amounts of electrical power in its operation;
(6) During use, it could only be run for approximately one to two minutes, as it apparently gave off strong radiation and/or other electromagnetic or unknown field effects;

(a) Several scientist died on its first operation;
(b) Subsequent tests included various plants and animals, all of which decomposed into a blackish goo and without normal putrefaction, within a matter of a few minutes or hours after exposure to its field effects when in operation;
(c) Technicians near the Bell during these experiments reported metallic tastes in their mouths after being exposed to it;
d) The chamber in which the Bell was tested was lined with ceramic bricks and rubber mats, and had to have its rubber matting removed and burned after each test, and it was subsequently washed down with brine by inmates from nearby concentration camps;

(6) All the scientists and witnesses who saw or worked on the Bell were murdered by the SS as the war neared its end. [It is due to the fact that the Bell's scientists were murdered that we know anything about it at all, for the chief executioner, SS General Sporrenburg, who was tasked by Kammler with the murders, gave the only known testimony and descriptions of the Bell in his affidavit to a post-war Polish war crimes trial, for which he was conviĉted and executed.]  
(7) The Bell was transplanted out of Silesia to a destination that has never been discovered. The Bell, along with General Kammler himself, simply disappear entirely from history, never to be seen again.
(8) A strange "henge" like structure was constructed by the Germans out of reinforced concrete near the facility where the Bell was located and tested. This structure resembled a test rig for the possible test of extremely powerful propulsion devices

Cook also notes that, at the end of the war, Kammler had special jurisdiction over a secret "SS evacuation command" that had been personally established by Reichsleiter Martin Bormann in great secrecy. This command included jurisdiction over all of Nazi Germany's heavy-lift ultra-long-range transport aircraft, including the Ju-290 and the six-engined monster, the Ju-390, that we encountered. These planes were based at the end of the war quite near the secret underground facility where the Bell was being tested.

Before proceeding, it would be useful to note a few things about this strange list of properties.

First, whatever the Bell was, Kammler's SS apparently thought its secrets were so valuable, that anyone connected with its construction and/or testing had to be executed at the end of the war to prevent these from being leaked, presumably to the Russians, since the Bell was located and tested in Silesia, in what would later become Poland and East Germany.

Second, we note again the use of concentration camp inmates to perform the dangerous, and one can only presume, eventually lethal, operation of cleaning the test chamber after each experimentation with the Bell. This fact places this mysterious object firmly within Kammler's SS secret weapons black projects empire. It is entirely possible that the Bell represented something so sophisticated in terms of its principles of operation, that the then existing technology could not offer a sufficient means of protection for the important personnel involved in the experiments. Hence, concentration camp inmates may have been used as fodder to enable the experiments to go forward. Any breakthroughs the Bell represented were thus accomplished by this means, at enormous human cost.

Finally, certain properties about the Bell should be noted, since they constitute unusual data points that will be examined in connection with the Kecksburg "UFO crash". These are:  

  • Heavy electrical power consumption

  • Rotation of a radioactive liquid in two counter-rotating cylinders

  • An unusual radioactive liquid metal of unknown composition

  • Its location in a chamber lined with ceramic bricks and rubber mats

The rotation of the object, and presumably the radioactive liquid-metal called "Xerum 525", suggests that the Germans were investigating the inertial and vortex properties of radioactive material when subjected to high speed rotation, as well as the resulting field effects. It is likely that this rotation was caused by passing a current through the liquid - hence the high power consumption - but the possibility of mechanical rotation should not be ruled out in addition to this, as German progress in jet engine turbines and uranium centrifuges would have given them the experience to construct very high speed turbines for rotating such material for study. In this sense, it is possible that the Bell was nothing more than two counter-rotating ultra-high speed turbines That is to say, the Bell may have been an ultra high speed electro-mechanical turbine of some sort, an offshoot, perhaps, of German centrifuge technology development.

The housing of this device in an underground chamber lined with ceramic brick and rubber mats suggests that it gave off extremely strong electro-magnetic or electro-static field effects as well as high heat when in operation. The reporting of metallic tastes in the mouths of what few surviving personnel there are suggests this. The quick decay without apparent putrefaction of organic material within its field suggests effects that some would associate with scalar waves.

But what was the mysterious "Xerum 525"? When I first read of this strange material, I thought it might be some radioactive isotope of mercury, or possibly a more radioactive substance in chemical solution of some sort. It is perhaps worth noting that recently a strange substance known as "red mercury", or mercury antominate oxide, has been alleged to have strong neutron emitting properties when subjected to sudden explosive stress, and is alleged to be a non-fissile method of triggering the enormous fusion reactions of hydrogen bombs, as well as being able, in its own right, of fission explosions in the small kiloton range. Perhaps the Nazis had stumbled onto a similar such substance during the war.

It was on the basis of certain features of the above lists of the Bell's properties that I hypothesized in my previous book, "The Giza Death Star Deployed", that the object that crashed in the famous Kecksburg UFO crash retrieval case might have been the Bell itself. In that book, I did not explore that hypothesis, leaving it for "another book." Well, this is that "other book", and it is now necessary to examine the odd data points that seem to connect these two mysterious objects.

The UFO Crash and Retrieval at Kecksburg, Pennsylvania, December 1965

Twenty years after Kammler's "Bell" went missing, a remarkably similar object reportedly crashed in Kecksburg, Pennsylvania, in a wooded area in the country. The story of the Kecksburg incident begins at approximately 4:45 PM, 9 December 1965. From northern Canada to western Pennsylvania, thousands of witnesses described "an orange fireball tearing across the evening sky towards the south east, followed by a trail of smoke." [Michael Hesemann, "UFOs Secret History"]. Witnesses included pilots spread throughout Ontario, Michigan, and Ohio that were along the flight path of the object. Once over Ohio, however, the object clearly demonstrated that it was not a typical meteor, nor a crash in the ordinary sense of "space debris," for according to witnesses, it stopped, stood still "for a few seconds" and then changed its course towards Pennsylvania.

At this point, the Kecksburg saga begins in earnest, for at 4:47 PM, a Mrs. Jones called the local radio station WHJB in Greensburg and told reporter John Murphy that "a huge fireball has crashed in the woods about 1.5 miles from here." Her children had been playing outside when they first saw it, describing it as a burning star. Mrs. Jones, visiting a neighbor at that time on then porch, saw blue smoke coming from the forest and a bright light hovering above the area.

In the meantime, the reporter John Murphy had already driven to the site, finding already a beehive of activity there, with two police cruisers and a fire engine from the local volunteer fire-department parked at the wood's edge. After questioning Mrs. Jones and her children, the local fire marshal and one of the policemen walked into the forest, and reemerged sixteen minutes later. In response to reporter Murphy's questions, the fire marshal directed him to his lawyer!

What followed over the next few hours was genuinely bizarre, as the US Army and Air Force, and apparently some NASA scientists and technicians, [Stan Gordon, "Kecksburg: the Untold Story" (DVD video production). Gordon is considered the expert on the Kecksburg case, and the video consists of a series of recorded interviews with surviving witnesses to the event. According to Mrs. Lillian Hayes, wife of a local farmer, and her son both stated that their house was visited several times that night by military personnel, and she reports having overheard them discussing the fact that NASA was already on the scene.] literally moved in and placed the tiny village and its environs under virtual martial law:

"Whatever it was that had crashed in the forest, the Army and Air Force marched up to deal with it. The military and state police cordoned off the forest area, stationed armed guards at all the roads and ways leading into the forest and transported a whole lot of equipment to the crash site. The Air Force took over the premises of the local voluntary fire station and set up a commando (sic) post there. The firemen, now forbidden to enter the station, stood by watching while persons in military uniform brought in more equipment into the station, which included a huge radio transmitter. A little later, two large transport trucks, one of them bearing the insignia of the army, were seen driving into the forest. At about the same time, people living close to the nearby Latrobe Airfield saw a jet plane landing there, although the airfield itself had been closed to traffic for quite some time". [Hesemann, op. cit.]

Later, television, newspaper, and radio reporters arrived from Pittsburg, to be met with a wall of silence from the military.

But a police spokesman stated "there's an unidentified flying object in the woods." When the US Air Force's Project Blue book was contacted, Major Hector Quintanilla himself, then project head, informed the reporters that the Air Force's investigators were already at the site.

If it were only for the official statements and peculiar "over-reaction" of the military in such a quick response to the event, and in placing an entire town and considerable portion of its environs under virtual martial law and placing a secure perimeter around a Pennsylvania wood, little else would have been known of the Kecksburg crash. However, a local who had been listening to the radio, Bill Bulebush, made his way to the crash site, thinking to offer help to local authorities and the presumed crash victims. When he arrived, however, he saw "something that threw him for a loop":

  

   Myron's "Bell" at Wright Patterson Air Force Base

A metallic bullet-shaped object was sticking in the ground at the end of a trench, which it had obviously formed while landing. "It looked like a big burned orange. It sparkled and twinkled, was about 9 feet wide and 12 feet long. Somehow it gave me the creeps and I got away quickly." And when he read the Air Force explanation in the papers the next day, he knew they were lying. What he had seen had certainly not been a meteorite!

Suffice it to say, it strains credibility to have so many witnesses attest that the military showed up, placed an area of us territory under martial law, and called in NASA specialists, to recover a mere meteorite. The meteorite theory made no sense to local UFO researcher Stan Gordon either, since UFOs ordinarily traveled at speeds in excess of those calculated for the object, and meteorites do not stop, stand still, and then change course.

Nonetheless, there the matter would have rested, until James Romansky came forward as a witness 2 years later (1987). Romansky had been 19 years old at the time of the incident, and a member of the volunteer firefighting team that had arrived first and been instructed to comb the woods for the wreckage of a crashed airplane.

Romansky gave a description of the object that was slightly different than Bulebush's in certain details:

"It had the shape of an acorn, made of shining silvery metal which had a light touch of gold in it. Its bottom was surrounded by a kind of ring or, as Jim put it, a kind of metal bumper on which strange writing could be seen. Romansky described it later. "They looked like Egyptian hieroglyphics, but without any animal signs. There were straight and broken lines, dots, squares and circles." .... There was no glass, no propeller or jet nozzle, no burst tanks from which any fuel had leaked out, and not even the sign of a hatch or entrance".

After Romansky's story was aired on an episode of the television show "Unsolved Mysteries", other witnesses emerged with their own accounts of the incident, and substantially confirmed the account, adding new details of their own.

One of these details was that a late-night convoy of trucks, one including a large flatbed semi-trailer with an object covered in a tarpaulin. Some witnesses report that the tarpaulin was pulled tightly around the object, and its "acorn" shape could clearly be seen. The object was next seen by witnesses at its first apparent destination, Lockborne Air Force base in Columbus, Ohio, where military police units were ordered to surround a hangar and shoot anyone who attempted to enter that did not have a top secret clearance.

It was next apparently seen by a witness, "Myron", who contacted Stan Gordon, and described a similar object. Hesemann's summary of Myron's story is worth citing in full, since it bears directly on my hypothesis:

"(Myron) worked as a truck driver for a cement factory belonging to his family at Dayton, Ohio. Two days after the incident occurred at Kecksburg, his firm received a large order for specially glazed bricks from the Wright-Patterson Air Field. A representative of the base had had a look at the bricks in stock at the factory and finally ordered 6,500 double-glazed processed bricks, which, he said, "were for building a double-walled shield around a recovered radioactive object". [25]

Myron later glanced inside the hangar to view what was inside.

The object was silhouetted by floodlights behind large silk -parachute-like screens. Myron described "the shadowy outlines of a large bell-shaped object....perhaps about 9 feet wide and 12 feet high. Through a small opening in the tent, Myron could see that it was metallic, like some kind of whitish bronze". 

Analysis

There are a number of curious data points that would appear to connect Kammler's "Bell" with Kecksburg's "Acorn". Hesemann's book, from which the above accounts and quotations were cited, was published in 1998, before Nick Cook's "Hunt for Zero Point", with its summarization of SS General Sporrenberg's descriptions of the Bell were first made known to an English speaking audience. This means that the Kecksburg witnesses record something that sounds eerily like Kammler's Bell. Consider the following list:

(1) Both objects arc described in very similar terms, as "acorn" or "bell" shaped; the Pennsylvania witnesses could just as easily be describing Kammler's Bell, and Sporrenberg similarly, could just as easily be describing the Kecksburg Acorn;
(2) Both objects are described as having similar, if not identical, dimensions, being approximately 9 to 12 feet in diameter and 12 to 15 feet in height;
(3) Both objects had to be housed in a chamber made of "glazed" or "ceramic" bricks, because,
(4) Both objects apparently gave off strong radioactivity or other strong field effects.

In fact, it is on only one point that the two objects differ, if indeed they are two distinct objects, and that is the consistent testimony by witnesses who actually saw the Kecksburg "acorn" UFO, that some strange form of writing existed around the "bumper" of the object, resembling hieroglyphics to some, "but without the animal and people pictures," as James Romansky puts it, and resembling geometrical forms according to a few others. No similar statements exist for Kammler's Bell.

But even this may not necessarily be a sufficient reason to dismiss the possible connection. The kind of writing described may have been a form of runes, a form of writing in which the occult-oriented SS was also interested. [For SS rune research, see Dusty Sklar, "The Nazis and the Occult" (Dorset Press, 1989)] These types of symbols can sometimes resemble geometric objects that some witnesses associate with the writing on the Kecksburg UFO. It is much more difficult, however, to find a resemblance between them and "hieroglyphic" writing.

With regard to point (3), another significant question occurs: why did the Air Force so quickly decide that ceramic, or glazed, brick, would be the best means of shielding the object? There are other more effective, though more costly means of shielding, and cost may have been a leading factor in selection of this method. But the suddenness with which the decision is taken to shield it at Wright-Patterson Field with such bricks also suggests a knowledge of and familiarity with the object, and, possibly, of its history as a Nazi secret weapons project. In any case, the swiftness of the military's reaction to assemble a recovery team at Kecksburg also indicates that the object had been tracked by the military for sometime as it flew over Canada and the eastern us. It is as if the military had been expecting it.

  

   The Trajectory of the Kecksburg

And finally, there is yet another odd point that may connect the Kecksburg Acorn to the Kammler Bell. We have already seen that some "Nazi survival myths" have a secret German base close to the Arctic, operating at a remote location in Canada near Hudson Bay. While I discount the idea, it is perhaps worth noting that the trajectory of the Kecksburg Acorn as it tracked from Canada into the US to its final crash site in Pennsylvania, would, if extended north into Canada, place it along a line more or less where the "Arctic Nazi survival myth" places the alleged secret German base.

Near the end of his book, Nick Cook, recounts a meeting with a friend who had started him off on a quest that he knew would eventually lead Cook back to Nazi Germany. "Markus"" words are a chilling warning:

"When the Americans tripped over this mutant strain of non-linear physics and took it back home with them, they were astute enough to realize that their homegrown scientific talent couldn't handle it. That it was beyond their cultural terms of reference. That's why they recruited so many Germans. The Nazis developed a unique approach to science and engineering quite separate from the rest of the world, because their ideology, unrestrained as it was, supported a wholly different way of doing things.... The trouble was, when the Americans took it all home with them they found out, too late, that it came infected with a virus. You take the science on, you take on aspects of the ideology, as well".

In any case, it seems that there are enough points of similarity between Kammler's Bell and the Kecksburg Acorn to at least raise a third alternative as an explanation for it, in addition to the two approaches previously taken, namely, that it was a crashed extra-terrestrial craft or probe of some sort, or a crashed Soviet Cosmos satellite. It may have been a Nazi secret weapons project, that inadvertently got away from its testers, was brought back under control, and deliberately crashed, only to be retrieved again. The Kecksburg incident raises the horrifying possibility that SS Obergruppenführer Hans Kammler's Bell and his SS secret weapons Sonderkommando survived the war intact, metastasizing throughout the very secretive, and labyrinthine compartmentalizations of America's black projects world. This raises the specter that some of "our" black projects may not be ours at all, but someone else's. We are just footing the bill.

FINAL THOUGHTS 

"By involving the concentration camps, the SS had unwittingly set the seal on any serious post-war investigation of the science and technology it had pursued during the conflict. But then Kammler told Speer he was planning to contact the Americans and that in exchange for a guarantee of his freedom he would offer them everything.... He informed Speer that he was assembling all the relevant experts in Upper Bavaria in order to hand them over to US forces".

--Nick Cook, "The Hunt for Zero Point"

What emerges from all this? Three broad areas seem to be affected by the revelations and speculative possibilities outlined - and I stress, only outlined - in this book: physics, history, and politics/culture. Clearly there are sufficient, though admittedly scanty, technological references, reports, diagrams, and witness accounts, to reveal the fact that the Third Reich had developed areas of physics and technology scarcely imaginable, even today. That the Germans were much farther along in atom bomb development seems clear, even if they did not successfully test a device, as I believe they actually did.

We know too certain broad outlines of that physics. It was based on a dynamic conception of the aether as a topological space, having most likely certain inertial properties of its own. It was likewise a dynamic aether, in which particle reactions appear to have been modeled as geometries and combinations of forms of rotation. It appears, above all, to have been a physics based on the pursuit of the will to power, and thus willing to entertain the most apparently unorthodox ideas - from the standpoint of today's "public consumption" physics - in that pursuit.

This disturbing potentiality raises a more problematical aspect of what has been outlined. Almost any way one views it, it seems clear that the end of the war and the strange deployments on the Allied and German side exhibit the characteristics of a race against time, the Nazis trying to prolong the war by every desperate means available, and the Allies, with almost equal desperation, trying to bring it to a close. It also seems clear that the Allies and particularly the Americans were racing very deliberately toward targets that their intelligence, at a very high level, was guiding them to.   

Beyond that, the notion that the Germans successfully exploded even a large fuel air bomb - which they very evidently did - calls much into question, not only about the publicly stated origin and development of that particular piece of contemporary mass destruction hardware, but also calls into question the whole massive expenditure of billions if not trillions of dollars by both the Soviet Union and the United States on thermonuclear weapons. A fuel air bomb is much cheaper, causes a level of destruction on the order of at least small atom bombs, which are considered strategic weapons of mass destruction.

If the Nazis succeeded with this device, as they very much did, does this explain perhaps the strange accounts from the Eastern Front of some sort of weapon of mass destruction being used on the Russians? One that would drive them, in desperation, to pass on to Berlin via some neutral channel, to cease and desist or they would begin using poison gas? The development of the fuel air bomb in some early prototype by the Nazis explains too another mystery, for if they did successfully develop an atom bomb - then their reasons for not using it have already been given: they were being developed as detonators for something far more destructive.

In any case, the various revelations and speculations presented make one thing abundantly clear. Our history began to be massively re-written even before the end of the war, and has been manipulated to an extraordinary degree since then. Nowhere does this seem more in evidence than in the fact that there appears to have been a successful - albeit only prototypical - development by the Nazis of a very different type of physics, a physics that remains off the books.

This to me is the most disturbing aspect of all that my own, and other's, research has uncovered, for a "two track" science - one developed and controlled in secret by the few, and for their own aggrandizement and pursuit of power, and the other developed in public and maintained by the same oligarchy with their power to grant or refuse funding, and their power thereby to control journals and what types of research will be "tolerated" - is the utmost mockery of science. And when science is mocked, morality is mocked because truth is mocked, and this brings us to the third area, the most disturbing of all: politics/culture.

The Will to Power was what drove the Nazi Regime in any endeavor it undertook, whether the conventional military operations it conducted, to the death camps and genocide it was preparing for the world, to the occult and esoteric research of the  Ahnenerbe and the Kammlerstab. That Will to Power seems evident in all aspects of the science implied by the things discussed in this book. And this compels a final observation.

Many people — and I would number myself among them - view the Zero Point Energy as our best long range hope to resolve some of the more pressing environmental and energy problems of our planet. It does hold almost limitless promise for a whole host of new technologies, and there is enough in the literature to convince me that various scientists and inventors - the ones not hobbled by academic tenure or the agendas of grant foundations and government - are on the verge of exciting discoveries.

But with that energy comes the potential for weaponization of a power and sophistication that we with our thermonuclear popguns can only imagine. With it comes a view of the universe subject to the Will to Power. A moral consequence, and commitment, is implied in such a physics. It would therefore seem to imply, inevitably, precisely a "two-tiered" science, one for the public, and one for the initiate, when he or she is spiritually able to handle the extraordinary power it makes available to them in non-destructive ways. There is a degree of evidence that this is, in fact, what happened in ancient times, and certainly it seems to have happened to the Kammlerstab's work after the war. Perhaps, at least initially, its contents were so sensational that, for moral reasons, it was decided to keep it under wraps.

But the Will to Power remains closeted within that science and the black projects it engendered and no doubt continues to engender.

The power to tinker with the topological properties of space, and the energy resulting from it, is an absolute one. And absolute power corrupts absolutely.


The "Race" to the Moon

•  "The foundations for the grand space project were laid down during WWII.
•  "This project was conceived and designed as a collaboration between two superpowers.
•  "The Cold War was a convenient cover under which aspects of this project could be implemented and hidden".

-- Mary Bennett and David S Percy, "Dark Moon: Apollo and the Whistleblowers"

"In the Nick of Time"

"The methods and philosophies that the Nazi scientists brought with them resulted in serious breaches of U.S. security and the unthinkable horror of American soldiers being used as research guinea pigs in the same way that concentration camp prisoners had been used during the war". 

--Linda Hunt, "The United States Government, Nazi Scientists, and Project Paperclip: 1945 to 1990" (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991)
 
"James Webb, NASA’s second administrator, complained that the Germans were circumventing the system by attempting to build the Saturn V in-house at the center. Rocco Petrone, who became the Marshall director in 1973, said that Webb felt the group needed to be more tightly controlled".

On 4 January 1945, U.S. General George S. Patton wrote a remarkable thing in his war diary: “We can still lose this war". It was a remarkable statement, especially since the last large German offensive of World War Two, the Battle of the Bulge, was all but finished, and the victorious Allied armies, like their Soviet counterparts in the East, were then poised to deal the final death blows to Hitler’s crumbling Third Reich. Optimism prevailed at the Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF). For some reason, however, General “Blood and Guts” Patton, despite his well known public image of bravado and optimism, had serious private fears and reservations. The question is: Why? Why indeed, since on any conventional military appraisal, the German Reich was finished. It was only a matter of time. But even with the ill-fated German Ardennes offensive - the Battle of the Bulge - there is more than meets the eye when one adds in the thesis of my previous book, "Reich of the Black Sun", that the Nazis may have won the race for the atom bomb well ahead of the Manhattan Project. The objective of the German offensive was, according to the standard explanation, to break through thinly held American lines in the Ardennes, drive behind the Allied lines in Holland, seize the port of Antwerp, and thus not only drive a wedge between American and British forces, but also to cut the supply lines to British Field Marshal Sir Bernard Law Montgomery’s armies in the Netherlands. But the standard explanation fails simply for the reason that the Allies would have been capable of using Dutch ports to supply the “trapped” armies. Thus, the end of the war presents, behind the “obvious” and “well known 'facets',” yet another mystery. What really was the Nazi leadership trying to do, and why would it have caused such concern to General Patton to cause him to remark about it in his diary?

British author Geoffrey Brooks pinpoints the hidden military and political reasoning that lay behind the Nazi offensive by raising precisely this question:

"Hitler’s Luftwaffe ADC von Below remarked in his 1982 memoirs that even he could not understand why Hitler wanted to go to Antwerp - "a place that led nowhere". ["Hitler’s Terror Weapons: From VI to Vimana" (Pen and Sword Books: Bamsley, South Yorkshire) 

But the answer may lie in a curious order placed in German shipyards in the period leading up to the surprise German offensive, for an order for twenty-four “500-ton submersible barges able to transport and launch V-2 rockets” was placed at yards in Stettin and Elbing. And London was just within range of the V-2 from Antwerp. But the mystery does not yet end, for an offensive merely to resume the V-2 bombardment of England does not yet make sense. According to Brooks, one only begins to see the logic behind the German offensive by seeing it connected to a resumption of V-2 attacks, for “the V-2 campaign had been a failure. Hitler knew that. There had to be something extra to make all this worthwhile". What that “something extra” was, was hinted at by none other than the Deputy Commanding General for the US Army Air Force’s Intelligence, Lieutenant General Donald Putt, shortly after the war in 1946. Brooks’ comments are worth citing extensively:

"(Lt. General Putt) told the Society of Aeronautical Engineers: “The Germans were preparing rocket surprises for the whole world in general and England in particular which would have, it is believed, changed the course of the war if the invasion had been postponed for so short a time as half a year". Putt was also quoted in an aside as having stated that “the Germans had V-2s with atomic explosive warheads".

A surprise is a surprise and hitherto ordinary rocket warfare had proved unproductive. The range of the V-2 was 200 miles. The crucial success of the Allied progress by December 1944 had therefore been to drive the German forces in Europe beyond this limit. The objective of the Ardennes campaign was the Belgian port of Antwerp, 200 miles from London.

In other words, once again, the Nazi atom bomb is the hidden logic at work in the operational plans of both sides late in the war, and is very likely the hidden operational logic behind the otherwise militarily indefensible German offensive in the Ardennes. Small wonder then, that Patton would remark “We can still lose this war", even at such a late date. Similarly, if this scenario is the basis of his remarks, then it also serves to indicate that America’s most celebrated field commander was also privy to some very sensitive information. As was seen in my previous book, "Reich of the Black Sun", a number of articles appeared in the post-war Western press to corroborate the notion that the war was won, not against a tottering Reich, but just in the nick of time. The articles usually accompanied these evaluations with revelations of Nazi secret weapons, most of them on the “fantastic” end of the spectrum. Perhaps this was a ploy to convince the Western public that the Nazi leaders were quite insane - as if any convincing needed to be done by that point - and that their hopes were so wildly bizarre and unrealistic that indeed the Third Reich’s military state in late 1944 and early 1945 was all but hopeless.

"We Can Still Lose This War"

But psychological operations or not, even the American aerospace firm Convair (Consolidated Vultee) got in on the act, with a two page advertisement in "Life" magazine in its 27 August 1945 edition with an article entitled ..."...by the Skin of our Teeth":

"SEVERAL TIMES during the European phase of this war, victory was almost within Germany’s grasp...on land, on the sea, or in the air. Above all, knowing the vital importance of air supremacy, the Nazis tried time and again to wrest it back from the Allies. And they almost succeeded. 

"Time Ran Out

"Especially in the last months of the war, our margin of safety was slimmer than most of us suspected. Just how slim it was is known best to certain American military experts who have since inspected some of Germany’s underground research laboratories and war plants. Here they saw secret weapons in various stages of development . . . weapons which might conceivably have turned the trick for the Nazis if they could have used them boldly in a last desperate gamble. Some of these things can be revealed. Others cannot - vet. In one plant, the U.S. Army officers found partially assembled jet fighter planes of radical new design. There were planes potentially better than anything the Allies had in combat at that time. IF time hadn’t run out on the Germans, quantities of these jet planes might have changed the balance of air power in their favor. In a V rocket plant, burrowed 800 feet deep in limestone rock, our technicians found blueprints for a fearful V bomb with an estimated range of 3000 miles. “We planned to destroy New York and other American cities starting in November,” said a German rocket engineer.

"Target: U.S.A.

"In a converted salt mine, our ordnance officers examined nearly completed jet-propelled heavy bombers... bombers claimed by the Germans to be capable of crashing high explosives into the industrial cities of the eastern United States and flying back again across the Atlantic. Göring himself said the planes had been successfully test-flown and would have been in operation if Germany could have held out three months longer. But those catastrophes, and others, never quite came to pass on the German timetable of war. We managed, right to the end, to maintain the air supremacy we had achieved...sometimes just by the skin of our teeth!" [Cited in  Friedrich Georg, "Star Wars 1947"]

This disquieting state of affairs suggests that there was more to German rocketry at the end of the war than merely lobbing short- ranged V-1s and V-2s on London and other western European cities. Indeed, if blueprints for a rocket with a 3,000 mile range were found in an underground factory at the end of the war, this strongly suggests that the rumored intercontinental Amerikaraket was nearing production, and that implies that some long range prototype may have already been tested. Moreover, this “we won in the nick of time” attitude is corroborated by two very unlikely sources. Project Mercury and Gemini astronaut Gorden Cooper revealed that at the war’s end America was only one week from catastrophe. But even more sensational corroboration of General Patton’s gloomy assessment comes from President Franklin Delano Roosevelt himself. After receiving information via Turkey that the Germans were working on a “V-3” that could strike the east coast of the U.S., President Roosevelt revealed in a letter to his cousin Daisy on 6 December 1944, the real reason for his concern: not the rocket itself, but the fact that the Germans possessed ”a weapon named V-3, that could destroy anything within a circumference of a kilometer with a single blow.“ The dating here is significant, for it would place Roosevelt’s letter after both the German fuel-air bomb tests and, more importantly, after the alleged a-bomb test on the island of Rügen ca. 10-11 October 1944. [As noted in "Reich of the Black Sun", Italian eyewitness Luigi Romersa, who described the test in detail, leaves out of his description any observation of the fusing of the soil at the test site into the glassy silicate covering associated with above ground low altitude nuclear tests. This fact weighs strongly against the test having been of a nuclear device though other signatures of the device tested there resemble a nuclear bomb. Background radiation on Rügen appears too small for a nuclear device. Romersa might thus be obfuscating his testimony; perhaps the test was elsewhere in the Baltic, or perhaps the test was of a large fuel-air bomb?]

President Roosevelt and General Patton were not the only senior Allied officials to express private reservations about the future course of the war at that late date. Indeed, behind the Allied superiority in all conventional arms, there lurked a disquieting fact, a fact made clear by the following secret memorandum:

SECRET
HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES STRATEGIC AIR FORCES IN EUROPE (REAR) Office of the Director of Intelligence 
AAF Sta 390 APO 633, U.S. Army 5 January 1945

MEMORANDUM:
To: Brigadier General George C. McDonald, D. of I., Hq., USSTAF.

1. You will recollect that the SHAEF forecast, arrived at after D-day in 1944, placed the capitulation of Germany at the end of December of that year. It is believed that this SHAEF forecast strongly influenced the planning in Washington and in this theater. Predicated upon this date, questions of type U.S. Air Force equipment, weapons, tactics, training and supplies were decided.
2. Hitler’s Germany did not place the termination date of this war at the end of 1944. Hitler’s Germany has indicated with determination and virility that it expects this war to continue for a long and indefinite period of time, and that it is struggling to gain supremacy in weapons as well as generalship.
3. With the exception of a few modifications and improvements in the U.S. Air Forces in this theater are fighting with substantially the same weapons as they used in 1942. From 1942 through 1944 the aircraft and equipment of the U.S. Army Air Forces were superior in practically every detail to anything the enemy had in this theater. Indeed, weapons and equipment in general, whether belonging to the Ground Troops or to the Air, enjoyed for the U.S. superiority during this first period. This period ended 31 December 1944 with Germany still fighting, but Germany is not fighting with the weapons of 1942. She is leading the world in tested jet propelled airplanes, long range missiles, new type submarines and, in certain classes, better tanks. A large part of her manufacturing facilities have gone underground and she is bending every sinew for the last stand on the Vaterland frontiers.
4. Our Ground Armies, despite superiority in manpower and quantity of equipment, are presently engaged more in defensive than offensive fighting and, unless this state of affairs is quickly changed or the Russians actually drive through to Berlin and victory, we must face the grim expectation of fighting Germany and her new capabilities through greater 1945.
5. The new submarine threat is mounting and we may expect that the Admiralty and our Navy will soon bring pressure to bear on the United States Strategic Air Forces to go after submarine yards, pens and components manufacture. The tank and armored vehicle industry is proving a fresh and considerable menace in the present Western campaigns, so pressure might be expected from the Ground Armies to devote a part of our bombardment weight to these production centers. A special report had been prepared by Lt. Col. Haines dealing with the growing menace of jet aircraft...

If this somber assessment did not succeed in warning General McDonald of the true nature of the situation, it was spelled out in no uncertain terms in the conclusions at the end of the document:

6. CONCLUSION:

a. The war has not terminated in accordance with SHAEF plans.
b. SHAEF timing has dominated the development of equipment, training programs and establishment of manpower and supply for this theater.
c. The first cycle and period of the war has ended without the capitulation of Germany and with Germany leading in the development of principal new weapons and methods, which will be included in her capabilities during 1945. [Cited in Friedrich Georg, "Hitlers Siegeswaffen, Band 2: Star Wars 1947": Teilband B: "Von der Amerikarakete zur Orbitalstation - Deutschlands Streben nach Interkontinentalwaffen und das Erste Weltraumprogramm" (Schleusingen, Germany: Amun Verlag, 2004)] 

In other words, the Germans simply were not complying with SHAEF’s desires for them to roll over and surrender in the face of overwhelming Allied numerical superiority. Indeed, as the document indicates, that very numerical superiority was threatened with immanent obsolescence, if not being totally obsolete, in 1945. Germany, which had invented modern combined-arms maneuver warfare as a means of offsetting her potential opponents’ numerical superiority, was about to change the nature of warfare yet again, and catch the Allies flatfooted, unprepared, and off balance. But was the reality of German potential in fact in line with these gloomy Allied intelligence prognostications?

German Potential in Late 1944 Early 1945

Papers for Paperclip: Project Lusty

Late war German war-making potential is perhaps best summarized by a series of recently declassified documents - first uncovered by British researcher Nick Cook - called “Project Lusty.” This, as Polish researcher Igor Witkowski observes, was a “parallel operation in relation to ‘Paperclip.’

Igor Witkowski, "The Truth About the Wunderwaffe", trans. from the Polish by Bruce Wenham (Farnborough, England: Books International (European History Press, 2003). Witkowski’s research in "The Truth about the Wunderwaffe", like Carter Hydrick’s in "Critical Mass", is first class and simply put, cannot and must not be ignored by any serious inquirer into the alternative and secret history of World War Two secret weapons and technology. I state this simply to put the record straight, since a number of stupid and utterly silly remarks have been made about Mr. Witkowski in various reviews of Nick Cook’s "The Hunt for Zero Point". These reviews have tried to impeach Cook’s story by, in some cases, implying that Mr. Witkowski’s work was somehow slip shod or second rate. The persons making such comments have obviously never bothered to read Mr. Witkowski’s work nor considered its profound implications. So, once again, to set the record straight, Mr. Witkowski’s work is superb and magisterial. The reviewers implying that Mr. Witkowski is an “unknown” or a second-rate author might possibly be in the covert employment of somebody’s (Hot) Air Force}.

Its contents are “such an absolute revelation that it gives the impression of being a story from another planet.”

The Project Lusty documents consist of a descriptive section as well as a list of intelligence facilities/ “targets” in the occupied Reich. In the descriptive section, at the very beginning, mention is made for example of seized German evacuation transports - U-boats. This concerns facts that not only shed a completely new light on the end of World War II and the issue of the Third Reich’s scientific and technical achievements, but above all are shocking with the awareness that they are still clouded in a curtain of secrecy!
 
Under the aegis of this program alone, and by its own admission, some 110,000 tons of scientific papers were transferred over three months to a center in the United States, where they were then processed and disseminated to the interested agencies of the US government. As if that were not enough, the records of the German Patent Office, for instance, were found buried 1,500 feet underground in a Potash mine near Bacha. There were approximately 225,000 volumes, which included secret files.(...) Eventually, the files were evacuated and studied. (...)

This is a crucial revelation, for it brings us back to the context of the Kammlerstab SS secret weapons “think tank” for the simple reason that all patents in the Third Reich were secretly scrutinized by a highly classified SS entity called Forschung, Entwicklung, Patente, which answered to an SS Obergruppenführer Emil Mazuw, about whom more will be said later. Project Lusty’s revelation accordingly prompts a very serious question: did the American intelligence teams simply “blindly stumble onto” this treasure trove? Or were they led there? The last possibility seems more likely, as it is known that Kammler returned to Prague and the Skoda Works at Pilsen - headquarters of his “think tank” - in the last days of the war. As Nick Cook hypothesizes, Kammler did so to put the finishing touches on gathering up all his files and gathering them together to barter for his life. [Nick Cook, "The Hunt for Zero Point"] Thus, if the Americans knew where to look, this information could only have come to them from some source inside the Kammlerstab. It is well known that SS General Wolff undertook secret surrender negotiations with OSS station chief in Zürich, Allen Dulles, in the closing days of the war. What is little known, however, is that this process was taking place with the tacit blessing of none other than Adolf Hitler and Nazi Party Reichsleiter Martin Bormann, by then the real master of Nazi Germany. As Carter Hydrick has argued, the classic signature of Bormann in all these late-war negotiations with the Americans was the exchange of technology for the lives of leading Nazis. [For the escape and role of Bormann in negotiating these high technology transfers, see Carter Plymtom Hydrick, "Critical Mass"]. This permits one to speculate on a secret history that possibly underlies the strange constellation of events in southern and south central Germany, and Bohemian Czechoslovakia, at the end of the war. Among those events one must highlight the following:

1. U.S. General Patton’s rapid drive across southern Germany toward the Skoda Works at Pilsen in Czechoslovakia and similar Allied thrusts toward the Harz Mountain SS installations in Thuringia;
2. The secret negotiations between OSS station chief Allen Dulles [Dulles later became CIA chief, was dismissed by President Kennedy after the Bay of Pigs fiasco, and then later appointed by Lyndon Johnson to head the Warren Commission “investigating” the President’s murder!] and SS General Wolff;
3. The disappearance of SS General Hans Kammler;
4. The disappearance of Kammler’s most highly classified research project, “the Bell,” along with all its project documentation; and finally,
5. The ironic - and some would say extremely suspicious - death of General George Patton shortly after the war’s end.

A speculative pattern emerges, for if Wolff was secretly negotiating with Dulles with the tacit approval of Bormann - and Bormann’s approval meant Hitler’s as well - then it is likely that the collateral was the treasure trove of the Kammlerstab’s documents, which would have included the secret patents of the Third Reich, seized and classified by the Forschung, Entwicklung, und Patente. The unerring precision with which late war American thrusts - largely by Patton’s Third Army - toward the most secret centers and installations of Kammler’s black projects empire were guided can only indicate that at some very high level the Americans were receiving “inside information” that came from an equally high level within the Third Reich: Kammler and Bormann.

Patton may either have been the point man in some of these operations, or, as is more likely, was simply privy to a vast amount of first hand field intelligence reports that allowed him to piece together a thorough and nearly complete overview of the extent of Nazi black projects. One may speculate that Patton’s field reports at this time constituted a kind of “Kammler Index” of the Third Reich’s secret weapons projects. In either case, he would have been in a position to disclose a vast and hidden intelligence operation, not the least of which included a Faustian bargain for exotic technology and post-war co-operation between the Nazis and the western Allies, particularly with the United States. And what of the treasure trove itself? A glance at more unusual German secret weapons will demonstrate why General Patton in early 1945 - perhaps already “in the loop” on the secret negotiations taking place, and the “technological potential” the Allies faced if those negotiations were not successful - expressed serious private reservations about the Allies “still being able to lose this war".

Death Beneath the Seas: The Extraordinary Capabilities of the Type XXI U-boat

While Project Lusty concerned itself exclusively with Nazi aero-space technology, it is worth mentioning one of the deadliest potentials that was already coming into production as the war approached its end: the very new, and very lethal, German Type XXI U-boat. The Type XXI thus represented no mere prototype waiting to see production; it was not mere potential. It was a very real and present danger that would have presented the Allies with no end of difficulties at sea had the war continued even just a few weeks longer. And as I averred in "Reich of the Black Sun", it is likely that the British had the misfortune of encountering a few Type XXIs before the end of hostilities.

The Type XXIs possessed a novel propulsion system, the Walther turbine utilizing hydrogen peroxide, that allowed a speed of some 17.2 knots submerged, and according to the first trials information of the Kriegsmarine, were capable of a truly astonishing submerged depth of 330 meters! [Witkowski, "The Truth About the Wunderwaffe'] Some statements placed its submerged speed closer to 21 or 22 knots. Moreover, the Type XXI could continue at this phenomenal underwater speed for some 340 miles before having to slow to recharge its accumulators. Thus, the Type XXI, unlike the subs of every other navy or even its predecessors in the Kriegsmarine, was not merely a submersible; it was, in fact, the first truly modern submarine vessel, a vessel designed to do most of its traveling under water, not merely a vessel that could submerge when necessary. With its special “radar absorbent material” coating its newer streamlined Schnorkel device, and its tremendous maximum possible submerged depth, the submarine managed to be undetectable to American surface vessels at a mere 200 meters away when the U.S. Navy conducted tests on one specimen in 1946! As Polish researcher Igor Witkowski puts it, the submarine “was a jump from the level of the 1940s into the 1960s.” But even this recitation does not even begin to exhaust its truly deadly potential in naval warfare. If an Allied aircraft somehow managed to elude its on board radar and four 20 millimeter turreted anti-aircraft guns on either side of the boat’s streamlined conning tower, the submarine could be completely under water in a mere 18 seconds. But that is not all, for unlike any other submarine in any other navy, the Type XXI’s captain would not even have to see his target to fire torpedos at it:

The submarine possessed a completely revolutionary system of torpedo fire control, enabling it to carry out effective attacks even at complete submersion, the target positions being determined by creating three-dimensional co-ordinates of the noise’s source through recalculating of delays received by various microphones placed on the submarine’s hull. After an attack the Type XXI escaped at maximum speed, at which the enemy’s sonar was totally ineffective (it maintained effectiveness up to approx. 12 knots).

The potential of the Type XXI was thus not a mere "potential". It was a deadly reality. One can only imagine what a Type XXI equipped with the new wire-guided or acoustic-homing torpedoes would have done to Allied shipping had it entered service in sufficient numbers. After all, a Type XXI with conventional torpedos was bad enough...

Death in the Air: The Sound Barrier Too?

The Project Lusty documentation referred to previously indicates that the Type XXI’s deadly performance characteristics were matched, if not surpassed, by similar German developments in aerial warfare. With the Allied and Soviet Air Forces’ increasing dominance of the skies over Germany, it became increasingly vital for the Luftwaffe to pursue the unconventional avenue toward recovering mastery of the air over Germany. One such solution, the Focke Wulfe Triebflügel, is well-known to researchers. This “vertical take-off and landing” or VTOL fighter was a viable solution, since there was no need to try to take off or land on bombed and cratered airfield runways. Consisting of three rotating wings around a central fuselage, each wing was tipped with a ramjet engine. The wings could in turn be rotated to increase or decrease the angle of attack. With rockets to assist the ramjets to get started, the Triebflügel was in effect a vertical take-off and landing jet-airplane combined with a helicopter. Witkowski describes it as follows:

"(The) name could be translated as “propulsive wing”, reflecting its unusual principle of operation. During take-off and landing the lifting surfaces performed the function of a helicopter’s rotor, whereas during flight at high speed they “transformed” into wings.... Three ramjet engines were mounted on the wing tips, each with a maximum thrust of 840 KG. During take-off they were boosted by three Walter rocket engines, accelerating the wings to a speed enabling the ramjet engines to be started".

Prior to the publication in English of Witkowski’s research, however, little was known about the performance capabilities of this unconventional aircraft, and it remained a curiosity. Witkowski, however, managed to procure a post-war Polish report on the actual test results the craft managed to achieve:

"The maximum vertical speed did not exceed 124 km/h. After climbing to a sufficient altitude, the aircraft commenced horizontal flight with the adjustment of control surfaces and ailerons.(...) In horizontal flight the aircraft reached a speed of 1,000 km/h. The rotor operated at 520 rpm, which after conversion gave a rotational speed of the tips of 1,500 km/h. The initial rate of climb amounted to 7.5 km/min. Rotor working time -42 min., range 640 km. At an altitude of 11 km horizontal speed amounted to 800 km/h". [citing W. Kozakiewicz et. al. "Bron rakietowa" (G_owny Instytut Mechaniki, 1951)].

Note that the speed of the craft at normal altitudes was 1,000 kilometers per hour, or approximately 600 miles per hour. Note also that the craft was apparently capable of reaching altitudes of some 11 kilometers, or about six and a half miles above the surface, far above the normal operational altitudes of most Allied and Soviet aircraft of the war. The performance characteristics cited are made even more remarkable by the fact that the Triebflügel and similar craft were apparently brought to the United States as part of Project Lusty:

"A report reached Lt Col. O’Brien’s party that a “strange aircraft” had been seen in a mountainous retreat near Salzburg. Investigation quickly determined that this “strange aircraft: was a jet-propelled helicopter, the only one of its kind in the world. The inventor and his entire staff, who had laboriously worked ten years to perfect it, were present, guarding his invention as one would a precious jewel. The helicopter was examined, and a preliminary superficial interrogation of the staff was sufficient to reveal its tremendous importance. It was carefully loaded in a large truck and taken to Munich. From there it was sent across Europe to France, placed on a boat and shipped to Wright Field, together with the confiscated notes, drawings, and meticulous records of experiments conducted by the scientist and his assistants". [cited in Witkoski, "The Truth About the Wunderwaffe"].
 
The Triebflügel and similar other projects were thus for the American military no mere curiosities. They represented significant technological advances over then existent American aerospace technology. But now a question occurs: if the machine - and there was only one such of its kind in the world - was brought to Wright Patterson Airfield [Thus, if one is to believe all the reports about Wright Patterson, it is home to a very odd collection of aliens - both extra- and sub- terrestrial - and Nazis!] and its scientists interred and papers confiscated, how did the post-war Polish Communist government know so much about its performance within six years of the war’s end? The standard answer is, of course, that there were Soviet spies within the program, and that is the most likely explanation. But there is another possible answer that will loom ever larger as we proceed, and that is that it is possible that all these programs were continued after the war in a variety of host countries including Russia, and yet were independently co-ordinated from some hidden center, passing information back and forth between the cells in various host countries via a continuing “Nazi International”.

The Triebflügel also points to another direction wartime German research pursued, and pursued with a vengeance: high performance ramjet-propelled aircraft. Indeed, when entering this area of inquiry, one is again entering one of those areas where the reality of wartime German accomplishments in secret weapons research was in diametric contradiction to the post-war Allied Legend, only in this case, the legend is not about the Allies having acquired the A-bomb while the Nazis remained incompetent nuclear bunglers, but about the fact that an American, Chuck Yeager, was the first human to pilot an aircraft through the sound barrier, an event that occurred after the war’s end and the beginning of America’s own black projects in exotic aircraft and space-based weapons.

The story begins with the acknowledged expert on ramjets, Prof. Dr. Alexander Lippisch, and his designs for a delta-winged P-13B ramjet aircraft. The goal of the project was to produce a super-sonic aircraft with a cheap, reliable propulsion system. Lippisch produced a number of designs, beginning with the P-12. 

Work on this aircraft was interrupted in May 1944, and Lippisch produced the design for the cleaner lines of the P13b. Wind tunnel trials soon showed the advantages of the pure delta shape for supersonic flight, however, and Lippisch produced his final design for the P13b, the final design for which is described in a U.S. intelligence summary for April, 1945:

The Final Version of the Lippisch P13B

According to a US Intelligence Summary of April 1945: "The remarkable thing about the P13b development is that according to one version, the pure Delta version, i.e., the final version was the version that went through comprehensive trials in 1945".

The design in fact, was completed by 7 January 1945. But did this fantastic supersonic fighter ever progress beyond the planning and wind-tunnel test stages? Enter Project Lusty once again. Frame 599 of the documentation lists the various actual aircraft that were brought to the Wright Airfield in the United States for “extended study and development.” [Witkowski, "The Truth About the Wunderwaffe']. As the documents state, "at least one, in some cases as many as ten, of the following, which represent only a fraction of the types (of aircraft), were located, some only after extensive searching throughout Germany".

The report then lists the types of aircraft, not just documents, that were seized:

"The Messerschmitt aircraft series 1101, 1106, 1110, 1111 and 1112, a series particularly interesting in that it illustrates a phase of co-ordinated aircraft design into which American aircraft are only now entering; seven rocket-propelled piloted aircraft specifically designed for anti-bomber interception work; a jet-propelled helicopter; Flettner-282 helicopter; Horton-9, a flying winged glider; Ju-188, a radar equipped twin-engine night fighter; Ju-290, four-engine long range transport; seven Me-163s, rocket-propelled interceptor fighters; ten Me-262s, twin jet-propelled fighter-interceptors; He-162, single place fighter powered by jet engines; flying bombs, type V-1 single and dual piloted; Lippisch P-13 Jager (sic), a tailless twin rocket-propelled wing for supersonic speeds..."

The report clearly indicates that an actual aircraft, and not just a model, was brought to the United States, though it clearly has misidentified the fighter’s rocket engines as the main propulsion unit. They were necessary only to reach sufficient speed to start the ramjets. But the truly sensational bit of information concerning the P13b that emerges from the Project Lusty documents occurs in frame 601, where the top recorded speed for the P13b is stated as Mach 1.85, “about 2100 km/h” or approximately 1200 miles per hour. UFO researches will recognize that figure, because it appears often in newspaper accounts of UFO performance characteristics from the post-war period on into the 1950s. In any case, Polish military files indicate that the craft was prepared for, and successfully undertook, comprehensive trials ca. January-February 1945, and that indeed, the sound barrier had been broken by the Germans during that time, though no mention is made of the test pilot’s name. [It seems worth mentioning that some sources indicate that Chuck Yeager was the first American to break the sound barrier, suggesting that someone, somewhere, knew something that the general public did not].

The fact of the P13b’s incredible speed and the uniqueness and simplicity of its combustion chamber, would have meant nothing less than an aerial warfare revolution had the war lasted a little longer and the aircraft had seen production. The reason is quite simple: it was cheap, impervious to Allied radar, and utterly beyond the performance capabilities of the proto-type British and American jet fighters only just beginning to be tested. Indeed, the performance characteristics of the P13b would only be matched by the “X planes” of the early American space program some years later. As for Lippisch himself, he became something of a celebrity at Wright Airfield in Dayton, Ohio, since he was recognized as the leading authority on supersonic flight. Lippisch conducted seminars and lectures for his new American bosses. More importantly, Lippisch had also completed designs for an orbiting space station capable of dropping nuclear bombs on any target on earth.

Death on the Ground: Weapons of Mass Destruction in Use by the German Army on the Eastern Front in 1941

Beyond these deadly aerial and submarine developments of the late war, there were already indicators that something had long been afoot on the ground as well, as persistent rumors came from the Eastern Front that the German Army, on more than one occasion, had used some weapon of enormous destructive power on Russian military targets. In "Reich of the Black Sun" I indicated that this was most likely some early version of a fuel-air bomb, a device that the Germans had brought, by the end of the war, to enormous capability. The sources for these strange allegations were none other than a secret Japanese communique from its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden, to an equally secret communication from the Soviets to the Nazis that if they did not “cease and desist” the Russians would resort to the use of poison gas. Further corroboration of this is found in none other than celebrated SS commando Otto Skorzeny’s memoirs. However, he recounts that their first use occurred not in the siege of Sevastopol in the Crimea in 1942, nor indeed with the prologue to the Battle of Kursk in 1943, but in the fierce Battle for Moscow during late November and early December of 1941!

"To our left is situated Khmiki, Moscow’s port. From here it is only 8 kilometers to Moscow. On 30 November, without a single shot, the 62nd reconnaissance regiment belonging to Höpner’s Armoured Corps moves in here. It is not known why this opportunity was not exploited. Our motorcyclists retreated. Here begins the next mysterious episode in the battle for Moscow, which has escaped the attention of many historians. In order to oppose the horrifying rockets of "Stalin’s organs" we applied a new type of rocket missile filled with liquid air. These were similar to enormous bombs and as far as my competence allows me to estimate - their effectiveness had no equal. Their use immediately had an impact on the enemy’s defensive forces. The enemy used huge loudspeakers for propaganda purposes... By means of them several days after first using our missiles the Russians threatened to respond with gas attacks if we continued to use rockets filled with liquid air. From that moment, at least in our sector, they were never used again. I don’t think they were used on other stretches of the front as well". [Otto Skorzeny, "La Guerre Inconnue" (Paris, Albin Michel: 1975), cited in Witkowski].
 
Witkowski confirms the assertion first broached by Renato Vesco that the research for these weapons of mass destruction - a large fuel air bomb has the same destructive effect as a small atom bomb - was undertaken by Prof. Dr. Zippermayr under the apt code name Hexenkessel or "Witches’ Cauldron".
 
Skorzeny also indicates the method of delivery was apparently through rocket artillery systems. In point of fact, SS Panzer and Panzer Grenadier divisions often had a complement of so-called Nebelwerfer artillery units. These units were six-barreled rocket artillery pieces, ranging in caliber from 150mm (about six inches) to 280 mm (about eleven inches). The six barrels of a typical Nebelwerfer were arranged in a hexagonal pattern on an otherwise conventional split-trail artillery carriage. The 280mm Nebelwerfer units would have been the ideal delivery system for fuel air bombs. [These bombs would not have been of the same colossal size as I reported in "Reich of the Black Sun", since the range of these rocket launchers was relatively short]. One can only guess what the effect of a battery of these weapons firing fuel air bombs on rockets, with their sirens screaming down on their targets, all synchronized to detonate simultaneously, would have had on a Russian unit. The phrase "carpet bombing" together with "tactical nukes" might, however, come close. But in any case, it is clear why the Russians resorted to the threat of poison gas. And perhaps it is also clear why only recently the Russian government has revealed that its casualties during the war were far higher than anyone had previously imagined. Operationally competent as the German Army was during World War Two, the fantastic "kill ratios" it achieved on the Eastern Front could only have been due to the assistance of unconventional weaponry, and weaponry of mass destruction at that.

Nazi Atomic Bomb projects

After World War 2 it came to light from personal memoirs and collections of papers, which were not seized by the Allies, that Nazi scientists Dr Erich Schumann and Dr Walter Trinks filed up to 40 workable patent applications in wartime Germany from 1941-1944 for what we nowadays term tactical-nuclear weapons. 

Further light was given in post war articles by, or interviews with Dr Kurt Diebner and Dr Walter Trinks. Their wartime designs were amazingly credible. They were far more sophisticated than the Allied bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki requiring only sub-critical quantities of fissile material. Their designs were also adopted post war by the Americans in the so called Swan Device of 1956.

Further light was given in post war articles by, or interviews with Dr Kurt Diebner and Dr Walter Trinks. Their wartime designs were amazingly credible. They were far more sophisticated than the Allied bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki requiring only sub-critical quantities of fissile material. Their minature nuclear weapon designs were inspiration for the American Swan Device of 1956. Diebner was hired by Operation Paperclip and went to USA to guide the US nuclear program, working closely with Dr Friedwart Winterberg. Trinks went to France after WW2 helping to develop their nuclear weapons program.

Corroboration by Stockholm Signal

Corroboration emerges from various directions. For example the so called Stockholm signal. An enciphered diplomatic signal from Japan's embassy in Stockholm back to Tokyo sent in six parts in December 1944 [see text on right]. It reported Germany's Uranium atom splitting weapon with an explosive of tremendous force. The ULTRA decrypt of this signal gathered dust in US military archives until 1978 when it was declassified. There is currently no explanation reconciling the contents of that signal with the conventional view that Germany never had nuclear weapons.

-- Japanese Diplomatic Signal Intercept

General Claims

Until 2005 few people seriously questioned the accepted historical account that Nazi Germany failed to produce an Atomic Bomb, but with the publishing of "Hitlers Bombe" (2005), by author Rainer Karlsh, this accepted account of history is now widely challenged.

Karlsch astonished the world when he revealed evidence from various witnesses of a nuclear test on the Baltic Island of Rügen in October 1944, including press correspondent Luigi Romersa who only passed away in 2007.

Luigi Romersa, a former war reporter for a Milan newspaper, "Corriere della Sera", for years told the story of how he visited Hitler in October 1944 and then was flown to an island in the Baltic Sea. Romersa says that he was taken to a dugout where he witnessed an explosion that produced a bright light, and that men wearing protective suits then drove him away from the site, telling him that what he had witnessed was a "fission bomb."

Unfortunately, Romersa did not recall the name of the island he claims to have visited or who was in charge of the bizarre event. Karlsch believes it was Rügen.

Karlsch claimed these tests in October 1944 were followed by two more nuclear tests at Ohrdruf Concentration Camp in March 1945. He produced Kremlin archives to prove that Soviet intelligence reported the Ohrdruf tests to Stalin.

Karlsch cites a March 1945 Soviet military espionage report. According to the report, which cites a "reliable source," the Germans "detonated two large explosions in Thuringia." The bombs, the Soviet spies wrote, presumably contained uranium 235, a material used in nuclear weapons, and produced a "highly radioactive effect." Prisoners of war housed at the center of the detonation were killed, "and in many cases their bodies were completely destroyed."

The Red Army's spies noted with concern that the Germany army could "slow down our offensive" with its new weapon. The fact that dictator Josef Stalin received one of the four copies of the report shows just how seriously the Kremlin took the news.

Karlsch also produced the account of then still living witness Cläre Werner, custodian in 1945 of Wachtel Castle near Arnstadt, whose interview is available on Youtube.

On 4 March 1945, Cläre Werner, who was standing on a nearby hillside, witnessed an explosion in a military training area near the town of Ohrdruf.

"It was about 9:30 when I suddenly saw something ... it was as bright as hundreds of bolts of lightning, red on the inside and yellow on the outside, so bright you could've read the newspaper. It all happened so quickly, and then we couldn't see anything at all. We just noticed there was a powerful wind..."

The woman complained of "nose bleeds, headaches and pressure in the ears."

A 1943 OSS report found in the Woods Memorandum to US secretary of State Cordell Hull also refers to a series of nuclear tests in the Schwabian Alps near Bisingen in July 1943. These tests are corroborated by seismic records.

Nature of the Nazi Weapon

The weapons allegedly weighed 4-5 kilograms and used the principle of crushing Lithium into Deuterium at huge pressures & temperatures to generate fast neutron X-rays, known as a plasma pinch. Ironically this method was also known to the Manhattan Project in 1942 when the exiled scientist Enrico Fermi tried to persuade the Americans to develop this concept. The Manhattan Committee rejected a minaturised nuclear warhead with plasma pinch technology as too technologically challenging. 

These plasma pinch X-rays caused a fusion reaction between molten Lithium from the hollow charge liners and Deuteride coating the fissile target. The neutron flux was high enough that it created uniform criticality throughout the whole fissile mass, thus ignited fission in small, sub critical quantities of bomb grade Uranium. The fissile target is understood to have been a mere 150 grams of Uranium 233. This method avoided the need for a massive Uranium 235 enrichment project. The quantity of fissile material required were much more modest than the enriched material required for Allied nuclear weapons and in turn demanded a project much smaller than Oak Ridge for harvesting fissile material.

$64,000 Question...

Why if the Nazis had nuclear weapons, did they still lose the war?

The most logical explanation appears to be Churchill's threat to drop Anthrax laced cattle cakes over Germany in August 1944. Germany had no antibiotics and would have faced starvation within 2 weeks had Anthrax been used. Even earlier than this however USA at the beginning of July 1944 threatened Hitler through the German Legation in Lisbon that unless he sued for peace within 6 weeks Dresden would face attack with a nuclear bomb. In the light of continuing efforts by the United States to keep references to these  matters classified, or suppressed, Nazi acquisition of nuclear weapons cannot simply be dismissed out of hand.




Frustrated nuclear attack on New York?

There does however appear to have been at least one attempt to attack USA with nuclear weapons when a lone six engined Junkers aircraft was downed in shallow coastal waters south of Owl's Head, Maine about 17-18 September 1944. The bodies of three German aviators were recovered nearby on 28 September 1944 and were taken to the Rockport Coast Guard Station. It appears they were buried nearby with a small stone cairn erected over their grave. Locals were warned by FBI and Secret service never to repeat their sighting to anyone, thus this pivotal attack on USA has gone unnoticed in all of 65 years. Could it be that the failure of Hitler's Last Trump arose not from a failure to build a nuclear weapon, but from the inability to deliver the weapon over it's prime target, New York?

This is a chart of New York prepared for Göring in 1943 describing the effects of a nuclear air burst over the city. Bombing New York was a major obsession for Hitler. English text has been added over the chart by a more modern author.

Another justification for nuclear secrecy was raised in the so called Monsanto Report to A.H. Compton, where the authors comment on the ethicacy of releasing "useful information" in their report and Nazi records. [8 November 1945, authors A.W. Weinberg & L.W. Nordheim (NA, RG 371 - page 2-3)]

The authors note that, "...anyone knowing what is in the German reports can establish a chain reaction provided he has sufficient material". 

If that statement is correct then anyone with a truly enquiring mind should be curious to know why the Nazis did not succeed in the race for the Bomb, nor indeed why they lost World War Two.

My Personal Commentary

In the Postwar era the free press and more lately the Internet has helped us to understand that Governments do lie to us and that history books can't be relied upon. Is there some other explanation how World War Two came to an end?

Those not interested need read no further, and relief is just a click away because the Internet is full of conventional accounts of history to occupy their time. Perusal of my website is entirely optional.


© Simon Gunson (non-commercial reproduction permitted, but please cite source)

Japanese Diplomatic Signal Intercept
12 December 1944 (Magic Decrypt)
Trans 14 December 1944 (3020-B), Stockholm to Tokyo, No. 232.9 
December 1944 (War Department), National Archives, RG 457,  SRA 14628-32
Declassified October 1, 1978 (SRA = Japanese Attache)


Part

This bomb is revolutionary in its results, and will completely upset all ordinary precepts of warfare hitherto established. I am sending you, in one group, all those reports on what is called the atom-splitting bomb. Its a fact that in June of 1943, the German Army tried out an utterly new type of weapon against the Russians at a location 150 kilometers southeast of Kursk. Although it was the entire 19th Infantry Regiment of the Russians which was thus attacked, only a few bombs (each round up to 5 kilograms) sufficed to utterly wipe them out to the last man.

Part 2

The following is according to a statement by Lieutenant-Colonel UE [ISHIWARA] KENJI, advisor to the attaché in Hungary and formerly in this country, who by chance saw the actual scene immediately after the above took place:

"All the men and the horses the explosion of the shells were charred black and even their ammunition had all been detonated".

Moreover, it is a fact that the same type of war material was tried out in the Crimea, too. At that time the Russians claimed that this was poison-gas, and protested that if Germany were ever again to use it, Russia, too, would use poison-gas.

Part 3

There is also the fact that recently in London - in the period between October and the 15th of November - the loss of life and the damage to business buildings through fires of unknown origin was great. It is clear, judging especially by the articles about a new weapon of this type, which have appeared from time to time recently in British and American magazines - that even our enemy has already begun to study this type. To generalize on the basis of all these reports: I am convinced that the most important technical advance in the present great war is in the realization of the atom-splitting bomb. Therefore, the central authorities are planning, through research on this type of weapon, to speed up the matter of rendering the weapon practical. And for my part, I am convinced of the necessity for taking urgent steps to effect this end.

Part 4

The following are the facts I have learned regarding its technical data:

"Recently the British authorities warned their people of the possibility that they might undergo attacks by German atom-splitting bombs. The American military authorities have likewise warned that the American east coast might be the area chosen for a blind attack by some sort of flying bomb. It was called the German V-3. To be specific, this device is based on the principle of the explosion of the nuclei of the atoms in heavy hydrogen derived from heavy water. (Germany has a large plant in the vicinity of Rjukan, Norway, which has from time to time been bombed by English planes.). Naturally, there have been plenty of examples even before this of successful attempts at smashing individual atoms. However, as far as the demonstration of any practical results is concerned, they seem not to have been able to split large numbers of atoms in a single group. That is, they require for the splitting of each single atom a force that will disintegrate the electron orbit".

Part 5

As far as the demonstration of any practical results is concerned, they seem not to have been able to split large numbers of atoms in a single group. That is, they require for the splitting of each single atom a force that will disintegrate the electron orbit. On the other hand, the stuff that the Germans are using has, apparently, a very much greater specific gravity than anything heretofore used. In this connection, allusions have been made to SIRIUS and stars of the "White Dwarf" group. (Their specific gravity is 1 thousand, and the weight of one cubic inch is 1 ton.) In general, atoms cannot be compressed into the nuclear density. However, the terrific pressures and extremes of temperature in the "White Dwarfs" cause the bursting of the atoms; and

Part 6

there are, moreover, radiations from the exterior of these stars composed of what is left of the atoms which are only the nuclei, very small in volume. According to the English newspaper accounts, the German atom- splitting device is the NEUMAN disintegrator. Enormous energy is directed into the central part of the atom and this generates at atomic pressure of several tons of thousands of tons (sic) per square inch. This device can split the relatively unstable atoms of such elements as uranium. Moreover, it brings into being a store of explosive atomic energy. A-GENSHI HAKAI DAN. That is, a bomb deriving its force from the release of atomic energy.

 Source:

 

Beyond the Nuclear and Thermonuclear Bombs: Indications of a New Physics

Project Lusty also corroborates another sensational allegation, namely, that the Nazis were engaged in research on various types of “death rays” or “anti-aircraft rays.” This research apparently was undertaken in Vienna at number 87 Weimarstrasse. But these were no ordinary lasers. According to Polish researcher Igor Witkowski, the German government’s archives indicate that in 1944 a special Luftwaffe research establishment received the task to develop such a weapon, situated in the town of Gross Ostheim. Materials relating to this work are currently located in a civilian establishment - the Karlsruhe research centre (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe) and were disclosed several years ago.

As was seen in "Reich of the Black Sun", research was also conducted into exotic “Tesla” technology at the University of Heidelberg, where an underground Bunker was discovered that housed a large artificial quartz parabolic dish which was used to fire high voltage pulses at targets some meters away to disintegrate them. In this light it is perhaps worth mentioning that the giant German electronics firm, Siemens A.G., took out one of the first patents for an X-ray laser in the U.S.A. in 1955, roughly half a decade before the first masers and lasers were “discovered.” Did the Siemens patent in fact reflect work already undertaken by the Third Reich? While this cannot be determined with certainty, it is perhaps significant that the Siemens firm seldom reveals the exact nature and extent of its research undertaken during the Nazi era. And it is perhaps also significant that Siemens might be trying to protect a patent or device previously filed during the Nazi era and subsequently confiscated as booty by taking out a patent for an X-ray laser in the United States. Taken together, all these secret weapons projects - and they are only the tip of a very large, very deadly iceberg - indicate that Nazi Germany was aiming for supremacy on the ground, sea, and air. But it would be misleading to assume that this was the limit of their ambitions...

"The Peenemünde Problem"

"...Germany’s ‘Amerika-Rakete’ was to be armed with a nuclear warhead. The report sounds utterly fantastic. But was the danger real?"

--Friedrich Georg, "Hitlers Siegeswaffen" 

In August 1946, a highly placed department of the English War Office disclosed that "Hitler wanted the Moon" In the race of "disclosure" after the war’s end and before the iron vaults of "national security" slammed shut and the lied Legend of atomic engineering superiority was born, such extraordinary revelations were commonplace. Indeed, one must wonder if there was not a psychological or disinformation operation being run behind these early post-war disclosures, to direct attention, particularly Soviet attention, away from areas of Nazi accomplishments that were not merely paper studies and fantasies. Even here, however, one must pause, for if Nazi Germany was successful, or even perilously close, in obtaining atom bombs prior to the war’s end, as argued in the previous book on this subject, "The Reich of the Black Sun", then the comment cannot be brushed aside so easily.

The War Office comment, and Consolidated Vultee’s two page "Life" magazine advertisement disclosing the possible existence of blueprints of a 3,000 mile range rocket in an underground factory implies the existence at least of a rocket technology - and hence the delivery systems for a nuclear warhead - considerably more advanced than the puny V-2 with its limited lift and range. 

The A9 was a winged version of the Peenemünde-designed A4 (V-2) missile.  The V-2 would fly a simple ballistic trajectory after its fuel was expended, essentially like a giant artillery shell, falling on a target some 200 miles away at about three times the speed of sound (2,000 mph).  Although this tremendous speed added greatly to the destructive power of the missile, there was another way it could be used.

By adding wings to the missile and modifying the guidance system, the designers redirected the kinetic energy of the falling projectile into extra range. As the rocket encountered thicker air on its descent, it would execute a high-g pullout and enter a shallow glide. In this way, speed could be traded for distance. While the rocket would reach its target at subsonic speed, and might therefore be vulnerable to defenses, it would be able to strike a target some 400 miles away only seventeen minutes after launch. Design studies began as early as 1940. In addition to the wing modifications, the A9 would have been somewhat larger than the V-2 and its engine would have produced about thirty percent more thrust.

Development was suspended around 1941, but several V-2s were hastily modified in late 1944 to approximately the A9 configuration under the designation A4b. (Loss of the V-2 launch sites in France and the Low Countries after the D-Day invasion made it necessary to consider ways to continue V-2 attacks on England from sites in Germany). The first A4b launch on 8 January 1945 was unsuccessful, but a second, on 25 January, went better. The missile was fired vertically and reached an altitude of 50 miles and a speed of about Mach 4 - 2,700 mph - becoming the world's first winged supersonic guided missile. One of the wings failed on the descent and the glide portion of the trajectory was not accomplished. Apparently no further launches of the A4b were conducted.

An even more advanced version of the A9 was planned to be used to attack the US from launch sites in Europe. In order to do so, an additional booster stage, the A10, was necessary. An initial report on the concept was issued by Peenemünde's propulsion expert, Dr Thiel, on 18 December 1941, immediately after the US entered the war.

The intercontinental A9 was equipped with radically modified, highly-swept wings for a transatlantic glide beginning at hypersonic (greater than Mach 5) speeds and was nested in the nose of the A10. The A10 itself was about 65 feet long and was equipped with a 375,000 lb thrust rocket engine burning Diesel-grade oil and nitric acid. During its 50 second burn, it could accelerate the A9 to a speed of about 2,700 mph and an altitude of about 15 miles. With the A9 installed, the composite rocket would have stood about 84 feet tall.

A9/10 drawing dated 10 June 1941
Hypersonic A9 stage highlighted

As German researcher Friedrich Georg notes, the comment points to the existence of von Braun’s A-14 moon rocket, a design for a five stage rocket to lift three astronauts to the moon and return them to the earth where they would then land in a version of Eric Sänger’s "“rocket plane". And additionally, Consolidated Vultee’s disclosure also prompts a question: how did they know there were blueprints for such a rocket? Blueprints imply something either ready to go into production or something already being built. Where did Consolidated Vultee get its information? The answer, as we shall see, is rather surprising. And if five-staged moon rockets to carry three astronauts to the moon and back, and orbital “space planes” sound uncomfortably familiar, they should, for it would seem that von Braun’s later Saturn V booster - the actual three stage booster of the three-manned Apollo moon missions - and the space shuttle itself, are but later developments of some prototypical Nazi design concepts for manned space missions.

The U.S.A. Gets the Crème de la Crème

Such disconcerting disclosures raise the other components of the Allied Legend, namely:

1. that in the race to acquire Nazi secret weapons, scientists, and engineers and the associated technologies, the Western Allies in general and America in particular made off with the lion’s share of the loot, the crème da la crème of the Third Reich’s scientists and technology, enabling its successful Apollo moon program and likewise its early ICBM development;
2. that the German “secret weapons” projects consisted mostly of the V-1 “buzz bomb”, the V-2 rocket, and half-hearted and failed attempts at atom bomb research, and that after 1942, the Peenemünde scientists developed little else of practical value to realize the fantasies of the Nazi leadership. No progress was made by the Nazis in long-range rocket bombardment beyond the V-2 besides paper projects that never were practically realized;
3. the Germans were incompetent bunglers when it came to nuclear bomb physics and nowhere close to obtaining the atom bomb, much less enough weapons grade uranium (and plutonium?) to make one work. 

The Allied Legend as regards number (3) is in serious trouble given recent declassifications and research based upon them. Indeed, one may say that the Allied Legend is in need of serious revision, if not of being disposed of completely.

The U.S.S.R.’s Early Space Achievements


Sergei Korolëv, the brilliant engineering genius and mastermind of Russia’s early ICBM and space exploration development, like his counterpart Wernher von Braun in the U.S.A., laid a firm and lasting foundation for Russian space achievement. His influence persists to this day, if one considers that Russia’s (and by implication, China’s) Proton boosters are still the largest conventional chemical rockets in service, boosters that rely heavily on the basic concepts Korolëv pioneered. On the basis of his principles and accomplishments, Soviet Russia maintained an early lead over America, racking up the following impressive list of “firsts”:

1. It was the first to launch and orbit an artificial satellite, the famous Sputnik;
2. It was the first to launch an animal - the little dog Laika - into space;
3. It was the first to orbit and successfully return a man into space, Colonel Yuri Gagarin;
4. It was the first to orbit and successfully return a woman into space;
5. It was the first to land unmanned probes successfully on the Moon;
6. It was the first to conduct successfully “extra-vehicular activity,” i.e., a space walk, by humans in orbit; and last but not least,
7. It was the first to place nuclear and thermonuclear warheads on an ICBM, the SS-6 and SS-7 “Sapwood.”

Then, suddenly and quite inexplicably, the Soviet Union seemed to have “lost its drive” when the Apollo 8 mission successfully orbited, and the Apollo 11 mission successfully landed, humans on the Moon and returned them safely to the Earth. Inexplicably, the Soviet Union seemed to “just give up” and, as far as we know, never launched its own manned Moon mission, even though it was well within Russian capabilities. And perhaps equally inexplicably, the U.S.A., sighting “budget cuts” and public disinterest, discontinued its own Moon program, abandoning the scheduled Apollo 18 through 21 missions, and breaking up its remaining Saturn V boosters. The U.S.A. would not return to the Moon until the 1990s, with the Pentagon’s unmanned “Clementine” orbiter. Then suddenly China orbited a human, and declared its intention to go to the Moon. Suddenly American interest seemed to change again, and the Bush Administration decided it would be a good idea for America to go back while on our ultimate way to Mars. From World War Two to the present, space represents a strange cast of characters and a strange plot indeed: Hitler, the Soviets led by Korolëv and his team of German engineers, the Americans and their team of German engineers, the French-dominated European space agency and their team of German engineers, the Japanese, the Indians, and now the Chinese. China is significant for it underscores the actual Soviet achievement, for China’s space technology is but re-worked Soviet technology updated with the latest American..

Booster and Lift Capabilities

All this implies that the Soviet Union developed very early on boosters with enormous thrust and lift capabilities, as the following comparative charts of American and Russian rockets from the 1950s and 1960s illustrate.

American Boosters

Russian Boosters

As even a simple physical comparison demonstrates, in terms of raw boosting power, the Russians were consistently ahead of America throughout the earliest years of the Cold War, right down to the Apollo landings themselves. Of course this is in part explained by the fact that the Russians had to develop rockets with greater thrust than America for two important reasons. First, they were less successful in miniaturizing components than the Americans, and consequently, pound for functional pound, their rockets tended to be heavier. But there is a much more important and obvious reason. Given its relatively more northern latitude, the Russians could not take advantage of the greater angular velocity of the earth as could the Americans, situated as they were at more southern latitudes. At the latitude of Cape Canaveral, the angular velocity of the earth is greater than at the Soviet Baikonur Kosmodrome, and hence, American rockets were not required to generate as much thrust to lift similar payloads. But all this really only serves to underscore the Russian achievement all the more. Working under more restrictive conditions, they overcame them. How then was Korolëv and his design team able to achieve such early and stunning success with their boosters, especially since the U.S.A. was supposed to have gained the “crème de la crème” of German rocket scientists and engineers?



The core of the Sputnik 1 launcher was an early
ICBM, 
the SS-6. Its warhead was removed,
an extra oxygen tank added in its place,
and four additional boosters
added around the outside
.

The First ICBMs and the Characteristic Russian “Bundle ” Rocket

A closer glance at the first Russian ICBM, the same rocket used to launch and orbit Sputnik, with their typical “shape” distinctive of Russian boosters all the way up to the massive Proton booster, shows how. The typical Russian booster is not so much a single rocket but a “bundle” of rockets fastened around a central shaft which is itself another engine.

What’s Wrong with This Picture?

Clearly, something is wrong with this picture. The U.S.A. did get the best and brightest of Nazi rocket scientists and technology, yet, the Russians made away with scores of “middle” echelon scientists and engineers. How then did Korolëv hit upon the brilliant and simple expedient of the “bundle” rocket? The standard explanation is that Korolëv while on a walk in the woods around his Dacha in Moscow was inspired by the root systems of enormous trees. They suggested to him the distinctive shape and concept of the Soviet “bundle rocket” boosters. [David Percy and Mary Bennett note in "Dark Moon", that the names chosen for America’s rockets might reflect a hidden occult agenda: "It is our contention that the codenames given to projects by the Americans reveal through word association (either intentionally or unintentionally) much about their function. The names of the rockets designed by Wernher von Braun at this times were the Redstone and Jupiter. Although the old arsenal in which he worked at Huntsville was called Redstone, it is an interesting coincidence that Mars is also the red plant. Jupiter, associated with war and victory, is the Roman name for the god that the Greeks called Zeus, who was the father of Apollo."] In the light of the now known state of German wartime rocketry, however, this cannot be anything other than an attempt to deflect attention away from the real origin of the concept, for as a simple expedient to achieve quick heavy lift capability, it is a characteristic more of a nation at war - and in a hurry - straining to achieve a swift entry to space and long-range rocket bombardment capabilities. It is an expedient that - like the Nazi decision to pursue only a uranium-fueled atom bomb - fits the practical requirements of Nazi Germany.

The Real Origin of the Bundle Rocket: “Projekt Zossen ”

Not surprisingly, then, the real origin of the “bundle rocket” booster concept was in wartime Nazi Germany, where the idea was born - in 1942! - to “bundle together” five V-2 rocket engines, and fire them simultaneously, to achieve greater lift and range capability. The plan was called “Project Zossen,” a clue, perhaps, that the origin of the idea came from within the OKW’s super secret underground communications and command bunker in Zossen, a suburb of Berlin. In any case, the project was more than just a “paper project” for two designs were actually modeled and wind tunnel tests were performed on them. 

This expedient had the advantage over designing, testing and building an entirely new rocket in that the V-2’s components and performance capabilities were known quantities, already tested, and in production. And clearly Korolëv’s boosters are but a streamlined second generation version of the earlier Nazi prototype. But was a full scale version of the rocket, or for that matter, any of the other intercontinental rocket designs the Nazis had proposed, ever tested? To answer that question, we return to Peenemünde, at the end of the war, and notice yet another “problem.”

SS Obergruppenführer Hans Kammlers “Evacuation” of Peenemünde and the Russian Arrival


Is there any indication that these early German ICBM “bundle rockets” or any other long-range strategic rockets went to actual construction and testing? If so, then the logical choice was Peenemünde, for in spite of the heavy attention of Allied bombers, it was the only place presumably with facilities large enough to achieve the task.

1. Strange Events at an “Empty” Site

General Walter Dornberger made it clear that as early as 1939 the ultimate goal of the Peenemünde center was to create a long range rocket capable of striking New York City and other targets on the east coast of the United States. Of course, this implies a capability to strike all of European Russia as well.

By 29 July 1940, at Peenemünde the engineer Graupe had already produced the first designs for a trans-Atlantic 2 stage rocket. Hermann Oberth began his own formal studies for the fuel and lift requirements for such a rocket in October of 1941, as the Wehrmacht continued to liquidate the Red Army in Operation Barbarossa. But more to the point is a letter from the Reich’s emerging “plenipotentiary for secret weapons development,” SS Obergruppenführer Hans Kammler, dated October 1943, and stating that the development of the Amerikarakete continued apace. Moreover, there exist estimates for cost, labor, and material for the 'America Rocket' that strongly suggest that it had become more than a mere 'paper project'. As with anything else in Kammler’s black empire of black projects, anything suggesting 'labor' meant the slave labor of concentration camps, and to suggest that the project was merely a “paper project” is to diminish the human suffering that was involved in its very real flesh and blood actualization. Another factor must be weighed.

As indicated in my previous book on German secret weapons, "The Reich of the Black Sun", there is a circumstantial case that the Nazis successfully tested an atom bomb ca. 10 October 1944, on the island of Rügen, or possibly some other island, standing along the German Baltic coast in the sea lanes running from Königsburg to Kiel. This would imply that some time earlier in the summer of that year, the SS achieved some sort of breakthrough in its bomb program, perhaps finally acquiring enough critical mass to test in a bomb. In any case, the alleged Rügen test was successful, and as German researcher Friedrich Georg observes, the call then went out for "secure delivery systems".” [George, "Star Wars 1947": "This illustrates another facet of the German secret programs, one overlooked by most authors, namely, that unlike other countries, it appears that the Nazis gave the formal order for the development of these weapons after a test had been successfully completed. Thus, the order to “develop” such weapons should not be taken as an order to establish the research necessary to bring them to realization, but rather as the order to bring them to production. It is thus noteworthy that Hitler signs the order to "develop" the atomic bomb after the alleged test in Rügen occurs. The same, in fact, could be said of the V- 2, for it is only after Hitler sees films of the rocket being successfully launched that he gives the order to develop it"]. 

It stands to reason then, that the Amerikarakete, given this alleged atomic bomb success and actual fuel air bomb success, was much more than a 'paper rocket'. By the time of its successful testing in 1944, the paper studies and wind tunnel tests were already two years old! The rocket was, in other words, on the track to actual testing and production. All this leads us to General Kammler’s 31 January 1945 order to evacuate Peenemünde. According to the standard line, the explanation for this curious order is that the Red Army was expected to arrive at any moment. But the Red Army would not arrive at Peenemünde until May 4th! This poses a significant question: Was Peenemünde, as Friedrich Georg puts it, merely a "ghost town" for the three months from the evacuation order to the Russian arrival? The order is even more curious given the fact that, since the massive British Royal Air Force raid in 1943 that all but destroyed the facility, the process had already begun of moving as much of the V-2 production to underground sites as possible. True, the process was slow and still continuing when Kammler’s 1945 order came down, but nonetheless, it was already well under way. By early 1945 most of the V-2 production was at the massive underground factory of the notorious Mittelwerk at Nordhausen. Thus the problem: Why give an order for something already taking place? One late war incident suggests, and suggests quite strongly, that this was not the case, for on 9 March 1945, a British twin-engine photo-reconnaissance Mosquito fighter-bomber was chased from Peenemünde by no less than three German Messerschmitt 262 jet fighters. Of course, one possible explanation for the British presence at the site was that they were simply trying to confirm what their intelligence had probably already told them, namely, that Peenemünde had been evacuated. But while that may explain the presence of the RAF Mosquito, it is not a good explanation for the - by that late date - relatively heavy presence of the Luftwaffe in the form of no less than three of its rare and valuable Messerschmitt 262 jet fighters. Three jets just to chase an unarmed British photo-reconnaissance plane from a "ghost town"? Clearly this makes no sense, and implies that something was still taking place at Peenemünde, something very secret and very important, something requiring all the protection the crumbling Luftwaffe could muster.

Seen in this way Kammler’s "evacuation" order of 31 January 1945 thus appears to be a clever ploy by the security-obsessed SS general, designed to throw Allied and Soviet intelligence off the trail of whatever was still going on there. Since most of the V-1 and V-2 teams were long gone from Peenemünde to their new underground facilities, something else must have been going on that merited such heavy protection. But what was it? Fortunately, there do exist reports that during the period from March to April (and perhaps as late as May) 1945 that there were at least four tests of a large rocket named 'Thor’s Hammer' or the Amerikarakete. These reports moreover name both Peenemünde and Ohrdruf - site of the second alleged German a-bomb test on 4 March 1945 - as the possible sites of these tests. It is unlikely that Ohrdruf functioned as a test site for such a large rocket, since there was present there none of the necessary facilities to assemble and launch such a vehicle. So one is left with Peenemünde, the most likely place. In any case, three of these tests were allegedly shots of the Amerikarakete into the Atlantic, and a fourth test was allegedly to see if orbit could be achieved! [Georg, "Star Wars 1947".. Geoffrey Brooks corroborates the test launch of some longer-ranged version of the V-2 from the Ohrdruf region in the Harz: "The A-9 'winged V-2' project was resurrected in 1944/45. German testimonies allege that at least one successful test launch was made from the Harz in March 1945 and in mass production this rocket could have hit London from central Germany." (Brook, "Hitler’s Terror Weapons")].

But there is even further corroboration of mysterious goings-on at Peenemünde at the war’s end.

2. The “Urals Incident”

Oddly, while Peenemünde was visited only lightly by the British RAF after its massive 1943 air raid, it was visited often, and heavily, by the Soviet Red Air Force right up to the war’s end, suggesting that, if the British had fallen for Kammler’s ruse, the Soviets had not. It is an indication that they knew something that the Allies did not. Late-war German long-range rocket activity is corroborated, in fact, by the Russians themselves. In the Spanish language edition of the Soviet Russian science magazine "Sputnik" there is a report of the destruction in 1945 - during the war - of a Russian munitions factory in the Ural Mountains near the river Tobol. Notably, the article ascribed the destruction to a "terror attack" of "fascist perfidy" much like "the later attacks of American B-52 bombers against the port city of Haiphong in Vietnam".” If the Russian report is accurate and not merely a typical Communist exercise in disinformation or blame-shifting for their own bureaucratic incompetence, then this most probably was a rocket attack, since by that late date in the war the Luftwaffe had little left by way of long range heavy bombers able to make the trip, [Most of the Luftwaffe’s bombers capable of making the trip were being husbanded in Norway for an eminent operation against New York City] a trip that in any case had little prospect of success given the Red Air Force’s mastery of the skies over eastern Europe. Only a rocket attack could guarantee success for such an operation. Given all the foregoing, it is reasonable to conclude that the Nazis may actually have been successful in testing the first strategic ballistic missiles toward the end of the war, while falling just short of getting them into production. ....or is that too, yet another dangerous myth?

If the Nazis had indeed tested such long-range rockets, much less successfully fired one on Soviet Russia, then this implies that yet another phase of the Amerikaraket went beyond merely being a “paper study.” The Nazis could have tested all the long range rockets they wished, but they would have been utterly useless without a means to guide them to target. Thus, the existence of a credible long range and secure guidance system is also corroborative evidence that the Amerikarakete was not just a paper project. The question is, did the Nazis have such means of guidance? The answer is yes, and they did not just exist on paper.

Over-the-Horizon Radars and the Amerikarakete

Successful German tests of long range rockets, much less an actual German rocket attack on Russian sites in the Urals, implies the existence of associated technologies and methods to guide such missiles accurately to their targets. Indeed, from the scientific and engineering point of view in the early 1940s, accurate guidance of such rockets was the principal problem that the Germans faced, not the actual rocket itself. A number of methods were therefore proposed to make the Amerikarakete accurate, some technological, others less so. Given that the Amerikarakete was intended to carry “small atom bombs” and “other weapons of mass destruction,” and since the inertial guidance system of the V-2 would have been inadequate and inaccurate for attacking targets on the American east coast, the Nazis had to consider a variety of alternative modes for guidance. In other words, if the Amerikarakete was not a paper project, then one should expect the Germans to be working in each of the following areas:

1. technological and secure means of guiding a rocket to targets at long range; or, failing that,
2. alternative methods of guiding a rocket accurately to a target at long range; and,
3. technologies of miniaturizing enough rocket and/or A-bomb (or H-bomb or fuel-air bomb) components to enable a long range rocket to be able to carry such heavy payloads.

Viewed in this way, the Amerikarakete was anything but a paper project, since the Nazis considered any number of methods, from “back-pack” piloted rockets, to enable a pilot to guide the rocket to target visually before bailing out at the last minute, to actually planting a radio transponder inside the Empire State Building for a rocket to home in on, to much more sophisticated and ultimately much more secure technological means of guidance based on beam riding and radar interference. It is this last category that is of most interest to our purposes in this book, for it is this last area of development that points very clearly to Nazi interest in, and development of, areas of physics ultimately very different than those pursued by their Allied counterparts.

The German Proto-Transistor And Television Minaturization


Before examining German accomplishments in the technology of long-range rocket guidance, it is necessary to examine their success in the equally important area of miniaturization of components. Such a step was absolutely necessary if the Third Reich was ever to be successful in wedding its atom bomb - a notoriously heavy device in those days - to a rocket. 

Any and every method appears to have been pursued by Kammler’s SS Sonderkommando, including techniques of boosting nuclear fission of atomic nuclei to lower the weight of the critical mass of a nuclear warhead. But there were other successes in miniaturization. It is well known that Nazi Germany, during the infamous 1936 Berlin Olympics, successfully created the first live television broadcast of a sports event for a general public.

Television sets were placed at various locations in the Olympic village and the environs of Greater Berlin to allow the visiting athletes, tourists and German citizens to watch the games as they occurred. Needless to say, for Dr. Josef Göbbels’ Propaganda Ministry it was a propaganda coup of the first order, and a clear demonstration to the world of German technological prowess. During the war, however, television quickly suggested itself to the Germans as a means of visually guiding a short-range missile to target by placing a television camera in the nose of a missile. Transmitting a picture back to an operator on the ground or in an airplane, the rocket could then be unerringly guided to target. And by war’s end, they had successfully tested the first such “smart bomb.” Obviously, placing a television camera of the size of those used in the 1936 Olympic Games inside a missile was impractical, and so the camera had to be considerably miniaturized. By the war’s end, the Germans had been hugely successful in this task, accomplishing an almost tenfold reduction in size, a small television camera and receiver set, about the size of a large shoebox. 

Moreover, this miniaturization implies something enormously important, for such a tremendous reduction in size implies some sort of breakthrough in vacuum tube technology, if not in semi-conductor research itself.

The Germans made a klystron tube the same approximate size as the last knuckle and fingertip of a little finger! In short, the Germans came exceedingly close, very early in the war, by virtue of competent research in semi-conductors, to achieving the transistor, for the Allied equivalent of this little tube at the end of the war is ten times as large! This little “proto-transistor”, dating from 1940 (!), was used in 1941 in small radios that actually entered production for the German military, radios that were “as small as the later transistor radios of the 1950s and that also functioned with batteries.”

The Problem of the Miniature German Klystron Tube: Roswell, The E. T. Myth and the Nazi Legend 

Lt. Col. Philip J. Corso (US Army, Ret.) was perhaps something of a Godsend to UFO enthusiasts, for he corroborated - at least on the surface - the whole Roswell UFO-and-ET-crash and recovery scenario in his well-known book, "The Day After Roswell". Corso’s thesis is familiar to most people who have investigated the UFO literature. In his post as a top national security military officer, Corso maintains in his book that he was entrusted with some of the “recovered technology” from the "alien craft" that crashed at Roswell. His assignment was gradually to "seed" those aspects of "recovered ET technology" into American industry. Corso further maintains that among some of this “recovered and gradually seeded” technology were lasers, computers, fiber optics, and transistors. Of course, after the book’s appearance and Corso’s own appearance on a popular overnight radio talk show, critical and historical analysis was all but suspended, and there was a further boost to the “ET” interpretation of the Roswell incident, all as a result of his book.

Crucial to Corso’s case was the transistor, and he spends a great deal of time in his book demonstrating that his thesis of its “ET- Roswell” origin has to be true by pointing out that the history of the discovery of the transistor by Bell Laboratories is obscure at best. The reason? Very simple. The transistor had no prior "discovery history" because it was "ET" in origin. But given what has now been demonstrated, we propose that, there is another possible explanation for the origin of the transistor, one which, as we saw in "Reich of the Black Sun", it would appear that the highest authorities, including the military, wish to keep covered up. That other possible source for the transistor, one that would much more satisfactorily explain its obscure discovery history than the ET hypothesis, is wartime Nazi research and accomplishment in semiconductor research. Simply put, Corso’s work is, in this respect at least, pure obfuscation and disinformation, since one can only assume that a man of Corso’s obvious intelligence could not have been unaware of German wartime scientific achievements, as plausibly demonstrated by the miniature klystron tube, fully seven years before the Roswell incident and its recovery of "advanced ET technology". But there are other aspects of Corso’s work that must also be called into question vis-à-vis the state of Nazi secret weapons research.

It is well known that the Germans undertook and developed a wide range of infrared sites to enhance the night-fighting ability of their tanks and infantry. What is not generally known is the apparently high state of development of second and third generation technologies these infrared sites may have represented, for Polish researcher Igor Witkowski uncovered a certain amount of evidence in a recently declassified Alsos report that indicates preliminary work was undertaken in liquid crystals and something the Germans called "optical telephony". This is an extremely intriguing discovery, because fiber optics is yet another technology that Col. Corso maintained was recovered from "ET" at Roswell and "gradually seeded" into American industry.

Over the Horizon Radars

One little known aspect of German wartime research is the area of over-the-horizon radars. While the Nazis were pursuing a number of options for the guidance of their intercontinental Amerikarakete, including a piloted version from which the pilot would eject at the last moment, the most preferred method was “beam riding,” a method that would allow the rocket to be guided to target by a beam. One project consisted of placing a secret radio transmitter inside the Empire State building for the purpose! But by far the most serious and promising - and technologically involved - methods were the various Over-the-Horizon Radars that the Germans were developing for the purpose, the sets Elefant, See-Elefant, and the mobile Freya unit. The Elefant set was developed by the Research Department of the Deutsche Reischspost, and was the world’s first genuine over-the-horizon radar based on temperature inversions in the ionosphere. The See-Elefant was a further development of this equipment, and was built in western Denmark and consisted of a sending antenna, approximately 100 meters high, placed between two permanent receiving antennae some distance to either side. It was a broadband antenna system, operating in the 23-29 MHz, 24-30MHz, and 30- 38 MHz range.But the most advanced of these early over-the-horizon radars was the Freya unit, a “revolutionary system” that was “fully mobile.”

The Freya unit represented a considerably newer and different principle than the Elefant or See-Elefant, with their single sending and two receiving antennae. The central sending and receiving antenna sends out a pulse, which is also sent as secondary pulses slightly later by the antennae to either side. This is a true phased array radar, able to shape and bend its signals around the curvature of the earth, or “over the horizon.”

Consequently, the Germans, in spite of some technical shortcomings of their radar operations during the war, were experimenting in areas that were quite advanced for the day:

a. Broadband radar systems based on
b. Phased array “signal shaping” for
c. Over-the-horizon, or “action at a distance” operation. 

They were combining all these ideas with that of sending pulses of bursts of energy. All of this was, of course, for the long-range guidance of their projected intercontinental rockets. In any case, the accuracy of these types of systems had been brought to a high state by the Germans by October of 1943. By that time, the accuracy was such that it was able to guide aircraft at a distance of 105 kilometers, during a bombing run, to release their bombs within 600 meters of their target, even though it was not visible to them. However, the Germans may have discovered something while operating these sophisticated radar units that indicated they were a door beckoning to a whole new type of physics, one with a far greater promise than mere long-range rockets carrying atomic bombs. The real question remains: why would the military-industrial- national security complex be so concerned to deflect attention away from Nazi scientific achievements - an effort represented by Colonel Corso’s "The Day After Roswel"l - even at this late date, unless there is something it still wishes to hide? The answer is twofold. The most important part of the answer lies in what the Germans may have discovered with these radar sets, a part which had much to do with the exotic type of physics the Nazis may have been developing. For now we will turn to a less important reason, the reason that, if one pulled on the thread long enough and hard enough, would inevitably lead one to ask questions about the "public consumption" history of the race to the moon, the most visible aspect of the survival of Nazi research projects and their "creative financing" in the post-war world.

"From Russía with Love"

"The Second World War was an air war; the Third World War will be a space war". 

-- Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, shortly before his suicide, from a letter of October 1946 to Sir Winston Churchill
 
"Control of space means control of the world.... There is something more important than the ultimate weapon. That is the ultimate position - the position of total control over Earth that lies somewhere in outer space... "

-- President (then U.S. Senate Majority Leader) Lyndon Baines Johnson, Speech before the Senate Democratic Caucus, 7 January 1958.
  
What do celebrated Face-on-Mars expert Richard C. Hoagland, conspiriologist Jim Keith, Apollo program “whistleblowers” David Percy and Mary Bennett, an anonymous Texas lawyer, famous New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison, "occult" author "Jan van Helsing"” and even Wernher von Braun himself all have in common? All of them believe, in some fashion, that there have been, for quite some time, two space programs, one for public consumption, and another deeply covert one with its own agenda. And the idea is not confined to books or non-fiction. In the classic James Bond film "Diamonds Are Forever", a young Sean Connery tracks down a plot for world domination by the sinister “independent villain” Ernst Stavro Blofeld to a kidnapped eccentric multi-billionaire - played by country singer Jimmy Dean - who lives in a Las Vegas penthouse, and to his secret corporate headquarters somewhere in the Nevada desert. If all this sounds vaguely familiar, hang on.

Once having infiltrated the secret Nevada installation, Connery-Bond then exchanges brief remarks with a German scientist - Pr. Dr. Metz is the name of the character in the film - who is working with diamonds for use in a super-laser to be orbited in a satellite in space as the ultimate missile-destroying weapon, thus rendering America’s nuclear arsenal useless. While on this world-saving mission, Bond manages to escape the compound through a television sound stage, a set which depicts a lunar landscape, complete with suited “astronauts” going through the slow-motions of a well-scripted lunar landing. These film facts have long led those who believe that the Apollo lunar landings were hoaxed to maintain that Ian Fleming, creator of the famous British spy character and himself an intelligence agent during the war, was leaking “inside information.”

Apparently Ian Fleming was not the only one involved in such "leaks", for another famous movie, "Seven Days in May", this time by Rod Serling, celebrated creator of the famous "Twilight Zone" television series, told the story of an attempted right-wing military coup against a weak and apparently "liberal" President. The coup was centered on a secret military base somewhere in the desert of the American southwest. So real was Serling’s screenplay that the release of the movie was actually delayed after the assassination of President Kennedy for fears that it might raise too many questions. And that may not have been entirely coincidental, for President Kennedy had indeed given actual assistance to Serling when he was writing his screenplay. Did Kennedy let Serling know, in so many terms, about Area 51?

And, to round out the picture, another famous movie contributed significantly in conspiracy circles to the view of "movies-as- deliberate-leaks". The movie was "Capricorn One". In the movie, three astronauts are placed into a space capsule bound for Mars on mankind’s first manned flight to the Red Planet. But, at the last minute, they are secretly taken off the rocket and flown to - you guessed it - a secret desert base in the American southwest where, before television cameras and a full sound lot movie mock-up set of the Martian surface, the three astronauts then act out their carefully scripted parts of the voyage to and landing on Mars. To round out the picture of conspiracy, the three astronauts, having pangs of conscience, decide to expose the whole farce, and orders are given to hunt them down and ensure the project’s secrecy. Meanwhile, a curious ground member of the mission control crew, who has spotted anomalies in the data that do not square with a mission to Mars, is eliminated.

The Two Space Program Hypothesis


If anything emerges from these three famous "cult film" classics, it is a theme one encounters quite frequently in some "conspiracy" literature, aspects of which are as follows:

1. The Apollo Moon missions, or at least some aspects of them, were a hoax, and the Apollo missions did not happen in exactly the way we were told they happened;
2. As a corollary to this idea, there is the notion that there are two space programs, one for public consumption, and another hidden one, being controlled or coordinated by the military-industrial complex;
3. People have been murdered, or at least died under mysterious circumstances, who have attempted to expose this secret program and public hoax; and finally, if one adds Serling’s plot into this mix,
4. There is some element or aspect of a coup d’etat hovering in the background.

We shall call these four elements the “Two Space Programs” Hypothesis. And as will be seen below as the main non-fictional versions of it are examined, there are indeed unusually cogent arguments that at least some version of the hypothesis may in fact be true.

The Torbitt Document Version

Perhaps the most famous and yet paradoxically least known version of the Two Space Programs Hypothesis is that of the so- called "Torbitt" document on the assassination of President Kennedy. Well-known to JFK assassination researchers since its first appearance in photocopied “samizdat” form in the 1970s, the document is hardly known at all to the general public, even amongst those inclined to believe that some sort of conspiracy was involved in the assassination. Such a response, however, hardly captures the document’s singular importance. Indeed, as well-known "conspiriologist" Kenn Thomas notes, it is arguably "the pivotal document of JFK assassination research", ["NASA, Nazis, and JFK: The Torbitt Document and the JFK Assassination", with Introduction by Kenn Thomas and Foreword by David Hatcher Childress (Kempton, Illinois: Adventures Unlimited Press, 1996)] if for no other reason than the sensational contents it contains, for its contents were in turn summarized from New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison’s famous (or infamous) investigation of the case. Its truly remarkable contents are even more explosive considering the fact that in almost no version of the JFK assassination conspiracy that make their rounds every few years when a new book is published on the subject, are the Torbitt Document’s main characters ever mentioned. Indeed, not even Garrison dwelt too long on this particular aspect that his own investigators discovered, and Oliver Stone ignored this aspect of the story completely in his celebrated movie on the Garrison investigation, "JFK". Nonetheless, the Committee on Assassinations in the 1970s took it seriously enough to entirely prohibit discussion or even mention of any possible Nazi connection with the assassination. But what could have been so sensational about a single pseudonymously authored "samizdat" manuscript privately circulated in assassination conspiracy circles? Kenn Thomas once again summarizes some of its highly unusual contents:

"It makes connections to such then-unknown governmental spy agencies as Defense Industrial Security Command and Division Five of the FBI; it suggests that a former prime minister of Hungary was the infamous “umbrella man” seen in the Zapruder film; it introduces to the assassination lore such personalities as Fred Crisman (spelled Chrismon” by Torbitt) as one of the railroad tramps behind the grassy knoll".

Just in case the reader does not know who these individuals are, nor why they should be significant, a brief word is necessary. The former Prime Minister of Hungary referred to is Ferenc Nagy, a man who was nothing less than a puppet of the Nazis during World War Two. What he should be doing on the grassy knoll clearly signaling someone by closing his umbrella just as President Kennedy’s limousine is driving by, no one knows. And as if that were not strange enough, the Crisman referred to is none other than Fred Chrisman, well known for his involvement in the infamous Maury Island UFO affair in 1947 in Seattle-Tacoma, Washington. [The Maury Island affair is one of the more unusual UFO-debris retrieval cases, long regarded by most UFOlogists as a complete hoax. Chrisman claimed to have recovered slag-like debris from a "malfunctioning" UFO while on a boat in Puget Sound. The debris was later examined and allegedly placed in a cereal box to be flown to an Air Force base. But the debris never made it to the base, as the twin engine bomber flying it inexplicably crashed]. 

Just what this oddball cast of characters should have to do with the Kennedy assassination not even the Torbitt document pretends to know, as no explanations or possible motivations are offered. But one can imagine the perplexity of District Attorney Garrison when he learned of Chrisman’s odd background prior to serving a subpoena on him! In any case, a clue to it all is perhaps afforded by the reference to the "Defense Industrial Security Command". What was this entity? Here, it is best to cite the Torbitt document itself, rather than Thomas’ introduction:

"The killing of President Kennedy was planned and supervised by Division Five of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, a relatively small department within the FBI whose usual duties are espionage and counter-espionage activities. Actually, Division Five acted dually with the Defense Intelligence Agency which was acting on behalf of the Joints Chiefs of Staff (sic) in the Pentagon. Directly under the two-pronged leadership of Division Five and the DIA was the Control Group, their highly secret police agency - the Defense Industrial Security Command. The Defense Industrial Security Command has always been kept secret because it acts, in addition to its two official control organizations, on behalf of NASA, the Atomic Energy Commission, U.S. Information Agency, and the arms, equipment, ammunition, munitions and related miscellaneous supply manufacturing corporations contracting with NASA, the AEC, USIA, and the Pentagon....

"The Defense Industrial Security Command had its beginnings when J. Edgar Hoover in the early 1930’s organized the police force of the Tennessee Valley Authority at the request of David Lilienthal. The police force covered the entire TVA from Knoxville, Tennessee through Huntsville and Florence, Alabama and into Kentucky and back through the eastern portion of Tennessee into southern Kentucky. This was one of the first federal agencies with a separate police force. This force grew and Lilienthal took it forward to cover the Atomic Energy Commission, thus tying it into the army intelligence service. ....A Swiss corporation, Permindex, was used to head five front organizations responsible for furnishing personnel and supervisors to carry out assigned duties (in the assassination).

"The five groups under Permindex and their supervisors were:

1. The Czarist Russian, eastern European and Middle East exile organization called SOLIDARISTS, (sic) headed by Ferenc Nagy, ex-Hungarian premier, and John DeMenil, Russian exile from Houston, Texas, a close friend and supporter of Lyndon Johnson for over thirty years.
2. A section of the AMERICAN COUNCIL OF CHRISTIAN CHURCHES headed by H.L. Hunt of Dallas, Texas.
3. A Cuban exile group called FREE CUBA COMMITTEE headed by Carlos Prio Socarras, ex-Cuban president.
4. An organization of United States, Caribbean, and Havana, Cuba gamblers called the Syndicate.... This group worked closely with a Mafia family headed by Joe Bonanno.
5. The SECURITY DIVISION of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) headed by Wernher von Braun, head of the German Nazi rocket program from 1932 through 1945.[This is an inaccuracy, since the Nazi government was not formed until President Hindenburg appointed Hitler Reich Chancellor and asked him to form a government on 30 January 1933]. Headquarters for this group was the DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL SECURITY COMMAND at Muscle Shoals Redstone Arsenal in Alabama and on East Broad Street in Columbus, Ohio. 

These are sensational allegations, indeed, so much so that one might be tempted to dismiss the document entirely, were it not for the fact that it is but a summary of the more unusual aspects of the Garrison investigation. However, it would be a mistake to dismiss the document out of hand, for careful examination of the components of the conspiracy - in its version of the event - reveal that with but one or two exceptions, it is the standard intelligence-military industrial complex-in-cahoots-with-the-Mafia scenario that are common themes among more popular versions of the conspiracy. [I should make it clear that I do not believe the Warren Commission version of the assassination, and do believe that a conspiracy was involved, one that most likely was composed of at least the elements outlined here]. But added to this there are a number of new players:

1. H.L. Hunt and an organization that is basically connected to fundamentalist-evangelical revivalist “Protestantism,” in other words, big oil masking behind a missionary organization.

The American Council of Christian Churches did publish literature against theological liberalism as well as funded missionaries in Central and South America. However, it is known that some of its members used it as a front to train death squads and conduct assassinations in those areas. Some have alleged that the organization was actually established by the “intelligence community” for precisely this purpose, and to launder money into this country.

2. A group of Eastern European exiles of right-wing political complexion, "headed by Ferenc Nagy".

Let us pause a moment to consider these new players on the scene. Most JFK conspiracy literature does mention Lee Harvey Oswald’s and Marina Oswald’s connection to the Russian and White Russian émigré community in Dallas, and in turn the connections of that community to big oil. Nonetheless, not much is made of this connection. It is as if researchers do not really know what to make of it. About all that one typically encounters is the fact that the Oswalds’ landlord, Ruth Paine, was involved in this community, and that her husband, Michael, worked for Bell Aerospace, the same Bell Aerospace that employed General Walter Dornberger, military head of Hitler’s V-2 project in conjunction with Wernher von Braun. But here most assassination researchers stop, not really noticing that the Nazi connections would multiply like rabbits, if one cared to look for them, for the fact of the matter is, the various societies, organizations, and groups of this Eastern European émigré community were but the North American connections - the leftovers, so to speak - of the vast network of German military intelligence that operated on and behind the Russian front throughout World War Two. This military intelligence group was called Fremde Heere Ost (Foreign Armies East) and was headed by General Reinhard Gehlen. For now, however, it is to be noted that the Torbitt document, by naming Ferenc Nagy as “head” of this émigré community, is perhaps speaking symbolically, pointing the finger to a very hidden Nazi presence in the assassination. We are now in a position to examine the last new player in the assassination that the document mentions:

3. NASA security, headed by von Braun, working inside the Defense Industrial Security Command (D.I.S.C.!) at Redstone Arsenal in Alabama.

In other words, the third new player in the assassination is the space program, and the Torbitt Document further implies that it is an aspect of the space program that is not only relatively hidden from the general public, but also which is under the direct control of Wernher Von Braun, yet another Nazi connection. But what of the “Permindex Corporation” in Switzerland, the entity allegedly coordinating all this malfeasance for the FBI and DIA? Who was involved with it? What were its purposes? A glance at its Board of Directors indicates why it attracted the attention of District Attorney Garrison, for among those on its board were, of course, Clay Shaw, the man Garrison actually indicted for conspiracy to murder the president. But others included an Italian Fascist who had married into the family of Hjalmar Schacht, Hitler’s president of the Reichsbank and finance minister, and interestingly enough, also father-in-law to Hitler’s favorite SS commando, Otto Skorzeny. But these men hardly exhaust the unusual characters. There was an uncle to Egyptian King Farouk, the Italian minister of agriculture under Mussolini’s government, and yet another Hungarian ex-Nazi besides Ferenc Nagy, H. Simonfay. [The Torbitt Document is actually citing the well-known Garrison-based JFK conspiracy book, "The Kennedy Conspiracy", by the flamboyant "Paris Flammonde". 

As if that were not enough, the Torbitt Document then goes on to provide a rather thorough list of Permindex’s principal financial backing, a list that reads like a veritable who’s who of conspiracies and scandals that had not yet even happened:

"The principal financiers of Permindex were a number of U.S. oil companies, H. L. Hunt of Dallas, Clint Murchison of Dallas, John DeMenil, Solidarist director of Houston, John Connally as executor of the Sid Richardson estate, Haliburton Oil Co., Senator Robert Kerr of Oklahoma, Troy Post of Dallas, Lloyd Cobb of New Orleans, Dr. Oechner of New Orleans, George and Herman Brown of Brown and Root, Houston, Attorney Roy M. Cohn, Chairman of the Board for Lionel Corporation, New York City, Schlemley Industries of New York City, Walter Dornberger, ex-Nazi general and his company, Bell Aerospace, Pan American World Airways and its subsidiary, Intercontinental Hotel Corporation...and last but by no means least...NASA contractors directed by the Defense Industrial Security Command".

In reading this bizarre list, one cannot help but think of the scandals-to-come, the Hunts and their attempt to corner the silver market and create a silver-backed currency for Texas (H. L. Hunt), the numerous allegations of conspiracy involved in the death of Karen Silkwood and her exposure of Kerr-McGee (Senator Robert Kerr of Oklahoma), current allegations that the real motivation for war with Iraq was oil (Haliburton). And that’s not all. Even Senator Joseph McCarthy’s ghost hovers over the list of Permindex characters in the form of his legal council Roy Cohn. As if that were not enough, one of the banks through which Permindex often allegedly worked or channeled funds was the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro of Italy, a bank linked to many other shady scandals, including that of the notorious Bank of Credit and Commerce International, or BCCI scandal. And, at the end of this list, as if to highlight its importance, is NASA and its contractors, who, notes the Torbitt Document, "are directed by the Defense Industrial Security Command", which is headed by Wernher von Braun. But directed to do what? Why would Wernher von Braun possibly be involved in such an affair? The answer, perhaps, lies in the Torbitt Document’s stated purposes of the Permindex Corporation:

1. To fund and direct assassinations of European, Mid-East and world leaders considered threats to the Western World and to petroleum interests of the backers.
2. To furnish couriers, agents, and management in transporting, depositing and re-channeling funds through Swiss banks for Las Vegas, Miami, Havana and international gambling syndicate.
3. To co-ordinate the espionage activities of the Solidarists and Division Five of the FBI with groups in sympathy with their objectives and to receive and channel funds and arms from the financiers to the action groups.
4. To build, acquire and operate hotels and gambling casinos in the Caribbean, Italy and at other tourist areas.

Permindex, in other words, was the “Murder Incorporated” referred to by subsequent American Presidents. But what does all this mean? What do these “purposes” indicate about the real nature of Permindex and its “backers”? Note first of all the purpose of eliminating, by assassination, any threat to the "petroleum interests of the backers". In other words, big oil once again. Note also, that any alternative technology such as those represented by cold fusion, or "zero point energy" devices, would represent precisely such a threat. So one may safely assume that one is to take "the protection of the oil interests" in the widest possible sense, as not only eliminating foreign governments or parties that would threaten these interests’ overseas investments, but also the elimination of anyone presuming to a develop a technology not dependent on oil for energy.

Points two and three, however, point to something even deeper, and that is not only a hidden intelligence connection - a group operating within or only in conjunction with established and official agencies of the U.S. Federal government - but also a means for the independent financing of such groups and means of laundering the money to do it: casinos, ideal vehicles for laundering vast amounts of money quickly. This would explain the Mafia connection and involvement: it was at a "low" level of the conspiracy, the level necessary only for ensuring easy access and flow of dirty money to finance these projects. All this makes a very strange context in which to view the last component of Permindex’s backers, "NASA contractors directed by the Defense Industrial Security Command". What possible connection could NASA’s DISC under the direction of von Braun have to do with this?

One answer, perhaps, lies in the implied suggestion that Permindex may have conducted assassinations to protect more than just the oil industry. The Torbitt Document later provides an indicator of just who might have really been pulling the strings in the "corporation" when it stated "Permindex in Switzerland, basically a NATO intelligence front using the remnants of Adolf Hitler’s intelligence units in West Germany and also, the Intelligence unit of the Solidarists headquarters in Munich, Germany". Munich was, of course, also General Reinhard Gehlen’s personal headquarters for his Gehlenorg, [Gehlen’s headquarters was actually outside Munich, in the town of Pullach] the network of spies and “Solidarists” he continued to run both behind the Iron Curtain and elsewhere, ostensibly for the Central Intelligence Agency and the West German Bundesnachrichtendienst. The Gehlenorg and its many connections were even implicated in the Generals’ Plot, the assassination attempt on French President Charles DeGaulle, an attempt DeGaulle’s Sureté quickly and efficiently traced and eliminated. But why, again, would von Braun be involved in such a conspiracy? While the Torbitt Document ultimately does not provide much of an answer to this question, it does hint at an answer that, shorn of its Nazi associations, will become a standard theme in some conspiracy views on the assassination, most notably that of Oliver Stone in his famous movie on the Garrison investigation, "JFK". The Torbitt Document raises the prospect of the immense profits to be made from war, namely, the war in Vietnam:

"The Nazi scientists are on management level also in the munitions and aerospace industry. Walter Dornberger. the Nazi general, left the space agency in the 1950’s to become a high official in Bell Aerospace Corporation and he was followed by over thirty of the Nazi scientists to control level in the corporations manufacturing munitions and aerospace material. This still left well over sixty of the scientists at command level in NASA".

Of course, in the 1950s the war in Vietnam was ending its French phase and only entering the American one, but in any case, the motive is clearly implied: there were big profits to be made in war. Moreover, the positioning of these Paperclip Project Nazis in key American defense industries may be an indicator of something far different taking place: the extension of influence by means of interlocking personnel in many management positions. This may easily be understood by recalling a method noted by many other writers on conspiracy, namely, that the method whereby power was concentrated in fewer and fewer hands by such financial dynasties as Rockefeller, Morgan, Warburg, or Rothschild, was simply to insist, as part of a condition of receiving a loan or grant from their institutions, that those institutions themselves were allowed to seat a representative on the loan recipient’s governing board. This was usually done by collateralizing the loan with stock in the company receiving the loan.

Here, a similar pattern is at least implied: these Nazi scientists may have been acting to extend their own independent network of power and influence throughout the American military-industrial complex by being seated in senior management positions in return for their expertise. We shall present evidence later that will corroborate this. In any case, viewed against the backdrop of General Gehlen’s effective preservation of his spy network and its grafting and penetration into post-war American intelligence, the picture that now emerges from the Torbitt document is chilling in its potentialities. Each of the Nazi connections alluded to in the Torbitt document indicate influential Nazi presence not only in America’s space program, but moreover, strongly hint of Nazi influence in the awarding of contracts for the space program, Nazi influence in control of the security of the space program, Nazi influence in the intelligence organs of America and the West, Nazi influence in the defense and aerospace industries, and Nazi influence lurking in the background of Permindex, "Murder Incorporated". Indeed, von Braun himself may be viewed as the best exemplar of the type of smiling, glad-handing “networking” that make such influence possible, for shortly after arriving in the United States, he made a point of befriending none other than J. Edgar Hoover, and the then Senator Lyndon Johnson. And who was one of the individuals who helped expedite von Braun’s and Dornberger’s repatriation to the United States? None other than Clay Shaw, the man Garrison would ultimately indict for conspiracy to murder President Kennedy. [Citing New Orleans District Attorney Files: General Staff Files, U.S. Army European Command, OUISE Section].

The transfer of the Nazi Project Paperclip scientists was also aided by none other than General Gehlen. All we know about the pseudonymous William Torbitt was that he was a prominent attorney in South Texas politics in the 1960s and 1970s. [Ffrom the Introduction, "NASA, Nazis, and JFK" by David Hatcher Childress]. This makes the Torbitt Document’s revelations all the more sensational. While some might be inclined to dismiss its many claims out of hand, a picture does emerge of quietly exercised Nazi influence behind the scenes, an influence working in conjunction with other interests - big oil, technology suppression, Mafia, gambling and money laundering, aerospace and defense - and working effectively at that. Moreover, the Torbitt Document suggests, albeit only slightly and only on very careful reading, that there is some hidden aspect to America’s space program, a hidden aspect represented by the mysterious Defense Industrial Security Command and its head, Wernher von Braun. It suggests that this was one of the many motivations represented by the various groups that whose interests coalesced in the murder of the President. But beyond that, it does not go. And this leaves a very disturbing question hovering in the air: If there was some hidden aspect to the space program, and if its principals had some motivation for participating in the murder of the President, what was it? What did this hidden aspect of the space program have to gain? Or, alternatively, what about President Kennedy threatened it; what did it have to protect? Or was it some combination of both?

To answer these questions requires an examination of some of the other versions of the Two Space Programs Hypothesis, even, as we shall see, the absurd ones.

The False Planetary Geology, Climate, and Archaeology Versions:

a. The Absurdist Versions

 

One may summarize the “absurdist” versions of the Two Space Programs very easily: The Moon has an atmosphere and water, and even vegetation.

The Germans landed on the Moon as early as probably 1942, utilizing their larger exoatmospheric rocket saucers of the Miethe and Schriever type. The Miethe rocket craft was built in diameters if 15 and 50 meters, and the Schriever Walter turbine powered craft was designed as an interplanetary exploration vehicle. It had a diameter of 60 meters, had 10 stories of crew compartments, and stood 45 meters high.

In my extensive research of dissident American theories about the physical conditions on the Moon I have proved beyond the shadow of a doubt that there is atmosphere, water and vegetation on the Moon, and that man does not need a space suit to walk on the Moon. A pair of jeans, a pullover and sneakers are just about enough. Everything NASA has told the world about the Moon is a lie and it was done to keep the exclusivity of the club from joinings by the third world countries. All these physical conditions make it a lot more easier to build a Moon base.

Ever since their first day of landing on the Moon, the Germans started boring and tunnelling under the surface, and by the end of the war there was a small Nazi research base on the Moon. The free energy tachyon drive craft of the Haunebu-1 and 2 type were used after 1944 to haul people, materiel and the first robots to the construction site on the Moon. When Russians and Americans secretly landed jointly on the Moon in the early fifties with their own saucers, they spent their first night there as guests of the .... Nazi underground base. In the sixties a massive Russian - American base had been built on the Moon, that now has a population of 40,000 people, as the rumour goes. After the end of the war in May 1945, the Germans continued their space effort from their south polar colony of Neu Schwabenland. I have discovered a photograph of their underground space control centre there. 

--Vladimir Terziski, President of the American Academy of Dissident Sciences

Venus, beneath its canopy of clouds, is not the carbon dioxide pressure-cooker and barren desert greenhouse we’ve been told, but rather, a temperate planet of rich vegetation, a veritable paradise. And, if one believes George Adamski - and this author most decidedly does not - it is home to a wonderful race of peaceful, blonde-haired, blue-eyed, human space brothers who come in peace to bring earth-bound humanity a message of hope. And Mars really does have canals, and, thankfully, isn’t planning an invasion of Earth anytime soon. But what has this to do with a hidden and public space program? Very simple: according to the absurdist version the governments of the world that have space programs have hidden the truth about the planets of our solar system, carefully doctoring pictures to edit out any evidence that shows any of the above!

b. A Scientifically and Politically Plausible Version: The Hoagland Model

A much more serious model, and much more plausible one, has been argued in various ways over the years by Richard C Hoagland, best known for his association with the ongoing investigations of the anomalous Martian surface features in the Cydonia region of Mars, features he believes strongly suggest an artificial origin. While an extended presentation of Hoagland’s views is not possible here - after all they have evolved over many years of continual research, requiring a scholarly study in their own right - there are certain stable features that one may point to as summarizing some aspects of his version:

1. The Brookings Report: Immediately after its formation, NASA commissioned a study of the possible impact of human contact with an extraterrestrial civilization in its explorations of the solar system, or alternatively, with human discovery of any artifacts of such a civilization. As Hoagland has pointed out on more than one occasion, the Brookings report indicated that there might be severe cultural implications and repercussions of such discoveries or events. Thus, Hoagland argues, the government may have adopted the policy, based on the Brookings recommendations, of concealing such discoveries.
2. In this context, one way of concealment is the alteration of photographic or other scientific data that indicates the presence of such contact or civilization artifact. Another method is the outright dismissal of evidence after-the-fact, such as NASA’s post-Viking dismissal of the Face on Mars as nothing but a “trick of light and shadow.” These and other tactics were subsequently employed by NASA down to the present whenever anomalous findings are returned by space probes.
3. A third component of Hoagland’s view is that there is a “hidden space program”, or better, group within NASA, exercising influence in an esoteric or occult direction over the scheduling, naming, and symbolism attached to missions. In support of this allegation, Hoagland has noted the high predominance of Masons in the astronaut corps, particularly in the formative days of NASA during the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs. Additionally, Hoagland has also maintained that many missions are designed to align with significant celestial (astrological) correlations, as if space missions were deliberate acts in a vast system of ritual magic being done on a planetary scale via the space program itself.
4. The final and most important component in Hoagland’s model is that the surface features of Cydonia on Mars encode a lost “hyperdimensional physics,” a physics Hoagland sees in evidence in the planetary upwellings of energy at the “tetrahedral latitude” of 19.5 north or south degrees on every celestial body in the solar system.

While such assertions may sound fantastic, the fact that they are made by someone of Hoagland’s stature is significant, and, as we shall see below, the more one digs beneath the surface of various versions of the Two Space Programs Hypothesis, and the more details one uncovers, Hoagland’s version seems to pale into mundane normalcy by comparison.

The "Alternative Three" Version


Among the many versions of the Two Space Programs Hypothesis, none is more bizarre nor more famous than the Alternative 3 version. Alternative 3 was a “documentary” produced for the British science series "Science Report", which aired on Anglia television in the 1970s. Originally scheduled to air on 1 April 1977, the broadcast was delayed and did not air until June, though in the production credits April 1 is listed as the date. The “documentary” was one hour long, and makes interesting viewing.

Ostensibly the "documentary" begins by investigating the so-called "brain drain" that was affecting Great Britain during the 1970s, as many of her top scientists and engineers left the country for more prosperous and promising positions overseas, most notably in Canada and the United States, and to a lesser extent Australia and New Zealand. Moving quickly, the documentary "uncovers" the cases of three scientists who simply were never heard from again, despite attempts of their "families" to contact them. Finally, one scientist died in a mysterious automobile accident, allegedly after placing a telephone call from a remote country phone booth to a journalist friend of his, to whom he had sent a computer memory tape. On the tape, when it was finally "decoded" by the indefatigable investigative journalists of Anglia Television, was a video recording of an alleged joint Russian-American Mars landing in 1962, complete with video recording of sub-surface life burrowing a furrow on the ground to the wild and thrilled cheers of the Russian and American ground control crews in the background!

With missing scientists and engineers, a mysteriously dead scientist, and a computer tape of an alleged Mars landing, the journalists learn of a hidden, secret joint space program being conducted by the Americans and Russians, a component of which was to persuade the best and brightest of the world’s scientists to participate in the gradual, and very secret, colonization of the Moon and Mars. The purpose of this colonization? The world’s elite had concluded that the planet was being destroyed by humanity, and that overpopulation had passed the point of no return, and that life on Earth was doomed. Three alternatives were discussed to save the situation. The first was to explode nuclear warheads in the atmosphere, in an attempt to create a "hole" which would bleed off the pollution. The second was to build vast underground installations in which humanity could survive when the surface became unviable. And the third, Alternative 3, was to seek new planetary homes on the Moon and Mars.

The secret space program was thus a modern-day Noah’s Ark, and the most heinous crimes were being perpetrated to ensure the success of Alternative 3. There, more or less, is where the “documentary” ended. But the story did not end. In fact, the network was flooded with calls from thousands of people who professed their belief in the whole wild scenario, and who in some cases added their own stories of encounters with the "hidden masters" of the project. The problem was, the whole program was a complete hoax, an elaborate April Fools’ Day joke, intended as such by the producers and authors of the teleplay, David Ambrose and Christopher Miles, [Jim Keith, "Mind Control and UFOs: Casebook on Alternative 3" (Kempton, Illinois: Adventures Unlimited Press, 2005)] a fact that would have been evident from careful examination of the closing credits, with its very clearly stated date, and long list of cast which included professional actors. [It would likewise have been evident from the less-than-convincing performances of some of the same!] The story would not die, however, and was soon followed by a badly-written book of the same title.
To one Canadian inquiring about the truth of the "documentary," co-author and producer Christopher Miles stated:

"The idea for the film and subsequently the book, was something that David (Ambrose) and I dreamed up over a lunch together in London, as I was getting rather tired of the docu-drama on television and wanted to prove how easy it is to lead the general public up the proverbial garden path! I am sorry that you were one of them and if you look at the film or read the book, you will realize that there are hints of its unauthenticity all the way down the line. Of course it has a sprinkling of fact in it, but the basic show is a complete hoax and if you think a bit more yourself, you would realize this was the case".

In an interview, however, Miles commented in a somewhat more mysterious fashion, saying, "Let’s say that all the facts in the show were true and all the lies untrue".

The documentary’s inconsistent acting is mirrored in the book’s incongruous slurry of wildly unconnected “data” all served up as “corroboration” of the secret space program and its nefarious activities: The death of fifteen wild ponies in Dartmoor, England, is mentioned, an episode reminiscent of the cattle mutilations prevalent in the U.S. beginning in the mid-60s. Factual CIA MKULTRA mind control atrocities are also mulled over, but not in particular detail, and with no credible link to Alternative 3. Along the way instances of Russian-American cooperation in space are described, and we are offered accounts of the plights of several amnesia victims, but none of this has much to do with the core of the Alternative 3 thesis.

At the end of it all - a book and a “documentary” - what does one make of Alternative 3? Jim Keith summarizes the whole episode this way:

Weekly World News
18 September 1990

"In summary, Alternative 3 is a teleplay and a book which utterly lack substantiation, and the book in particular is written in a style identical to the "Weekly World News" of “Two-Headed Space Alien Gives Birth to Elvis’ Lovechild” fame. What propels Alternative 3 along in the manner of a 1940s "Amazing Storie"s extravaganza set in the vicinity of Fleet Street are the “secret documents,” the interviews with persons who do not exist and, more than that, the word of the authors who, while repeatedly maintaining “We are only interested in facts,” write a television show and book loaded with as many questionable conclusions as the latest Brad Steiger UFO masterpiece..... All the references to flights to Mars, “batch consignments” and so forth are found in the poorly rendered and unbelievable “secret transcripts” or created from thin Martian air by the authors".

But, as Keith himself notes, one comes away from viewing the "documentary" and/or reading the book with an uneasy feeling, notwithstanding their clear and evident nature as hoaxes, and that uneasy feeling is that Alternative 3 and its various themes are quite close to the truth, that something like the odd goings on in the "documentary" actually are occurring. In fact, Leslie Watkins, who co-authored the book version with the "documentary’s" producers for Penguin Books, wrote a researcher who had contacted the Penguin editor, that the book was "based on fact, but uses that fact as a launchpad for a high dive into fiction". And a little later in his letter, Watkins recounts the unusual events that befell him after the book version was published and in circulation: "For some time after Alternative 3 was originally published, I have reason to suppose that my home telephone was being tapped and my contacts who were experienced in such matters were convinced that certain intelligence agencies considered that I probably knew too much. So, summing up, the book is fiction based on fact. But I now feel that I inadvertently got very close to a secret truth".

But if Watkins, Miles, and Ambrose had come too close to "a secret truth" that would call forth electronic wiretapping in response, what exactly in the crazy quilt-work of the Alternative 3 universe was it? The universe of Alternative 3 is clear enough: there is a secret space program involving both Russians and Americans in co-operation, being controlled by some entity that transcends their governments and uses them for its own ends, which is the secret colonization of the Moon and Mars. To this end, it persuades or kidnaps scientists, and “commoners” for manual labor. Those it cannot “persuade” or who threaten to expose the project, are murdered. So one has the following elements:

1. Several missing scientists, in great numbers;
2. Murdered scientists;
3. Several missing “common” people;
4. A secret space program existing inside of, or parallel to, the public programs in Russia and America;
5. Colonies on the Moon and/or Mars; and finally,
6. Some entity coordinating all the above.

Conspiracy researcher Jim Keith investigated these aspects of the case, and came to a rather provocative conclusion, a conclusion so provocative, in fact, that he seldom states it directly, though much of his book, "Mind Control and UFOs: Casebook on Alternative 3", implies this conclusion simply by virtue of the amount of time he spends exploring it. We begin with point number 2 above: the deaths of scientists. Keith, like many other authors, noted the very strange fact that many European scientists, physicists, and engineers who were involved with, or otherwise might have something to contribute to President Ronald Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative, seemed to have unusually high suicide or "death-by-mysterious-circumstances" rates. And oddly, most of these scientists were from Western Europe. Proportionally fewer Americans, Canadians or Australians were involved in the unusual deaths. Among those that Keith lists were: Keith Bowden, supercomputer expert; Roger Hill, a designer for Marconi Defense Systems (who allegedly killed himself by shotgun blast); Jonathan Walsh, digital communications expert for Marconi’s parent firm, GEC; Karl-Heinz Beckurts, director of research for Germany’s Siemens Company and his driver; and, notes Keith, "an SDI contractor allegedly linked to activities of Otto Skorzeny’s Nazi International"; Vimal Dajibhai, an expert in computer guidance systems; Gerrold von Braunmuhl, a high advisor to West Germany’s Defense Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher; Ashad Shariff, another Marconi employee; a Swedish professor, Svante Oden; an Italian electronics executive, Lando Conti; Aytar Singh-Gida, an SDI technology expert; Richard Pugh, British Defense Ministry contracts worker; John Brittan, computer expert; Swedish arms inspector Cal Frederik Algernon...and on and on Keith’s list goes. Like the “mysterious deaths” of key witnesses and personnel that followed the assassination of President Kennedy, rather too many scientists and engineers were dying in too many suspicious ways for the whole episode to be entirely coincidental. Keith observes that:

"In July of 1986, Kurt Rebmann, Germany’s Federal Prosecutor, told the "New York Times" that he believed the attacks were part of a "coordinated offensive" against the West and the SDI program. So, who killed the Star Wars scientists? In at least two of the cases, those of Beckurts and von Braunmuhl, the Marxist Red Army Faction (RAF) claimed responsibility. In Italy a note was found at the location of Griogieri’s murder, stating that he "was struck down exclusively for his responsibility exercised following the Italian adhesion to the Star Wars project", and attributing the murder to the Italian Red Brigades. Of course, notes can easily be faked, and the fact that responsibility was claimed in only three cases is odd if two groups performed all the murders.

One explanation, the obvious one, is that "it was apparent to the Kremlin that SDI, far from bring the defensive program that it was touted as by Ronald Reagan, had an awesome offensive capability". This much is true, but in any case, Keith’s conclusion is rational: the most obvious perpetrators of the strange deaths were the Soviets, who hoped to dissuade the West from deploying SDI. But according to Keith, there was likewise another possibility: "It has also occurred to me that if there is in fact a secret flying disk technology on this planet, withheld for its surprise strike capability from some unknown quarter, then SDI might have been seen as a technology capable of pinpointing and shooting down such craft.” That is, if there was an “independent group” perfecting such advanced craft, then that group, too, would view SDI as a threat and seek to derail it, or, conversely, seek to acquire and deploy its technologies while denying them to its enemies. It is this possibility that informs the bulk of Keith’s book.

Tracing the possibilities to a pre-war network of American and Nazi business contacts, he quickly comes to one locus of possibilities: the "surrender" of Germany’s Foreign Armies East (Fremde Heere Ost) section of military Intelligence to the OSS, a deal that was negotiated between General Reinhard Gehlen and OSS station chief in Zürich, Allen Dulles, later chief of the CIA and a member of the Warren Commission. But the "surrender" was only apparent, as many have pointed out. Keith’s summary is apt:

"For reasons that will hopefully become apparent, I begin the search for Alternative 3 at what might appear to be an arbitrary moment in history: with men, most of whom died a long time ago. As we trace the actions and connections of these men, the conspiratorial web will radiate outward, and perhaps begin to take on a definite and ominous pattern. The study is taken up shortly after the collapse of the Third Reich, when General Reinhard Gehlen, Nazi spymaster and Knight of Malta-to-be began negotiations with Allen Dulles and the American OSS (Office of Strategic Services). Using Nazi intelligence networks as a hole card to provide for his own survival and the survival of his huge spy network, Gehlen made a separate peace with Dulles, resulting in the clean grafting of Nazi spy apparatus to the American clandestine services. This was the birth of the CIA and part of a nexus of betrayal that continues to this day".

Indeed, as many others have pointed out, at the inception of the CIA, the agency’s "Soviet desk" for all intents and purposes consisted almost entirely and exclusively of this Nazi spy network. [Christopher Simpson in "Blowback",  and other commentators have often pointed out that one effect of this "Nazification" of American intelligence in the immediate post-war world was the over-estimation of Soviet military power and intentions. Another effect was the corresponding American military build-up and, to a lesser extent, the Marshal Plan itself. Yet another effect was the covert policy of "rollback", a policy designed to make use of Gehlen’s fifth columns in Eastern Europe - and in North America! - of émigré White Russians, Ukrainians, Letts, Lithanians, and so on]. 

Gehlen’s own words recalling this bargain are clinically chilling:

"I remember the terms of the agreement well...

1. A clandestine German intelligence organization was to be set up, using the existing potential to continue information gathering in the East just as we had been doing before. The basis for this was our common interest in a defense against communism.
2. This German organization was to work not "for" or "under" the Americans, but "jointly" with the Americans.
3. The organization would operate exclusively under German leadership, which would receive its directives and assignments from the Americans until a new government was established in Germany.
4. The organization was to be financed by the Americans with funds which were not to be part of the occupation costs, and in return the organization would supply all its intelligence reports to the Americans.
5. As soon as a sovereign German government was established, the government should decide whether the organization should continue to function or not, but that until such time the care and control (later referred to as "the trusteeship") of the organization would remain in American hands.
6. Should the organization at any time find itself in a position where the American and German interests diverged, it was accepted that the organization would consider the interests of Germany first".

In other words, one whole department of the American Federal government - indeed, one of its most sensitive departments - was being run by agents of the Third Reich in a classic Trojan Horse operation! With the thousands of agents in Gehlen’s "Organization", and its extensive network of "émigré exile" groups and fronts, historian Carl Oglseby noted that the Gehlenorg "substantially pre-empted the CIA’s civilian character before it was ever born...Thus, whatever the CIA was from the standpoint of law, it remained from the standpoint of practical intelligence collection a front for a house of Nazi spies" The importance of these observations cannot be pondered too long, for as many other researchers and commentators have noted, there appears to be a "rogue element" operating somewhere inside the U.S. Federal government and inside its intelligence community. Keith’s observations, and similar ones made by others who have researched the incredible bargain struck between Allen Dulles and General Gehlen, give a historical background and foundation to these fears: There not only is a rogue element within the American intelligence community, but it has been there since the end of World War Two. And it was Nazi in its personnel, aims, and methods. Moreover, as Keith also points out, the Dulles family itself had long business associations with Germany. And there was an ideological connection:

"With man, as with every other form of life, there is this same tendency for the birth rate to far exceed the death rate, with the inevitable result of an overcrowded population in which some must be eliminated. Who those eliminated are depends upon who are weakest and who are strongest in the competition which necessarily ensues".

If that sounds vaguely like an anti-Jewish rant of Hitler at a Nuremburg party rally, think again. The words are those of Allen Dulles’ brother, John Foster Dulles, who would later become the American Secretary of State under President Dwight Eisenhower. In any case, Gehlen’s bargain with Dulles was but one aspect of the creation of a vast post-war "Nazi International", an organization with massive amounts of money, and, as has been seen, its own intelligence network.

Maintaining close ties to each other and other escaped Nazis, this network evolved into what has been termed the Nazi International, run by Otto Skorzeny and headquartered in Madrid. The Nazi International would be key in the establishment of worldwide arms, terrorist, and drug trafficking networks, although these crimes pale in comparison with the subversion of American intelligence, in collaboration with Allen Dulles, the result of which may be said to have been the creation of the Cold War and the continuing destruction of democracy in America.

Skorzeny most likely was a front man for other more high-ranking Nazis, since he was the son-in-law to former Reichsbank president Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht. But if Nazi penetration of America’s post-war intelligence and national security apparatus was a Trojan Horse operation under the banner of a "united front against Communism", what of the dispersal of Nazi scientists and technology? Could the notorious Operation Paperclip - America’s secret post-war program to recruit top Nazi scientists and engineers - have also been viewed, at least on the German side, as a similar operation? While the evidence is scanty, it is nonetheless provocative. It begins with America’s High Commissioner in Germany in the immediate post-war period: John J. McCloy. When Wernher von Braun refused to work for the American space program without his former army boss, General Walter Dornberger - who had in the meantime been sentenced by the war crimes tribunals to be hung - it was McCloy who stepped in and granted Dornberger a full pardon. In fact, McCloy pardoned over seventy thousand Nazis accused of war crimes. Perhaps this is not surprising, since McCloy was a "lawyer in the employ of I.G. Farben" after World War One, and had shared a box with Hitler himself during the 1936 Berlin Olympic games. And last, but not least, McCloy, like Allen Dulles, also served on the Warren Commission.

Once in the U.S., the Nazi scientists were, of course, watched closely....but not, it seems, too closely. As Keith notes, "“Walter Jessel, an interrogator of the German rocket scientists for the army, claimed that there was a conspiracy between von Braun, Dornberger, and Dornberger’s chief of staff to withhold information from U.S. officers". Given the fact that von Braun’s rockets successfully became the backbone of America’s space program, up to and including the Apollo moon rockets, as well as became the backbone for America’s intercontinental ballistic missiles, an important question thus occurs: what possibly could von Braun and Dornberger have been withholding? They may have been withholding technical information, since this was not an isolated instance. As the following incident indicates, three other German scientists brought to the USA were found to have illegal mail drops in El Paso, Texas, where they received money and coded messages from foreign sources. Other instances of Nazi scientists receiving money from unknown sources were not investigated by the military, including an instance when one third of the German Paperclip group simultaneously bought expensive cars that they were reportedly unable to afford on their salaries. There were also repeated suspicions that rockets were being sabotaged, and that components were missing from recovered missiles.

If so, then the Gehlenorg offered the perfect means to spirit any developed technology out of America and into “the right hands”. Keith concludes his scenario with the following observations:

"The controlling reins of German technologies such as rockets, advanced aircraft, and atomics were never fully surrendered; inner circle control, through knowledge obtainable only in the inner circle, was retained by Nazis and their sympathizers. ....It is in this environment of extensive collaboration and infiltration by Nazis and fascists, a collaboration that involves a long-term continuance of Nazi goals separated from earlier German territorial goals, and an overall shepherding and betrayal by international monied interests, government and intelligence agencies, that America’s descent into totalitarianism, genocide and mind control becomes understandable, and the Alternative 3 template first becomes visible".

Keith’s scenario is clear enough, and it is the same one - in broad outline - adopted here, namely:

1. That with the dispersal of Nazi technology, scientists and engineers into post-war Allied, Soviet, and possibly into covert and independent research programs more directly under Nazi control, and
2. That with the grafting of Gehlen’s Fremde Heere Ost with its extensive espionage network inside the Iron Curtain into American intelligence, a powerful clandestine organization was created, an organization with international reach, ambitions, and finance behind it.

Only such an organization could attempt to maintain two space programs, one for public consumption, and another, entirely off the books, to further the interests, agenda, and power of the elite that controlled it. Only such an organization could attempt to coordinate the otherwise independent "public" space programs of the two superpowers. Seen in this light, it is easier to see why there was such a heavy Nazi presence in the web of relationships involved in the assassination of President Kennedy, for with his threat to "smash the CIA into a thousand pieces", he was taking deliberate aim at one of the power structures for this international rogue element. To ensure its continued survival and the survival of its projects and agenda, Kennedy had to go.

The William Lyne Version


Also at the bizarre end of the spectrum of the Two Space Programs Hypothesis is the version of New Mexico author and conspiriologist William Lyne, who outlines his version in three books, "Pentagon Aliens" (formerly entitled "Space Aliens from the Pentagon"), "Occult Ether Physics", and "Occult Science Dictatorship". Many dismiss his work, simply because of an abundance of very bizarre and oftentimes outlandish assertions, while overlooking some significant insights and hints that also characterize his works, oftentimes sandwiched between assertions that either repeat the standard "Nazi Legend" of the UFO or of "Hitler Survival" while liberally adding new elements. For example, Lyne asserts - without any substantiation - that Adolf and Eva Hitler not only survived the war, but were flown out of Germany in a flying saucer piloted by the famous German pilot Hanna Reitsch and German Luftwaffe ace Hans Ulrich Rudel! If that were not enough, he adds that they lived happily ever after in Kassel, Germany, protected by a secret NATO agreement, and that on the invitation of President Lyndon Johnson, visited the San Antonio World’s Fair in Texas, where later, apparently, Adolf, exercising as ever his attraction to art, and lovely wife Eva visited a west Texas art show where Lyne happened to be sitting sketching pictures! And Lyne leaves no detail to chance, for he even describes the visit by burly security personnel, combing through the art show booths, prior to the arrival of the Führer! If one can imagine an elderly and sweltering Hitler hobbling along in his ever-present double-breasted suit (sans Swastika, of course) and porkpie hat with wife Eva dutifully in tow and perhaps filming the whole visit for her famous home movies, one has an appreciation for why many dismiss out of hand the entirety of Lyne’s other assertions and claims.

For example, Lyne also asserts that during the war, German scientists bypassed development of the "atom bomb", and built and tested the neutron bomb. German Field Marshall (sic) Erwin Rommel and the Afrika Korps were originally sent to North Africa to test the neutron bomb, as well as Tesla’s "death ray" (which freezes whole armies); this technology was acquired by American corporations, held chiefly by David Rockefeller, and was later sold in part back to the U.S. government and tested in the ‘60s, and the same technology was again sold to the U.S. government in the ‘70s and ‘80s as "Star Wars"("SDI" or "Strategic Defense Initiative Technology".

While the assertion sounds wild and fantastic, and indeed, your author does not believe any neutron bomb was ever tested by the Nazis in Africa or elsewhere, in fairness to Lyne it should be recalled that the alleged Ohrdruf test of a nuclear device that took place on 4 March 1945, was of a device with a small critical mass, an event that - if it indeed happened - could only have occurred via the process of "boosted fission", whereby a neutron-emitting source is added to the critical mass assembly, allowing more neutrons into the initial chain reaction and accordingly a lower critical mass. This is one step away, in a certain sense, from the neutron bomb. Likewise it should be pointed out that when Lyne’s assertion was first made in July 1993 in the first printing of "Pentagon Aliens" (under its former title "Space Aliens from the Pentagon") the allegations of the Ohrduf test and other German nuclear tests during the war were just beginning to surface, making it unlikely that Lyne based his assertion on these German sources. Lyne’s assertions do not end there, however. He adds even more anecdotal detail to the mix:

"(When) prisoners from Rommel’s Afrika Korps were brought to Roswell, New Mexico (!) they carried some rather strange post cards apparently printed by Rommel’s field lithographers, showing New York City being destroyed by a mushroom cloud. The camp commandant, Dave Dunn, who later became an engineer with Union Oil Company of California in their Midland, Texas Office, and who prepared the U.S.G.S. for President John F. Kennedy in 1962, thought these were humorous, and showed me one he had saved as a souvenir. The fact was, however, that Rommel’s main mission in the Libyan desert, was testing the neutron bomb. The post cards carried by his troops were a ‘morale builder’, which superimposed the photolithograph of the mushroom cloud of the bomb they had actually tested and photographed, over a photolithograph of New York City, in a composite. The claims by Manhattan Project members, that they built the first ATOM bomb - from German plans - was true. Einstein had brought the stolen plans to us with the firm belief that we would use the A-bomb on Germany. Since the Allies had already succeeded in obtaining the German plans for he A-bomb. Werner Heisenberg merely sidestepped the A-bomb, and built the N-bomb. The question to me was not 'if’, but 'how' (did the Germans make their neutron bomb)?"

This passage is classic Lyne, interlarding details and insinuations that, in the light of the research of German authors Meyer, Mehner, and others, make sense, along with details and insinuations that make no sense. For example, Lyne claims that David Dunn found the postcard of New York City being a-bombed (or n-bombed), “humorous.” One has difficulty imagining how any rational human, much less an American, could find such a postcard humorous. This detail casts a pall of dubiousness once again over the whole passage, as does the assertion that any a-bomb plans existed at the time Einstein emigrated from Germany to the USA, much less that Einstein actually managed to steal them from the security- and Jew-obsessed Nazis. Yet, in these bizarre assertions, Lyne is also clearly insinuating a connection between Nazi science, its actual accomplishments, and the Manhattan Project, and all that again in a book published prior to that of Meyer, Mehner, or Friedrich Georg in Germany, or Carter Hydrick in the USA, works which are heavily referenced and researched, and by no means the merely "anecdotal" character of Lyne’s "Pentagon Aliens". To round out the picture even more, Lyne also points out the mysterious substance "red mercury", or mercury antimony oxide, which, like Lyne’s work itself, is a substance with its own ambiguous and dubious legend:

"Dr. Sam Cohen, inventor of the American neutron bomb, traces the production and sale of a mysterious substance called "red mercury" to Russia. Red mercury is mercury antimony oxide, specially prepared by irradiation and pressured into a gel to increase its density to create the necessary precondition for a neutron explosion. A small quantity of it can then be used as a nuclear trigger/igniter to detonate a small amount of heavy hydrogen producing the deadly neutrons for a ‘clean bomb. [It should be pointed out that part of the legend of "red mercury" is that it can be used as a detonator for a fully-fledged thermonuclear fusion, or hydrogen, bomb, replacing the need for an atomic bomb as a detonator to create the necessary heat to get heavy hydrogen (deuterium and tritium) atoms to fuse. The Russians allegedly developed it as a means of detonating hydrogen bombs without the need for an a-bomb, thus creating a “clean” hydrogen bomb, still capable of taking out large cities in an enormous explosion, but leaving a much smaller radiation fallout signature]. In February, 1992, Russian president Boris Yeltsin signed Directive No 75-RPS, authorizing Preomekologia, a Russian company headed by Yeltsin’s ecological advisor, to "manufacture, purchase, store, transport, deliver, and sell for rubles and foreign currency" 'red mercury' in amounts up to ten tons per year. The order was rescinded a year later because of criticism within Russia of export of such a "valuable raw material". In a spring, 2004 documentary on Britain’s Channel Four (“British PBS”), a Russian nuclear chemist confirmed he had worked with red mercury since 1965, that it is currently produced in a factory in the central Russian town of Ekaterinburg, and that fusion weapons have been made in Russia from it. Cohen believes red mercury represents one of the greatest threats for potential terrorists to produce ‘baseball bombs’ from it....If the Germans indeed tested a neutron bomb in North Africa, I would bet that is was produced with red mercury, since the Russians employed German metallurgists and nuclear chemists in their nuclear program, and it was they who produced Germany’s WWII supply of plutonium purer that any ever produced...."

Again, one encounters Lyne’s typical mixture of the seemingly outlandish and bizarre with actual fact, for indeed, Dr. Sam Cohen, the inventor of the neutron bomb, did express such fears and reservations concerning red mercury, while other scientists loudly dismissed the substance and its reputed ability to initiate thermonuclear fusion as a complete hoax. And the substance does resemble a mysterious substance also used in The Bell. Lyne ends his "red mercury" foray with another fantastic claim, that during World War Two the Germans managed to manufacture plutonium of great purity, an assertion that calls into question the Allied Legend in a very direct way, since to manufacture plutonium of any purity one must first possess a functioning nuclear reactor, which the Germans were not supposed to have achieved during the war. But again, one cannot be too hasty in dismissing his assertion, for as was detailed in my previous book "Reich of the Black Sun", the alleged Nazi test of an a-bomb in 1945 at Ohrdruf was of a high yield device of a critical mass of no more than 100 grams, a fact which, if true, is only possible with very pure plutonium and boosted fission. That is to say, Lyne once again has made a claim that, oddly, has been paralleled by similar and subsequent allegations originating from post-reunification Germany, and the much more substantial research of German researchers who, in addition to citing anecdotal stories from elderly witnesses or relatives of witnesses, also seek to corroborate their stories by documentation or other means. Lyne’s tale of a neutron bomb test thus also begins to pry open the door to his version of the Two Space Program Hypothesis, for it clearly indicates that one primary element is what the Nazis actually accomplished versus what we have been told that they accomplished. Yet another primary aspect of Lyne’s version of the Hypothesis also emerges from this strange account, and that is the secret development of a science and technology otherwise suppressed. And this brings us, at last, to Lyne’s version of the Hypothesis itself.

There are three aspects to his version:

(1) Public Consumption Relativistic Physics Versus Occulted Aether Physics,
(2) The National Security Act and Scientific Suppression, and
(3) The Role of Nazis in the above.

a. Public Consumption Versus Occulted Aether Physics

Lyne outlines his case for an occulted physics and technology in a series of clearly stated and provocative questions, and then an equally clear and provocative answer:

"Is it possible that an entire area of physics has been declared virtually "occult" and "off-limits" to the public or to private individuals, by a powerful group, so that all science education or data generally available to the public has been "screened" to eliminate references to it? Is it possible that the actual science involved in "electro-propulsion", has been replaced with a "bogus science", which has been promoted and promulgated to the extent that no one except the ‘esoteric elite’ knows the truth? And if so, has the "occult" science become the exclusive province of a very few specially selected corporate/government "priests"? .....The high priests of this occult knowledge are the elite owners of the coercive monopolist corporate banking, industrial, mineral and related interests, who in turn allow the initiation of certain scientists, military and government officials into their secret teaching only insofar as it is necessary, to execute and maintain a conspiracy of giant proportions, so that the technology can be classified as a "state secret" which can be controlled and enforced by means of unconstitutional "national security laws", military and civilian legal authority, and police. These measures are intended to protect the archaic technology and resources controlled by the elite, from the competition of a truly free market society". [William Lyne, "Occult Ether Phsyics: Tesla’s Hidden Space Propulsion System and the Conspiracy to Conceal It" (Lamy, New Mexico: Creatopia Productions, 2003)].

Note the insinuation that the national security apparatus of any nation is involved in this conspiracy. For Lyne, the suppression of “occulted aether physics” requires a program consisting of two central elements:

(1) the suppression of exotic physics that at one time or another entered the public record, regardless of how obscure the record or how limited the public may have been. This includes various tactics to make it difficult to reconstruct the suppressed physics.
(2) The second element is the creation of an alternative version of physics for “public consumption” or as Lyne puts it - also clearly delineating where he thinks the blame lies for the dead end of physics in the 20the century - giving the public "relativistic bromides" packed with exotic phrases like "the 'fabric" of "space time" and "frame-dragging", all of which, he says, suggest the idea of what “they” wish to suppress, namely "the existence of an ether [Lyne's spelling of “aether” varies] even though that aether is an erroneously conceived "relativistic" aether.The reason is deceptively simple: "Ether Physics", by its very nature and name, is subatomic physics".

Relativistic physics, on the other hand, is the physics of the very large. And as numerous physics texts and popularizations have reiterated countless times, the quest of physics since relativity and the advent of quantum mechanics has been to somehow squeeze the two theories together. So much for the second element; it is clear that Lyne believes Einstein’s relativity theories to be a crucial component of the creation of a "public consumption physics", a physics guaranteed to dead-end. But what of the first element? How does one suppress things that are already part of the public record, even if that record is for a relatively small public, such as the professional community of scientists or scientific historians? Lyne’s answer to this question is hidden in his - for once - well-documented though brief history of the aether, and it is worth citing his remarks at length:

"After some difficulty, I accessed a copy of the classic, "A History of the Theories of the Aether and Electricity". by Sir Edmund Whittaker (1951 revised and enlarged second edition, Vols. I and II). The 1910 first edition of this book was probably the most comprehensive book ever published on ether theory as it existed in 1910, but the 1951 revision merely clarified “acceptable” ether physics. The first edition was printed in Scotland, under the title "A History of the Theories of the Ether and Electricity, from the age of Descartes to the close of the nineteenth century". The second edition incorporated “new material” related to quantum mechanics. Classical theory was in Vol. I, while Vols. II and II gave the origins of relativity and quantum theory up to 1926. Neither the 1910 first edition nor the 1951 revision mentioned Tesla, but the chronological sequence appeared to be “skewered” in the revised edition, with little or no attempt to point out what the scientists were actually aiming at...."

That is, two effective tactics in suppression of the public record are simply to scramble the chronological sequence of, and delete the practical motivations behind, the theory in question. A third tactic is evident in a later remark:

"Though it was said by Whittaker that the Hall Effect, like the magnetic rotation of light, occurs only in ponderable bodies and not in the “free ether”, this statement was patently false, since the effect actually depends on the conductivity of a medium. This was a definite lie on Whittaker’s part, probably “required” under the 1951 revision. The fact that the effect occurs in “ponderable bodies” and “conductive media” however, is all-important for electropropulsion, since it shows the reaction between such bodies and media and the underlying “etheric framework” which is accessed in the process".

In other words, when all else fails, simply lie, or leave out part of the truth. Note also that Lyne is clearly implying that Whittaker was “required” to do so, i.e., that some pressure was exerted on him. This fact will become much more significant, since one of Whittaker’s early 1903 papers was one of the founding papers of "scalar" physics, a non-linear form of aether physics. Whittaker and the two editions of his classic history of the aether is thus a pivotal though (to the general public) still largely unknown figure in the story. At any rate, Lyne concludes that "“Whittaker’s 1951 edition intentionally skewered important facts concerning electropulsion....By reorganizing Whittaker’s material into more proper order, I discovered much ‘new’ (‘old’ ) documentation, that 19thcentury scientists were in pursuit of electropropulsion". [Lyne, "Occult Ether Physics". , p. 30, emphasis added. 'Electropulsion' is Lyne’s aptly coined term for propulsion methods relying on electrical charge differentials].

(1) Lyne’s History of Aether Physics

In order to appreciate Lyne’s version of the Two Space Programs Hypothesis fully, it is necessary to see its centerpiece - the work of Nikola Tesla and its alleged continuation under the Nazis - within the wider context of the reconstruction of “aether physics” that Lyne undertakes. Accordingly, this section will perhaps seem somewhat long and perhaps a bit technical. Nevertheless, it is essential to Lyne’s argumentation that Tesla was an aether physicist par excellence. [This much is certainly true, as any examination of Tesla’s writings will demonstrate. What is unique in Lyne’s interpretation is the driving and unifying motivation that he claims to detect in Tesla’s work. As we shall see, Lyne argues his case well].  As Lyne puts it, "It was my intent to examine known theory leading up to Tesla, to see what he contributed to their discoveries, and to determine what happened since that time to obscure, misinterpret and ultimately conceal it". Central to this reconstruction is the work of 19th century physicist J.J. Thomson, discoverer of the electron.

Thomson had theorized, based on Maxwell’s earlier theory - that a charged spherical conductor moving in a straight line must produce displacement current in the medium. In 1893, twelve years later, he claimed to have discovered “electromagnetic momentum”, saying "... in an electromagnetic field there is stored in every unit volume an amount of mechanical momentum, proportional to the vector product of the electric and magnetic vectors". [J.J. Thomson, "Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism"] Thomson also was said to have developed the theory of moving tubes of forces - which harked back to Faraday’s earlier work - saying in 1891 that molecular structure is closely connected with tubes of electrostatic forces, with magnetism regarded as a secondary force. He stated that "...the aether itself is the vehicle of mechanical momentum, of amount (1/4 π C) [D-B] per unit volume".

Note that the basic motivation for the experiment, and the basic discovery or theory, is that of electro-propulsion or momentum. And this, claims Lyne, is the single unifying factor of much 19th and early 20th century experimentation. [Lyne, "Occult Ether Physics". Lyne makes  an important remark in the context of the discussion of Tom Bearden’s views on "scalar" or "quantum potential" physics. Lyne states, "There was already a sort of battle brewing between the proponents of classical electrodynamics, and the proponents led by Maxwell of an electromagnetic theory of light. To the former, conductivity occurred in metal wires, etc., while with Maxwell, it occurred in the surrounding dielectrics and ether-filled space, with the conductors serving only to ‘guide’ the action". This is to say that electrical circuits are not closed systems but open systems, and act as local “structurers” and transducers of the medium and its energy, a view well in keeping with Bearden’s insights]. But chronologically and empirically, this makes no sense, as Lyne points out, and with this next observation, the central figure of his version of the Two Space Programs Hypothesis arrives on the scene: Nicola Tesla:

J.J. Thomson’s theory, which linked electromagnetism with momentum in a mathematical and unified way, on paper, somewhat repeated Tesla’s earlier lecture of 1891, proven by his earlier experiments, but Tesla’s theory was different from Thomson’s whose theory was incorrect. Thomson’s electromagnetic momentum could be created instantaneously only with Tesla’s contrivances, which existed before Thomson’s “discovery”, only in Tesla’s laboratory, so there is no way that Thomson could have reduced “his” theory to practice or experimentally verified it.

Equally important to Lyne’s argument that electrical momentum and propulsion was a central unifying motivation to the scientific pursuits of the 19th century, was the work of another Thomson, this time William Thomson (Lord Kelvin).[For the sake of clarity, I will refer to William Thomson as Lord Kelvin, so as not to confuse him in the reader’s mind with J.J. Thomson]. Lord Kelvin asserted in 1856 in the prestigious "Proceedings of the Royal Society" 9(1856), 156 that magnetism possessed rotational characteristics that were bound up with the heat and thermal motions of a body. Kelvin’s work is significant precisely because Tesla “made many references... to his work as a prelude to his own discoveries and applications.” By 1870, Kelvin had performed some experiments that, as Lyne summarizes them, "seemed to indicate that ‘gravitation action’ could be induced by spheroidal bodies oscillated by electrical currents or mechanical pulses". Then came a more provocative discovery.

(Kelvin) found that ponderomotive forces act between two solid bodies immersed in an incompressible fluid, when one of the bodies is immobilized and made to oscillate with a force which acts along a line between its center and that of a much larger sphere which is free. The free sphere was attracted to the small (immobilized) sphere, if its density was greater than the fluid, while a sphere of less density than the fluid was repelled or attracted, according to the ratio of its distance to the vibrator in relation to a certain quantity. [citing Phil Mag xli (1871)]. Letter of Lord Kelvin to F. Guthrie. Lyne also makes the trenchant observation that Lord Kelvin’s experiments were "analogical ones", being designed to “use mechanical and electrical wave methods to construct a model to probe the gravitational, inertial and momentive reactions of solid bodies in the ether". 

Lord Kelvin’s experiments were expanded upon by C.A. Bjerknes between the years 1877 and 1910.

Bjerknes showed that when two spheres immersed in an incompressible fluid were pulsated, they exerted a mutual attraction which obeyed Newton’s inverse square law if the pulsations were in phase, while if the phases differed by a half wave, the spheres repelled. At one quarter wave difference, there was no action. Where pulses were non-instantaneous at distances greater than a quarter wavelength, attractions and repulsions were reverse. [Lyne, "Occult Ether Physics",  citing "Repertorium d. Mathematik I" (Leipzig, 1877) and Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, iii (1879); iv {1880}]. Note again that the motivation of the experiment is the investigation of the inertial and gravitational properties of the aether via an analogical experiment of spheres in an incompressible fluid. Likewise note an even more important fact, the behavior of the spheres is due to the fact of longitudinal waves in the medium, in this case, the incompressible fluid. [The selection of such fluids for these experiments is due to the fact that many physicists of that era viewed the aether itself as an ultra-fine version of such incompressible fluids].

(2) Lyne’s Version of Tesla Physics

It is in this wider context that we now come to the centerpiece of Lyne’s reconstruction of physics and his version of the Two Space Programs Hypothesis: the work of Nikola Tesla, and what Lyne believes was its hidden and ultimate motivation all along. As Lyne points out, the articles he cites in "Occult Ether Physics" were available to Tesla "during his student days at the Polytechnic Institute in Graz, Austria".” Moreover, Tesla’s admiration for and use of Lord Kelvin’s work in his own experiments is well known. Nikola Tesla is almost the raison d‘etre of suppressed physics. No other single scientist or engineer has contributed so much to modern society and culture and yet, no other scientist or engineer has been subject to such a "long and thorough eradication of (his) name from encyclopedias and books on science, invention and technology" to the extent of Tesla. [William Lyne, "Occult Science Dictatorship: The Official State Science Religion and How to Get Excommunicated" (Lamy, New Mexico: Creatopia Productions, 2001)]. So thorough has this been that he is almost "the ‘invisible man’ of science history".

The conspicuous vacuum created where the mention of Tesla should have been, as one who made such important contributions to science, technology, and the quality of our lives, raises ominous questions as to why his memory became virtually stricken from history almost the day after his death. What did Tesla discover which threatened the powers that be? Since we already know about the many patented inventions, my assumption has always been that the unknown, still classified works were far in advance of the published ones, and were in realization of projects which Tesla had previously announced or had already tested and developed, but had not yet "...given to the world".

These inventions and ideas, "the very existence of which is categorically denied by establishment and corporate scientists", were, according to Lyne, centered on five things:

1. exotic flying machines based on electrodynamic propulsion methods;
2. discoveries implying that that energy could be extracted from the medium, or environment;
3. transmutation of the chemical elements;
4. an "alternative ‘ether’ physics and science";
5. Tesla’s "Dynamic Theory of Gravity".

Lyne believes that the first of these elements was the real unifying motivation to much of Tesla’s lifelong research, particularly in his later years, and the other four elements were made in aid of the first. Citing an article in the 22 September 1940 edition of the "New York Times" by William L. Laurence, Lyne notes that Tesla claimed to have discovered a new force which he called the “teleforce." Expanding on his famous Colorado Springs experiments, Tesla explored this force in discoveries and experiments between 1900 and 1940, claiming to have found a new way to create waves in the atmosphere, a "‘new’ way to create a ‘very great electrical force'," as well as a new way to magnify that force, and a new means of electrical propulsion. Indeed, Tesla had maintained this vision of an electrical flying machine since the 1870s, when it first occurred to him as a student. Lyne observes that it was to realize this machine that was the reason Tesla “said he originally entered the field of electrical science in 1875 in the first place.” In other words, Lyne believes that the creation of an electrical flying machine is the unifying theme and ultimate motivation of all of Tesla’s life’s work. In a lecture in 1938, Tesla stated that the central theory of all the above five elements - his "dynamic theory of gravity" - had been worked out by 1893. [1893 is significant because that was the year Tesla began his experiments in Colorado Springs that led to his discovery of electrical standing waves and wireless broadcast of power]. In that lecture, Tesla referred to two significant discoveries that he planned to "give to the world" when he had completed "his secret developments". Those two discoveries, according to Lyne, were the Dynamic Theory of Gravity and idea of "environmental energy", i.e., the idea that “there is no energy in matter other than that received from the environment". 

Lest Tesla’s assertions be thought to be merely quirky restatements of relativity, it must be remembered that Tesla considered his theory wholly inconsistent with the theory of relativity, and with the modern theory concerning the structure of the atom and the mutual interconversion of matter and energy. Tesla continuously attacked the validity of Einstein’s work; and until two or three years before his death he ridiculed the belief that energy could be obtained from matter.[John J. O’Neill, "Prodigal Genius: The Life of Nikola Tesla" (Las Vegas: Bortherhood of Life , Inc., 1994)].

In a certain sense this is due to Tesla’s habit of thinking in terms of nineteenth century aether physics, but in another, it is due to the nature of the discoveries he was making since his Colorado Springs experiments, discoveries that took him into the most avante garde areas. While clearly derived from his Colorado Springs experiments, Tesla’s Dynamic Theory of Gravity did not get any public airing until that 1938 lecture, given to the Institute of Immigrant Welfare on 12 May 1938. This, in Tesla’s own words, is all that is publicly known of that theory:

"During the succeeding two years (1893 and 1894) of intense concentration I was fortunate enough to make two far reaching discoveries. The first was a dynamic theory of gravity, which I have worked out in all details and hope to give to the world very soon. It explains the causes of this force and the motions of heavenly bodies under its influence so satisfactorily that it will put an end to idle speculation and false conceptions, as that of curved space.... Only the existence of a field of force can account for the motions of the bodies as observed, and its assumption dispenses with space curvature. All literature on this subject is futile and destined to oblivion. So are all attempts to explain the workings of the universe without recognizing the existence of the ether and the indispensable function it plays in the phenomena. My second discovery was of a physical truth of the greatest importance. As I have searched the entire scientific records in more than a half dozen languages for a long time without finding the least anticipation, I consider myself the original discoverer of this truth, which can be expressed by the statement: There is no energy in matter other than that received from the environment. .... It applies rigorously to molecules and atoms as well as to the largest heavenly bodies, and to all matter in the universe in any phase of its existence from its very formation to its ultimate disintegration".

The idea of "environmental energy" may seem obscure, but the radical nature of Tesla’s assertion may be appreciated if one considers his lifetime’s preoccupation: electricity. What Tesla is in effect saying through his (always) carefully chosen language is that in any electrical circuit or conductor, it is not so much the power "source" that produces the power, but rather that such a source, along with the parameters of the circuit itself, is an open system transducing power from the medium. This is a revolutionary statement to make, especially in 1938. But there is a hint of Tesla’s advanced views on the aether and what his "dynamic theory" of gravity may have entailed, if his 1938 statements are viewed in the wider context of previous developments in general and especially the experiments of Lord Kelvin in particular. This is his clear allusion to the motion of heavenly bodies and to the fact that his twin observations are scale invariant, i.e., applicable to all sizes of matter from atomic to planetary scales. Thus it would seem that Tesla appears to be viewing the aether in not only a dynamic sense, but as a structure of rotation, of vortices. [Lyne also observes that in Tesla’s view "the ether is thrown into ‘infinitesimal whirls’" or ‘"micro helices”" at velocities near the speed of light. ("Occult Ether Physics")]. These are significant indicators that Tesla was already thinking in terms of higher order topologies than relativity theory. [It may indicate that Tesla was thinking ahead of the five and six dimensional theories of Kaluza-Klein or Vaclav Hlavaty]. To see Tesla as a conventional 19th century aether physicist in his late life is, however, to massively distort the picture. Tesla wrote an unpublished article toward the end of his life called "Man’s Greatest Achievement", in which he states some very unusual, very new, and, as it turns out, very old, views of the aether:

"Long ago (man) recognized that all perceptible matter comes from a primary substance, or a tenuity beyond conception, filling all space, the Akasa or lumeniferous ether, which is acted upon by the life-giving Prana or creative force, calling into existence, in never ending cycles, all things and phenomena. The primary substance, thrown into infinitesimal whirls of prodigious velocity, becomes gross matter; the force subsiding, the motion ceases and matter disappears, reverting to the primary substance. Can Man control this grandest, most awe-inspiring of all process in nature? ... If he could do this, he would have powers almost unlimited and supernatural....He could alter the size of this planet, control its seasons, guide it along any path he might choose... He could cause planets to collide and produce suns and stars...To create and to annihilate material substance... would be the supreme manifestation of the power of Man’s mind, his most complete triumph over the physical world, his crowning achievement, which would place him beside his Creator, make him fulfill his ultimate destiny". [Tesla also shows himself quite familiar in this quotation with ancient metaphysical and esoteric doctrines of the materia prima with his reference to Akasa, or the Akashic field, a kind of eternal ephemeral "Hall of Records".] 

Tesla’s views eerily echo those of "scalar" physicist Tom Bearden.180 Tesla’s view of the aether shows his thinking to be far from the inert and static aether of nineteenth century physicists, or even the kind of aether envisioned by Max Planck and other physicists, who envisioned a quasi-hydro dynamic aether that was “drug along” with planets. As this passage makes clear, Tesla envisioned it as a transmutative aether analogous to electrical carriers “immersed in an insulating fluid” whose properties varied according to the local environment. 181 But what does all this mean? Here, it is best to cite Lyne’s catalogue of Tesla’s own statements, followed by Lyne’s own summary of their implications. Lyne assembles a series of quotations by Tesla to demonstrate eight points:

1 ."The most probable medium filling space is one consisting of independent carriers immersed in an insulating fluid". 
2. "In his experiments he dwells first on some phenomena produced by electrostatic force, which he considers in the light of modern theories to be the most important force in nature for us to investigate".
3. "He illustrates how mechanical motions are produced by a varying electrostatic force acting through a gaseous medium".
4. "One of the most interesting results arrived at in pursuing these experiments, is the demonstration of the fact that a gaseous medium upon which vibration is impressed by rapid changes of electrostatic potential, is rigid".
5. "If through this medium enormous electrostatic stresses are assumed to act, which vary rapidly in intensity, it would allow the motion of a body through it, yet it would be rigid and elastic, although the fluid itself might be devoid of these properties".
6. "...on the assumption that the independent carriers are of any configuration such that the fluid resistance to motion in one direction is greater than in another, a stress of that nature would cause the carriers to arrange themselves in groups, since they would turn to each other their sides of the greatest electrical density, in which position the fluid resistance to approach would be smaller than to receding".
7. "If in a medium of the above characteristics a brush would be formed by a steady potential, an exchange of the carriers would go on continuously, and there would be less carriers per unit volume in the brush than in the space at some distance from the electrode, this corresponding to rarefaction".
8. "If the potentials were rapidly changing, the result would be very different; the higher the frequency of the pulses, the slower would be the exchange of carriers; finally, the motion of translation through measurable space would cease and, with a sufficiently high freguency and intensity of the stress, the carriers would be drawn towards the electrode, and compression would result".

Lyne summarizes the practical nature of these insights as follows:

1. Mechanical motions can be produced by varying electrostatic force acting through a gaseous (ether) medium, which thereby becomes rigidified, yet allows solid bodies to pass through.
2. Under influence of stress in one direction... the carriers may group together, forming tubes of force, creating greater ease of movement in that direction.
3. When a (direct current) brush is created by a steady potential, a continuous exchange of carriers is created corresponding to ether rarefaction, as the tubes of force are drawn into the conductor.
4. With a sufficiently high frequency and stress intensity in the opposite direction, carrier exchange is blocked by ether compression, forcing the tubes of force to dissolve in the conductors of the ship, imparting electromagnetic momentum. The system, using the two kinds of potentials (direct current and alternating current), is known as “p2”

The last point assumes a particular significance in the light not only of Tesla’s quest for an electrically propelled flying machine, but also, in the light of the known design and operating principles of the Bell. Lyne, summarizing Tesla’s views on the aether and electrical circuits as open systems, notes that electrical motive force is not due merely to “varying currents” but to “rarefaction and compression of the ether” brought about by rapidly varying and different kinds of currents. The implication was that, while as early as 1884 Tesla had done calculations for his flying machine when he first immigrated to the United States, he later claimed that his "dirigible torpedo" could achieve speeds of 300 miles per second, or an incredible 1,080,000 miles per hour! The idea of the compression and rarefaction of the aether via electrical stress caused by two types of electrical potential, coupled with the idea of the structure of matter being nothing but vorticular motion in that aether, makes Tesla’s views far ahead of their time. Indeed, by discovering the twin characteristics of the aether as longitudinal compression and rarefaction, as well as vorticular motion, Tesla laid the foundations of "scalar physics".Tesla actually went so far as to discover the “endothermic explosion” (cold explosion) uses of such wave phenomena:

Tesla discovered that by using a low frequency beam-directed pulse, he could cause, at the quarter wavelength, the eruption of a large electromagnetic pulse which could, by carrying a much higher exciting wave, excite the atmospheric gases in a region, to explosively expand them, followed by a tremendous implosion and the absorption of a great amount of heat in the area, causing immediate freezing. This process would create an initial explosive shock wave followed by the implosive return wave, similar to nuclear detonation. For example, by using a low frequency of 60 (cycles per second), with a wavelength of 3,100 miles, directed by carrier-beam, a pulse could be made to erupt at one-quarter wavelength - 775 miles, corrected to 751 miles by velocity factor. By superimposing an exciting frequency of say 50 megahertz or so, the atmospheric gases could he excited to cause a “cold implosion ” which absorbs heat. By altering the warelength and the direction of propagation, the results could be delivered to any terrestrial point. [Lyne, "Occult Ether Physics" notes that the frequency characteristics of the aether in Tesla’s view are that the aether is of an "ultra-hyper-high frequency" nature, if I may be permitted that clumsy expression for the sake of emphasis. Tesla himself stated that he viewed the basic wave structure of the aether as longitudinal and acoustic in nature, with the "sound" waves traveling at the velocity of light. Moreover, Tesla also viewed radioactivity as environmental and hence a dynamic phenomenon, and not as an "inherent" property of certain types of unstable matter].

Keep in mind this “cold explosion” and “explosive atmospheric heating” at a distance, for these will be seen to be significant signatures of scalar weapons deployment. Indeed, Tesla chose his name for his new force — "teleforce" — very carefully, for that very name designated the application of "force at a distance". And as will be seen in the next chapter, the electrical stress of the medium via two types of potential, in addition to high frequency pulsation, and vorticular motion, appears to be the very principles in operation in the Bell. From what has been stated, it is obvious that Lyne views Tesla’s theoretical and practical work as a prototypical "unified physics" that can develop a technology with a variety of applications, from propulsion to weaponry of planet-busting potential.

The National Security Act and Scientific Suppression

Tesla’s post-Colorado Springs discoveries were deemed “not fit for public consumption.” And this required, of course, an entity to coordinate and monitor the suppression of such physics and to coordinate any further secret development of it, to promulgate a “public” version of physics destined to proffer untestable theories publicly while privately developing entirely different paradigms, and to coordinate the secret development of exotic physics and associated technologies. That entity Lyne believes was created, or perhaps better put, was sanctioned by the National Security Act of 1947. To corroborate this, Lyne observes that Tesla’s contemporary, friend, and biographer, John J. ONeill, who wrote the classic biography "Prodigal Genius: The Life of Nikola Tesla", attempted no less than three times to publish the book, all in the same month! Lyne quips:

"In case you are wondering, the three publishings in the same month were not due to landslide sales at the bookstores, but rather to O’Neill’s having been threatened and censored by the FBI, and forced to republish several times because of their deletion and censoring of material which to this day is still classified".

Tesla, contrary to government disinformation, was a careful note taker. As Lyne puts it, "the notes on his Colorado Springs experiments alone were enough for a large-format book of 433 pages; and over his entire lifetime, Tesla managed to produce more than a railroad boxcar full of material, most of which was confiscated by the FBI on his death, as only 150,000 documents were released to his Serbian relations in Yugoslavia".

Strange Nazi Parallels

At this juncture Lyne’s version of the Two Space Programs Hypothesis begins to take its final shape. Lyne states that after the arrival of von Braun and other Project Paperclip scientists in the US after the world war, the military-intelligence community from Air Technical Command at "Wright-Patterson Air Force Base hurried up to the warehouses of the Custodian of Alien Properties, and took possession of all the Tesla materials. They removed them to Wright-Patterson, and every bit of them have been classified at the highest level ever since, the government having declassified NONE of them". In other words, the Air Force had discovered something in the Nazi research that was based upon and a further elaboration of some aspect of Tesla’s work.

The Nazi Role in Occulted Aether Physics 

Roswell, MJ-11, and Disinformation

Lyne believes that the answer to that question is very specific, and that part of the answer lies not only in the creation of the National Security apparatus of the United States in 1947, but in the undue influence that the Paperclip Nazis continued to exercise within that community. For example, Lyne quite openly states that the entire Roswell incident was "an SS hoax", perpetrated by the Paperclip Nazis in New Mexico who were, in fact, SS officers. [William Lyne, "Pentagon Aliens". This should be kept in mind when the Carol Rosin affidavit is considered later, since it concerns direct statements allegedly made by von Braun himself that imply a vast "extraterrestrial" hoax being played out on mankind in order to weaponize space with the next generation of post-thermonuclear strategic offensive weapons]. As a result of the American confiscation of the most sensitive Nazi scientific documents, Lyne believes unhesitatingly that not only is most UFOlogy manipulated by the CIA or other intelligence agencies, but also that the MAJIC-12 documents are an elaborate disinformation campaign hatched within the bowels of the intelligence community, possessing partial truth, and partial falsehood. Similarly, and for our purposes, more importantly, Lyne points out the obvious fact that since such Nazi documentation as concerned itself with such exotic physics, weapons and propulsion systems was confiscated by America (or, equally plausible, remained under German control or at least influence), then the so-called "plans" and "documents" of the SS supposedly detailing Nazi flying saucers are also fakes, part of an elaborate disinformation campaign. But oddly, and most chillingly, Lyne points out that the two largest and most notorious agencies established by the National Security Act, The Central Intelligence Agency and The National Security Agency, are but direct English translations or metaphrases of Reichsicherheitshauptamt, the infamous R.S.H.A, which may be literally translated as “National Security Agency” and loosely also connotes a central, or main, clearing office, or "central intelligence" or "security" agency.

Von Braun’s Alleged Pre-War “P2 ” Project in New Mexico

Given all that Lyne alleges concerning Tesla’s views and his “p2” lecture in London demonstrating electromotive properties of two plates with different types of potential (alternating and direct current), it is a short and, one must admit, believable step for Lyne to maintain that this work quickly came to the attention of the Nazis, who like the Soviets a generation later, were searching for areas of anomalous or exotic physics to exploit, elaborate, and develop. Thus, Lyne maintains that before the war, Werner Von Braun and a small and select team of German scientists went to New Mexico and there performed preliminary experiments on Tesla’s ideas, a project Lyne calls the ”p2” project, after Tesla’s two different potentials. Having assured themselves of the viability of Tesla’s science, Lyne asserts that von Braun and company returned to Germany where the work was continued in great secrecy and behind a number of “camouflage” black projects, such as rockets and “aerodynamic saucers.” The cover-up continued after the war under the aegis of the National Security Act and the Nazi influenced CIA, which had taken over the whole of German military intelligence on the Eastern Front, General Reinhard Gehlen’s 'Fremde Heere Ost' (Foreign Armies East). These combined government, military, corporate, and Nazi entities conspired to conceal the aether physics behind Relativity. This Teslian “aether physics”, according to Lyne, is the “‘classified science’ that the government conceals pursuant to the National Security Act.” What is one to make of Lyne’s version? First, while certainly possessing its outlandish and fantastic elements, it is clear that many aspects of it resonate with other researchers’ more recent inquiries. In fact, it was Lyne who first connected Tesla, exotic Nazi technology, the Nazi influence in the post-war American military-industrial complex, and the notion of hoaxes and disinformation in the UFOlogy community. Second, Lyne clearly believes that there is a suppressed, or occulted, physics, developed in secret, but recoverable if one carefully sifts the published physics papers and views them in a certain way, along the lines of the aether paradigm. This is quite similar to Tom Bearden’s belief in a similar such repressed — but reconstructable — physics. Third, Lyne has indicated certain signatures of the application of that physics when weaponized: atmospheric heating or, alternatively, “cold explosions.” Moreover, Lyne has clearly indicated the planet-busting potential of such weapons. While most of Lyne’s version of the Hypothesis sounds like the sheerest fantasy, this aspect, at least, is also shared by Bearden, a highly credentialed and widely published scientist.

Both Feet In Atlantis: the “Jan van Helsing ” Version


On the decidedly bizarre end of the Two Space Programs spectrum are the curious allegations of the pseudonymous "Jan Van Helsing", a researcher into the occult basis of exotic Nazi technology. Like the other pseudonymous source "William Torbitt" examined previously, van Helsing outlines a scenario of a coordinated “private” group of secret societies behind the Nazis pursuing exotic weapons technologies. Unlike Torbitt, however, Van Helsing also displays evident sympathy for some of these societies and by implication for the Nazis themselves. Nonetheless, Van Helsing’s allegations are too important to be ignored. Van Helsing published his views in a work entitled "Secret Societies: Their Power and Influence in the Twentieth Century", a work not easily available except in an excerpted version on the Internet. Van Helsing repeats many of the themes of the Nazi UFO Legend, including those that place the beginning of Nazi secret weapons research in very secret pre-war projects of these secret societies, namely, the so-called “Vril Gesellschaft,” named after the “vril” or aetheric energy of Sir Edward Bullwer-Lytton’s famous novels of a long-lost subterranean civilization that had preserved the secrets of this mysterious energy, and the more famous or infamous Thule Gesellschaft, the secret society that actually helped to midwife the Nazi Party into existence. These ideas are nothing new in the lore of the Nazi UFO legend. What is new with van Helsing are the odd details that he adds to the mix. For example, van Helsing states that the Vril Society "was mainly occupied with the building of UFOs. They had, next to Viktor Schauberger and Dr. W. O. Schumann, also Schriever, Habermohl, Miethe, Epp and Belluzo working for them". In other words, van Helsing makes the astonishing claim that all of the alleged “flying saucer experts” that were associated with the development of these exotic technologies since Rudolf Lusar first broke the story in the 1950s were members initially of a secret society whose primary purpose was the building of such craft.

The book "German Secret Weapons of the Second World War" by Rudolf Lusar contains less than two pages of text in the section headed 'Flying Saucers', but its influence has been quite remarkable. Here, in full, is the text of that brief section:

Flying saucers have been whirling round the world since 1947, suddenly turning up here and there, soaring in and darting off again at unprecedented speed with flames encircling the rim of the saucer's disc. They have been located by radar, pursued by fighters and yet nobody has so far succeeded in establishing the existence of such a 'flying saucer' or managed to ram or shoot one down. The public, even the experts, are perplexed by an ostensible mystery or a technical miracle. But slowly the truth is coming out that even during the war German research workers and scientists made the first moves in the direction of these ''flying saucers''. They built and tested such near-miraculous contraptions.

Experts and collaborators in this work confirm that the first projects, called "flying discs", were undertaken in 1941. The designs for these ''flying discs'' were drawn up by the German experts Schriever, Habermohl and Miethe, and the Italian Bellonzo. Habermohl and Schriever chose a wide-surface ring which rotated round a fixed, cupola-shaped cockpit. The ring consisted of adjustable wing-discs which could be brought into appropriate position for the take-off' or horizontal flight. respectively. Miethe developed a discus-shaped plate of a diameter of 42m in which adjustable jets were inserted. Schriever and Habermohl, who worked in Prague
, took off with the first "flying disc'' on February 14, 1945. Within three minutes they climbed to an altitude of I2,400m and reached a speed of 2,000 km/h in horizontal flight It was intended ultimately to achieve speeds of 4,000 km/h.

Extensive preliminary tests and research were necessary before construction could be started. Because of the great speed and the extraordinary heat stress, special heat-resisting materials had to be found. The development, which cost millions, was almost completed at the end of the war. The then existing models were destroyed but the plant in Breslau where Miethe worked fell into the hands of the Russians who took all the material and the experts to Siberia, where work on these "flying saucers" is being successfully continued.

Schriever escaped from Prague in time; Habermohl, however, is probably in the Soviet Union, as nothing is known of his fate. The former designer Miethe is in the United States and, as far as is known, is building "flying saucers" for the United States and Canada at the A. V. Roe works. Years ago, the U.S. Air Force received orders not to fire at "flying saucers". This is an indication of the existence of American "flying saucers" which must not be endangered. The flying shapes so far observed are stated to have diameters of 16, 42, 45 and 75 m respectively and to reach speeds of up to 7,000 km/h,

In 1952 "flying saucers" were definitely established over Korea and Press reports said they were seen also during the NATO manoeuvres in Alsace in the autumn of 1954. It can no longer be disputed that "flying saucers" exist. But the fact that their existence is still being denied, particularly in America, because United States developments have not progressed far enough to match the Soviet Union's, gives food for thought. There also seems some hesitation to recognise that these novel "flying saucers" are far superior to conventional aircraft - including modern turbo-jet machines - that they surpass their flying performance, load capacity and maneouvrability and thereby make them obsolete.

All the Nazis did, apparently, was to continue the project under their own occult-inspired jurisdiction: the SS. But beyond this, van Helsing also makes two other assertions with this remarkable statement, one very blatant, and the other only implied. In the first case, he baldly asserts that world-renowned scientist and physicist W.O. Schumann, discoverer of the so-called “Schumann Resonance” of the earth, was himself an initiate into this society, and was co-operating on these projects. In the second case, van Helsing is clearly implying by his unsubstantiated allegation that some group inside Germany was involved in the secret development of an “off-the-books” physics and technology long before the Nazis came to power. In this, his allegations are similar to those who believe that the 1890s “airship” flaps in the USA were brought about by a secret group that had covertly designed, perfected, tested, and flown the first “airships”. Were these the only allegations that van Helsing makes, it would be fairly easy to simply dismiss them with a smile and a chuckle, and move on. However, van Helsing also couples his allegations to the known occult doctrines of these secret societies as the primary motivation behind the Nazi projects, and in so doing, proposes his own “Nazi” version of the Two Space Programs Hypothesis. The importance of his allegations lies, therefore, in its odd corroboration of Richard Hoagland’s belief that many NASA launches and mission “logos” were co-ordinated in reference to occult doctrine and practice, particularly to celestial alignments.

This strange history begins, according to van Helsing, in 1917, during World War One, when "The occultist BARON RUDOLF VON SEBOTTENDORFF, the Gurdjeff (sic) disciple KARL HAUSHOFER, the ace pilot LOTHAR WAIZ, PRELATE GERNOT of the secret “Societas Templi Marcioni” (The Inheritors of the Knights Templar) and MARIA ORSIC, a transcendental medium from Zagreb met in Vienna. They all had extensively studied the “Golden Dawn”, its teachings, rituals and especially its knowledge about Asian secret lodges. Sebottendorff and Haushofer were experienced travelers of India and Tibet and much influenced by the teachings and myths of those places. During the First World War Karl Haushofer had made contacts with one of the most influential secret societies of Asia, the Tibetan Yellow Hats (dGe-lugs-pa). This sect was formed in 1409 by the Buddhist reformer Tsong-khapa. Haushofer was initiated and swore to commit suicide should his mission fail. The contacts between Haushofer and the Yellow Hats led in the Twenties to the formation of Tibetan colonies in Germany. The four young people hoped that during these meetings in Vienna they would learn something about the secret revolutionary texts of the Knights Templar and also about the secret fraternity DIE HERREN VOM SCHWARZEN STEIN ("The Lords of the Black Stone")".
 
Again, there is, on the surface, nothing new about van Helsing’s allegations; one encounters the familiar names — von Sebottendorff and General Haushofer, Hitler’s “geopolitics” guru — in connection with familiar themes: the fascination for the Orient and for its “secret wisdom”. But, again, van Helsing imparts new information — again without the slightest substantiation — that is unique to him, namely, that the Vienna meeting was for a twofold purpose:

(1) to acquire knowledge about some apparently (very) secret Templar texts, and
(2) to acquire knowledge about an even more secret fraternity, the Lords of the Black Stone.

And of course, lest it be forgotten, the words Black Stone, in German, are Schwarzer Stein, abbreviated as "SS". It is not long, therefore, before van Helsing couples this new twist to another ancient occult doctrine, the "Black Sun" (Schwarze Sonne) of illumination, also abbreviated "SS".

Then in September of 1917, Baron Von Sebottendorff allegedly met with leaders and members of this mysterious "Lords of the Black Stone" fraternity in "Untersberg to receive the power of the ‘Black-Purple Stone’ after which the secret society was named". Again, no substantiation or evidence of this assertion is offered. However, perhaps a very indirect corroboration exists in the form of the famous traveler-explorer-occultist Nicholas Roerich, an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Roerich, of course, had a similar preoccupation with “magic stones”, namely, the celebrated chintimanti stone of Mongolia. In any case, whatever happened in September 1917 appeared to have been successful, for in 1918 a group formed around von Sebottendorff in Bad Aibling, which would become the notorious Thule Society. It is here that "scientific magic, astrology, occultism and Templar knowledge as well as ‘Golden Dawn’ practices like Tantra, Yoga and Eastern meditation" were all combined. And among this potent mix was also a tincture of messianism, for the Thule Gesellschaft also "believed, following the Revelation of Isis, in a Coming Saviour (German: Heiland = the Holy One), the ‘Third Sargon’ who would bring to Germany glory and a new Aryan culture". In other words, the program was a total one: the goal of the secret society not only continued to be to (re-)discover and (re-)construct a lost and exotic technology of hegemony, but it also sought to place its ideas and agendas into power. Once in power, it would maintain itself in authority by the very technological means it was seeking to (re-) discover. Thus, by implication van Helsing is saying that one of the hidden or "occulted" agendas of the Nazi Party since its inception was always technological and occult in nature; it was committed to the (re-) discovery of a lost and buried technology of hegemony, in short, to the creation of exotic and massively destructive weapons. It was, so to speak, the one political party in the world with an occult weapons agenda that could be called "Atlantean". It was the one political party in the world with both feet planted firmly in Atlantis. To drive home this point, van Helsing cites the famous work of Dietrich Bronder, "Bevor Hitler Kam" (Before Hitler Came), which lists the following people as members of the Thule Gesellschaft:

1. Baron Rudolf von Sebottendorff, Grand Master
2. Guido Von List, Master
3. Jorg Lanz Von Liebenfels, Master
4. Adolf Hitler, later Reichschancellor, and "SS Superior"”
5. Rudolf Hess, later Deputy Führer and SS Obergruppenführer
6. Hermann Göring, Reichsmarschall and SS Obergruppenführer
7. Heinrich Himmler, Reichsführer SS and Reichsminister
8. Alfred Rosenberg, Reichsminister and NSDAP Reichsleiter
9. Hans Franck, NSDAP Reichsleiter and later Governor General of occupied Poland
10. Juilius Streicher, SA Obergruppenführer
11. Major General Prof Dr. Karl Haushofer, occultist and geopolitician, considered to be the architect of Hitler’s Lebensraum doctrine
12. Prof Dr Gottfried Feder
13. Dietrich Eckart, poet, occultist, and Editor in Chief of the "Völkischer Beobachter" newspaper
14. Bernhard Stempfle, confidant of Hitler
15. Dr. Theo Morell, Hitler’s personal physician
16. Franz Gurtner, Munich police president
17. Rudolf Steiner, founder of the Anthroposophic society
18. Prof Dr W.O. Schumann of the Munich Technical University
19. Trebisch-Lincoln, occultist and Tibetan traveler
20. Countess Westrap.

This list is illuminating in a number of respects. First, it provides a general context from which to view the possible occult influences at work behind the Nazi Antarctic expedition in 1938-1939, for that expedition was under the patronage of Reichsmarschall Göring. Second, it provides a similar context from which to view the allegations of some that Hess was privy to whatever secrets that expedition found, and that these were the ultimate motivation for the Allied Powers keeping him — or his imposter — imprisoned for so long after the war. Finally, it provides an interesting context from which to view the Third Reich and its secret weapons black projects themselves, projects which included a heavy admixture of occult doctrine and experimentation.

From a glance at the list, it is apparent that the SS itself is the visible extension of the Thule Gesellschaft into the Third Reich. Or, to put it differently, via the National Socialist Party, an occult secret society had seized the reigns of authority in one of the world’s great powers, and could thus direct the entire energies of that state into the overt and covert pursuit of its agendas. Among the doctrines held by the Thule Gesellschaft that lay behind the Nazi ideology were an "Ayro-Germanic construction of religion...by the philosopher Guido Von List... a leaning towards the anti-Old Testament" views of an early Christian heresy known as Marcionism. This was augmented by the “esoteric history” of the Aryans believed by the Thule Gesellschaft, a history reconstructed from ancient German and Scandinavian myths. Chief among these was the belief in "Hyperborea",” the continent populated by the "ancient Aryans", with its capital city of "Ultima Thule", both of which were located in "the highest north". Moreover, these "ancient Aryans" were space travelers from a planet in the star system of Aldebaran, the main star in the constellation of Taurus.

According to this myth, the continent sank during the last ice age, whereupon, with customary Teutonic preparation, the ancient Ayrans were supposed to have burrowed into the earth and "settled under the Himalaya region" in huge subterranean cities bored out with huge machines. This in turn forms the rationale for the "two large expeditions" that were "ent by the SS to the Himalayas to find those entrances. Further expeditions searched in the Andes, the Matto Grosso mountains in the North and the Santa Catarina mountains in the South of Brazil, in Czechoslovakia and parts of England". As van Helsing also mentions, Hitler’s geopolitician, General Karl Haushofer, had his own personal dualistic twist to this doctrine, claiming that Thule was actually Atlantis and - contrary to all other researchers of Tibet and India - he said that the surviving Thule-Atlanteans were separated into two groups, a good one and an evil one. Those who called themselves after their oracle Agharti — were the good and settled in the Himalaya region, the evil ones were the Shamballah — who wanted to subjugate humanity and they went West. He maintained that the fight between the people of Agharta and Shamballah had been going on for thousands of years and that in the Third Reich, the Thule Gesellschaft as Agartha’s representative - continued it against the representatives of Shamballah, the Freemasons and the Zionists. This perhaps was his mission.

Haushofer allegedly then went on to found in 1919 "a second order, the ‘Brüder des Lichts’ (sic)(Brothers of the Light)", the society that later became the Vril Gesellschaft. According to van Helsing this new secret society united the society known as Die Herren vom Schwarzen Stein (The Lords of the Black Stone), which allegedly emerged from the old Teutonic Order, and the Schwarze Ritter (Black Knights) of the Thule Society and the SS elite of the Schwurze Sonne, or Black Sun. The occasion of this founding was apparently a meeting in which members of these various secret orders met in a rented forester’s lodge near what would later become Hitler’s lair, in Berchtesgaden. The meeting was also attended by two mediums, who had “mediumistically received transmissions in a secret Templar script — a language unknown to her — with the technical data for the construction of a flying machine.

According to Vril documents these telepathic messages came from the solar system Aldebaran which is sixty-eight light-years away in the constellation Taurus. As part of this message, the mediums were "informed" that the non-white races were in "lower (stages) of spiritual development", and that "the more the races intermixed, the lower the spiritual development of these people sank". They were also “told” that the “divine” people of "Aldebaran" had colonized “the planet Mallona (also called Maldek, Marduk or — by the Russians — Phaeton) which existed in the area of today’s asteroid belt, then between Mars and Jupiter. Of course, the idea of the asteroid belt having been a former planet that had exploded is an old hypothesis, first entertained in the early nineteenth century by astronomers after the discovery of the second asteroid, and as they sought to explain why Bode’s Law predicted a planet should be in the orbit of the asteroid belt. What is crucial to notice, however, is that van Helsing’s allegation makes it clear that someone inside of Germany had connected the astronomical theory of an exploded planet to certain ancient Sumerian myths, most likely that of the Enuma Elish, an ancient war epic that describes the destruction of the now missing planet by means of an ancient weapon of mass destruction. But van Helsing does not stop there, for he also connects these occult practices, secret societies, astronomical theories, with the secret development of a new science and new technology:

"We cannot know whether these statements about Aldebaran were based on facts, but the construction plans and the technical details that the Vril telepaths received - wherever they came from - were so accurate that they led to the most fantastic idea men ever begot: the construction of a Jenseitsflugmaschine, a “flying machine for the other side".

Let us pause to consider exactly what these statements mean. First, van Helsing supplies considerably more detail in what is otherwise the old story that the Vril Society receives UFO plans from mediums, namely, he supplies the secret societies that came together, and names the mediums involved, [[The mediums were allegedly Maria Orsic and another one "only known as Sigrun"], the time, [December 1919] and the place, a forester’s lodge near Berchtesgaden! But secondly, as the remarks immediately above make clear, his interest is not so much these allegations, but rather that they led to the development of an entirely different technology and science by a secret society founded for the purpose by the very man later to be Hitler’s geopolitician! As if that were not enough, van Helsing then goes on to make the following statement:

"During this early phase of "alternative science" Dr. W. O. Schumann of the Technical University in Munich, both a Thule and a Vril member, held a speech a section of which is reproduced here: “In everything we recognize two principles that determine the events: light and darkness, good and evil, creation and destruction - as in electricity we know plus and minus. It is always: either — or.....The coming new age will be an age of a new, positive, divine technology!"

Van Helsing then notes that these remarks — one of the few that he "substantiates" — are drawn from "the German SS secret archives". According to van Helsing, the first "saucer" was secretly built by the Vril Society in 1922. He follows this up with even more specific information. For example, he alleges that this machine was tested for two years before it was "dismantled and probably stored in the Augsburg works of Messerschmitt". Moreover, there were entries in the financial records of German aviation companies "under the codename ‘JFM’ (for Jenseitsflugmaschine)" that showed “payments towards financing this work". But it is when Van Helsing arrives at World War Two and the continuation of these projects under the Nazis that his fantasia knows no bounds. For example, he alleges that “at the beginning of 1943 it was planned to build in the Zeppelin works a cigar-shaped mother ship", a machine called the “Andromeda Device”, with a length of around 150 yards, capable of storing "several saucer-shaped craft in its body for flights of long duration", or perhaps better stated, flights of Adamski-esque imagination. But immediately after these sensational and highly questionable allegations, van Helsing again comes up with more unsubstantiated specifics:

"By Christmas 1943 an important meeting of the Vril Gesellschaft took place at the seaside port of Kolberg. The two mediums Maria Orsic and Sigrun attended. The main item on the agenda was the Aldebaran Project. The mediums had received precise information about habitable planets around the sun Aldebaran and one began to plan a trip there. At a 22 January 1944 meeting between Hitler, Himmler, Kunkel (of the Vril Society) and Dr. Schumann this project was discussed. It was planned to send the Vril 7 large-capacity craft through a dimension channel independent of the speed of light to Aldebaran. According to Ratthofer a first test flight in the dimension channel took place in the winter of 1944. It barely missed disaster..."

In addition to all this, van Helsing also states that these exotic craft "should create an extremely strong field around itself extending somewhat into its surroundings which would render the space thus enclosed including the machine a microcosm absolutely independent of the earthbound space". All of this exotic research was conducted under the Nazis, according to van Helsing, by a group “within the SS” that was “studying alternative energy, the SS-E-IV,” or S S Entwicklungstelle IV (SS Development Group IV). Here van Helsing is on more solid ground, for there was indeed such a group in the SS, whose top secret brief was precisely to research "alternative energy". But van Helsing adds his customary occult twist, for he calls this group "Development Group IV of the Black Sun", or Schwarze Sonne, abbreviated "SS".

The doctrine of the Black Sun (Schwarze Sonne) or Black Stone (Schwarze Stein) was the secret doctrine of the SS known only to Himmler’s highest SS generals. The purpose of this group was "to render Germany independent of foreign oil". What emerges from all this is that there were two space programs already in existence in Nazi Germany, a "public" space program, that was in fact the "secret" rocket program of von Braun and the Peenemünde scientists, and a much more secret, and much earlier, one, that begun by the secret societies and later continued by the SS, a program with a completely different physics and technology. While most of van Helsing’s fantasia inevitably strikes one as absurd, certain aspects of it fit the broad outlines one has come to expect with Nazi secret weapons development: an undercurrent of occult inspiration, development in utter secrecy, the search for a new physics and new technology, the evident reliance upon and knowledge of ancient myths in the reconstruction of that science and technology, and the fusion of these with other occult doctrines - "root races", extraterrestrial human origins, and so on — and a genocidal political agenda. If, as Van Helsing suggests, this dual track program was in fact begun by pre-war secret societies, then one method of testing his allegations might be to see if there is any indication that after the war the same or similar groups continued the lines of exotic and esoteric research the SS was pursuing during the war.

In any case, van Helsing’s is not the last word in the Two Space Programs Hypothesis. Indeed, if David S. Percy and Mary Bennett are correct, then not only were the Two Space Programs that were begun by the Nazis during the war continued after the war both by the Soviet Union and the United States, they moreover exhibited much more coordination between them than the space programs of alleged rivals should really exhibit, especially at the height of the Cold War where the ultimate prize — the Moon — promised rich benefits in prestige and military position to whomever got there first.

The Dark Moon Version


British authors David S. Percy and Mary Bennett are the latest in a long line of researchers who question the historical record of the Apollo manned Moon missions. This is not to say that they are of the typical "Apollo-was-entirely-hoaxed" genre. Quite the contrary. As they put their own case, the purpose of their book, "Dark Moon: Apollo and the Whistleblowers", is "to question the entire validity of the official record of mankind’s exploration of the Moon especially the Apollo lunar landings. We are not however claiming that astronauts from Earth have never walked on the Moon". That is to say, they believe mankind went to the Moon, but that it did not happen in the way we have been told it happened. Like many researchers who question the official explanation of the Apollo program and its celebrated Moon landings, Bennett and Percy offer a compelling case that many of the Moon photographs allegedly taken by the astronauts while on the Moon were in fact photographs that were taken on a set. Like many others, they cite the usual discrepancies in lighting, varying angles of shadows within single frames, light sources from areas supposedly in shadow, and so on. Unlike many others, they do not cite these anomalies as proof that we never went, but only to raise questions about the official version of the way we went. And the Two Space Programs Hypothesis is crucial to their reconstruction of what they believe actually happened. On their view, the Two Space Program Hypothesis takes on the following outline:

• The foundations for the grand space project were laid down during WWII.
• The project was conceived and designed as a collaboration between two superpowers.
• The Cold War was a convenient cover under which aspects of this project could be implemented and hidden.
• All these machinations were orchestrated at the very highest level, with only a select and hidden few ever knowing the overall objectives of the project.
• These objectives have not yet been achieved in full. We are referring to a project that has been around at least since 1947 — and it divides into several sections.
• Put another way, NASA’s Apollo phase, seen by the public to be the end result of a decision made in the 1960s by President Kennedy was in fact only a small (but significant) part of a greater plan.
• Whatever humanity has experienced concerning the rivalries between the super powers of this world, today, at some very high but invisible level, our attitudes are being molded to suit an agenda which does not necessarily have all our interests at heart.

What is of interest here is the clear connection of the Two Space Programs Hypothesis to the famous events of 1947 — Kenneth Arnold’s first "UFO" sighting in Washington state and the later even more famous "Roswell incident" with all its attendant corollaries — but more importantly, to the events of World War Two. In this respect, Bennett and Percy are unique. Moreover, they repeatedly hint at a Nazi connection, or at least, implication to their approach, for "without the remnants of Hitler’s war machine, our first steps into space would probably have occurred decades later". According to Bennett and Percy, the deceptions that became so much a part of the public policy of NASA — deceptions already noted in connections with other versions of the hypothesis — were already in place well before the agency had even been established. The policy decisions leading to these deceptions began, as they point out, in the "pre-and post-war period in Germany".

The deceptions originate, in fact, with a deliberately muddied picture of Operation Paperclip. As Bennett and Percy quip:

"Now follows some interesting arithmetic. We are told by (David) Baker that the German scientists began arriving at Fort Bliss in October 1945 (that is the advance guard of von Braun and his small team of five) and by March 1946 their numbers had peaked - at the grand total of thirty nine. (Paperclip scientists) Stuhlinger and Ordway inform us that there were three shipments and a total of 118 men arriving in America between November 1945 and February 1946. So by 1946 the American Army have already lost 85 scientists. Were they declared AWOL or were they housed elsewhere, and not at Fort Bliss? Were some of them at Almogordo perhaps?" From 127 total German rocket scientists allowed into America under Operation Paperclip we have a total of 6 + 118 = 4"

But their suspicions predate even Operation Paperclip and the inability of the historical record to come up with anything like a consistent number of German scientists and technicians actually brought to the USA. The Two Space Programs may have actually begun, at least on the Allied side of things, during the war itself. In evidence of this allegation, Percy and Bennett proffer the R.A.F’s massive 600 bomber raid against the Peenemünde facility in 1943.

Thanks to information from Germany supplied by Paul Rosbaud, codenamed ‘Griffin’, the British put Operation Hydra into action, designed to eliminate

1) the engineer’s residential quarters
2) the missile pre-production facility and
3) the R&D laboratories/offices.

From nine minutes past midnight on August 18 and over forty seven minutes, 600, yes six hundred, Royal Air Force aircraft marked targets and then dropped 1,593 tons of high explosives and 281 tons of incendiary bombs onto Peenemünde. However, from the beginning the start point of the bombing run was altogether mis-identified - the northern peninsular (sic) of Peenemünde being lit by the target indicators rather than the designated Rügen Island situated two miles further north. As a result of this initial ‘blunder’, the air raid failed in two-thirds of its avowed objectives.... Instructions from the highest level, it seems, had been to target personnel and certainly not the V-2 rocket production facilities.

Indeed, even in targeting personnel the raid was not much of a success, since "of the eight hundred personnel on the ground who did die about half were from the prisoner labor force (mostly Soviets) and the other half were technicians and their families". The important scientists — Kurt Debus, Wernher von Braun, Hermann Oberth et al — survived. So this raises the specter of a last minute change in the operational plan of the raid, a change effected at the highest level. The RAF, not noted for inaccuracy or incompetence on its bombing raids over Nazi Germany, received faulty information on the co-ordinates for the starting point for the bombing run itself. Such an alteration "would have ensured that the advance pathfinders placed the marker flares ‘too short’ and/or ‘too long’, thus ensuring the safety of the individuals and rocket technology desperately needed by those that knew — the ‘masters of infinity’". Simply put, Bennett and Percy believe, on the basis of this singular and unique failure of the RAF to deliver its customary knockout punch to a target, that crucial areas of Peenemünde were deliberately spared in order to capture its technology and scientists after the war. But immediately after the war, things became even stranger. After careful consideration of the various accounts, Bennett and Percy concluded that both the Soviets and Americans arrived at the notorious Mittelwerk — the underground factory for building V-2s using concentration camp slave labor, constructed by SS General Kammler- at the same time and moreover co-operated in divvying up the booty!

Such glaring discrepancies most certainly uphold our theory that this entire period was being organized as a cohesive whole and was not just a ‘race’ against time to see who could bag the bigger haul of documents, materials and men. This plan was surely a precursor to the ‘space race’ story, which was also designed to look like one thing but actually to function in a completely different way.

While the USA was shipping a few hundreds of German scientists to the USA, along with von Braun and the precious documents he brought with him, the Soviet Union rounded up over three thousand technicians who had worked on the rockets, and whose new job for their new Soviet masters "was to re-establish the documentation taken by von Braun". It was a convenient division of the spoils. And perhaps a bit too convenient. Bennett and Percy point out that in 1958 a British publisher, Robert Maxwell, attended symposia in Moscow for the international geophysical year. While there, Maxwell returned to his hotel room one day with a sixty three page manuscript containing what were supposedly "book titles" and asked his wife to photograph the pages quickly, as the papers absolutely had to be returned before lunch. His wife recounts how by page thirty two she noticed that they were not book titles at all, but were "Die deutschen Firma, deren Einrichtung demontiert und zur Ausführ nach der Sowjetunion bestimmt sind". Which translates as: "German firms whose equipment is to be dismantled and transported to the Soviet Union". It is significant that this Soviet shopping list was written in German. Why was is not in Russian?

One answer to this disturbing question is, of course, that the divvying up of the "booty" had been decided before the end of the war, and by the Nazis themselves. We shall see how this idea actually — and most curiously — is able to explain and unite the various versions of the Two Space Programs Hypothesis. Bennett and Percy’s version of the Hypothesis now reaches its final and full development. Noting that the Soviet Union began to return these German technicians in three drafts, beginning in 1952, and ending in 1954 when the last of the technicians were repatriated to Germany, they make clear one crucial difference between the Soviet Union’s use of Nazi scientists, and the American one. In the Soviet Union these technicians were principally employed teaching Russian university students, which students in turn gained practical hands-on experience by working in the Russian space program while they were still students. In this one may detect the steady hand of Sergei Korolëv, as well as appreciate the reason for the early Soviet successes in space achievement. The Soviets at least appeared to be serious about freeing their program from undue Nazi influence as quickly as possible. And this brings us, finally, to Bennett’s and Percy’s version of the Two Space Programs Hypothesis:

"Most conveniently, at the end of WWII the political globe had been divided into two - one 'public sector' in the West and one private sector in the East. What could be more simple than to exploit this division and lower the Iron Curtain in exactly the same way as the safety curtain comes down in the theatre. This ruse enabled the organizers of the space project to go to work in relative obscurity. In the sense that two teams were targeting the Moon there was always a space race. In reality the objectives were not those of competition. These two teams, while wearing different colours, were in truth on the same side. And even if many of the key players were unaware of the real script, it is likely (in our view) that at least both Korolëv and von Braun were aware of the true situation".

Thus, in the Bennett and Percy version of the Hypothesis, the two space programs are precisely that of the US and NASA, the program for “public consumption”, and that of the USSR, the covert program which carried on the secret agenda of its hidden masters. Indeed, as they point out, control of these two programs was vested in no more than "a few score men" who also “controlled the services of some of civilization’s most highly trained specialists” and “the large funds appropriated for armaments.”246 But to assert that the two superpowers’ space programs were carefully contrived along "public" and "private" lines is to suggest a degree of co-ordination between them that hitherto was hardly ever seriously suggested. However, this, Bennett and Percy urge, is precisely what the record seems to indicate. "The American/Soviet space timetable demonstrates how carefully progress in space had been shared between them, with alternating monthly flights in some cases. This can only have been the result of close planning and continuous liaison at the very highest levels".

But why the secrecy? And why the apparent co-ordination between the two programs? Bennett and Percy pull no punches: "We propose that the secret and subtle aspect... was the certain awareness by the authorities of the existence of extraterrestrial intelligence". Moreover, "this awareness of ET was the driving force behind their mission to land on the Moon. However, the Moon was only a staging post to their avowed destination — a manned mission to a location on the plains of Cydonia, Mars". While Bennett and Percy do not offer much to elaborate why they believe these things, what should be noted is the clear implication of their remarks, namely, that this "ET awareness" was the real hidden agenda driving both space programs since the end of World War Two, and the real hidden goal of both was a manned flight to Mars, again, since the end of World War Two. While not offering much to substantiate this astounding assertion, they do offer a couple of clues, namely, that in addition to a public and private consumption space program, there was also a public and private consumption physics that accompanied the two programs. First, they note that during the era when both superpowers were still conducting atmospheric tests of hydrogen bombs, these tests curiously produced auroreal displays in the opposite hemisphere from that in which the detonation took place. That is, hydrogen bombs are partially harmonic devices. Very little is ever publicly discussed in physics texts about this phenomenon. The question is: why? The second phenomenon, and one which clearly indicates an attempt by NASA to suppress serious and extended public discussion, is a much more serious one.

There is a significant phenomenon concerning the alleged outward journey to the Moon during 'Apollo 11' which has to our knowledge never been elaborated upon, explained, or indeed mentioned in relation to any of the subsequent Apollo ‘trips’ - a phenomenon which may have assumed gigantic proportions for NASA and the space scientific community. So much so that (as far as we can tell) it has been ‘locked down’ in an attempt to sweep any discussion or knowledge of it under the carpet. To what are we referring? It is the neutral point, which is also called the equigravisphere. This location is just what it says it is:

• The point between two planetary bodies where the gravitational ‘pulls’ between the two bodies cancel each other out.
• Once this point is space is passed, a craft is no longer affected by the gravity of the planetary body which it (is) leaving but is now progressively under the influence of the planetary body towards which it (is) moving.

The “Neutral Point Discrepancy” is one of the glaring features of the Apollo programs and their published data, and it raises a number of very important questions. It was Sir Isaac Newton who had first calculated the Earth/Moon neutral point using his theory of gravitation. That theory gave him an average Earth-Moon distance of 238,900 miles, and the neutral point thus occurred at approximately 23,900 miles from the Moon. This of course gave the now familiar figure that the Moon’s gravitational attraction was about 1/6th that of the Earth. But then came a 1969 edition of "Time" magazine, an interview with Wernher von Braun himself, and the beginning of a persisting mathematical mystery concerning the Earth-Moon dual planetary system. "Time" reported that "43,495 miles from the Moon lunar gravity exerted a force equal to the gravity of the Earth, then some 200,000 miles distant". And that, note Percy and Bennett, "gave a total distance to the Moon of 243,495 miles". And it means something more, which Bennett and Percy do not mention, namely, if this neutral point figure is correct, then the Moon is much more massive than any standard view of celestial mechanics will allow. 

In any case, Bennett and Percy note that a mere two weeks after the "Time" magazine article, Wernher von Braun quite suddenly resigned all his NASA posts and took a position as Vice President of Engineering for Fairchild Industries, leading them to ask a question many other researchers have asked in regard to the Neutral point Discrepancy: "Could that "Time" magazine article...have anything to do with Wernher von Braun’s somewhat hasty departure for pastures new?” It is my opinion that it definitely did. Whatever else the "Time" article may have done for the space science community, at the minimum it began, according to Bennett and Percy, a process of “arithmetical obfuscation” that can only be seen as deliberate, since to view what happened next as not being deliberate would be akin to charging NASA with gross mathematical incompetence. For example, in the 1981 edition of "Baker’s Space Technology" the Apollo 11 distance to the Moon is given as 253,475 miles. But in 1989 the book "Apollo 11 Moon Landing" gave the distance as just under 250,400 miles. Then in 1996, Baker’s "Spaceflight and Rocketry" gave the neutral point as 38,925 miles from the Moon and 214,550 miles from Earth, giving a total distance to the Moon of 253,475 miles. Then, to really complicate matters, George Pinter assured authors Bennett and Percy that the neutral point really was exactly what von Braun told "Time" magazine, namely, 43,495 miles. Yet, prior to the "Time" article, and according "to the majority of references" the old Newtonian figure was still being used to calculate the neutral point. The question is of prime importance, since either figure for the neutral point gives very different gravities for the Moon, and consequently, very different trajectories for any craft going there, and, more importantly, very different fuel and thrust requirements for any rocket-powered craft lifting off from the lunar surface, such as the LEM (Lunar Excursion Module). Obviously, this also raises a significant set of questions. “Is it not interesting", Bennett and Percy ask, "that no sources agree on the exact distance of the Moon’s orbital path?” Moreover, in order to trajectory any craft to the Moon, both NASA and the Soviets would have had to know this average distance “to the last inch",  So why is it so difficult for NASA to confirm some set figure? ”Why is the Earth/Moon centre-to-centre distance missing from the published Apollo information? Where one can find the craft’s trajectory, the Earth/Moon distance is often missing or vague. Where one can locate the Earth/Moon distance, the craft’s trajectory is often missing or vague".

To confound matters even further, "space experts at NASA or elsewhere, do not state whether they are using planetary surface-to-surface or centre-to-centre measurements. Nor do they always state whether they are using nautical miles or statute miles. Nor do they stick to any one system". In short, "the only consistency in the Earth/Moon measurement scenario is the inconsistency of the data emanating from official sources". Percy and Bennett’s way out of this impasse is to posit that the 23,900 mile figure - the Newtonian figure - is correct, and that the figure revealed by von Braun to "Time" magazine is the “experienced” neutral point. Their reasons for doing so are plain: NASA and the Soviets used the Moon’s 1/6G as part of the calculations for their successful slingshot manoeuvres around the Moon and also for the calculations relating to energy requirements for their crash lander and soft lander probes, including those that actually returned samples to the then Soviet Union. If the evaluation of the lunar gravity had been incorrect, then surely none of these manoeuvres would have been successful.

But what if the reverse was true? It hardly stands to reason that von Braun was “resigned” from NASA for having made a whopping mistake in his interview to "Time". Nor does it stand to reason that he was "resigned" from NASA for having deliberately lied to "Time". The only scenario that makes sense is that he was forced to resign because he revealed something that he should not have. If one assumes that the 43,495 mile neutral point was accurate and not merely an "experienced" neutral point as Bennett and Percy would have it, then this raises a number of significant points:

1. This neutral point calculation was clearly made much earlier in both the Soviet and American space programs than it was publicly revealed by von Braun. If, as Bennett and Percy state, the Newtonian figure had been used for early probes, these would have either crashed into the Moon or careened off into space. Telemetry data would have eventually given scientists a correct neutral point calculation.
2. But this raises a new question. For the above scenario to have occurred, then probes would have had to have been launched to the Moon much earlier than the public record shows. The question thus is, when was the 43,495 mile neutral point figure actually known, and who discovered it?
3. The "Time" magazine neutral point also raises another signal difficulty, and that is that with a neutral point of 43,495 miles, the gravity of the Moon would be a whopping 60% that of the Earth!  As Bennett and Percy rightly point out, this dramatically increases the energy, and hence the fuel, requirements for any craft landing on the Moon’s surface and subsequently taking off again from it.
4. This in turn raises a significant question regarding the LEM (Lunar Excursion Module) of the Apollo missions, the craft that actually landed on and then blasted off from the surface of the Moon. Many researchers have pointed out that the LEM has little blast signature from a rocket when it is taking off from the Moon to return the astronauts to the command module. This, so many say, is evidence of a hoaxed Moon shot. I do not believe this explanation to be plausible or credible. For one thing, a rocket exhaust in a vacuum leaves little visible plume. But what the lack of blast signature may also indicate, I believe, is that the rocket was not the primary lift component of the LEM. In other words, if - and it is a very considerable if - the gravity of the Moon is considerably higher than the public has been told, then this would account not only for the unusually "heavy" movements of the astronauts while on the Moon, but also would tend to indicate that the primary lift component of the LEM was not a chemical rocket at all, but another form of technology altogether. And that means a secret technology, and a significant aspect of the space program that is also secret,

In other words, von Braun had let something slip, something whose significance, if followed through to its logical conclusion, pointed not so much to the Apollo missions as having been hoaxed, but as having occurred by means of a science and technology vastly different from the public version. Von Braun’s remark plus the lack of much of a rocket blast from the LEMs when lifting off from the Moon may indicate the existence of an off the books planetary science - the Moon’s actual versus its publicly-stated gravity - and an off the books technology.

Conclusions and Speculations


A glance at the basic features of the several versions of the Two Space Programs Hypothesis is now in order:

The Torbitt Version has the following features:

a. A worldwide network of dummy corporations exists to further and protect big oil interests. These entities are a literal “Murder Incorporated” since they are not above using assassination and other illegal methods to protect their interests;
b. This network is intertwined with a network of Eastern European émigré communities, which are in turn mostly the creatures of German military intelligence on the Eastern Front during World War Two, and were thus directly answerable to General Reinhard Gehlen and possibly his successors;
c. These business and émigré networks are intertwined with the American intelligence community via the FBI, CIA, and NASA security via the organization known as the Defense Industrial Security Command (DISC) under the direction of Wernher von Braun;
d. By implicating von Braun, the Torbitt Document implicates the wider Nazi connections associated with the Gehlenorg and with Operation Paperclip, though the motivations for Nazi involvement in the Kennedy assassination are never clearly spelled out. One is left to surmise that at some level the policies of the Kennedy Administration threatened some hidden technological and/or policy agenda of the space program.

The Hidden Planetary Geology, Climatology, and Archaeology Version:


a. In any version - the “absurdist” or the more plausible models of Hoagland and others - the common feature is that NASA (and by implication the Soviets) know of artifacts on the Moon and Mars, relics of a long-lost technologically sophisticated civilization;
b. NASA and associated agencies have suppressed this information, or, when it is already available to the public, has attempted to sway public opinion to the view that such photographic evidence is either a “trick of light and shadow” or artifacts of faulty computer image enhancement and processing;
c. At the same time, NASA has released deliberately tampered photographs and other data to mask possible artifacts on the Moon and Mars and any evidence that might indicate contemporary life forms on Mars;
d. NASA further shows repeated evidence of having scheduled launches for significant missions on dates and times that possess astrological and occult significance, and moreover has consistently employed Masonic and other esoteric symbolism in its mission logos. This in turn suggests a hidden space program or agenda is being manipulated and planned around occult lines. It should be stressed that all of the above points are stated only with regard to the American space program, and are not made of the Soviet space program.
 
Jim Keith’s Casebook on Alternative Three Version has the following characteristics:

a. The actual television “documentary” and the book by the same name, "Alternative 3", are elaborate pranks and hoaxes;
b. Nonetheless, the broad outlines of the scenario probably contain some truths;
c. The USA and USSR have conducted a highly secret joint space program co-ordinated by some unknown entity;
d. The USA’s intelligence community was deeply penetrated in a classic “Trojan Horse” operation by General Gehlen’s Fremde Heere Ost, subsequently known as the Gehlenorg, under the guise of “fighting Communism”; the Gehlenorg maintained extensive human intelligence networks in Eastern Europe, and its analyses became the basis for America’s postwar assessments of Soviet military strength, doctrines, and intentions;
e. Similarly, the American space program was deeply penetrated by Nazi scientists brought into it under the aegis of Operation Paperclip;
f. Finally, a number of mysterious deaths and disappearances of physicists, computer scientists, and other technicians of benefit to the American SDI program began to occur, which Keith clearly attributes to one of two sources: the Russians, anxious to prevent the obsolescence of their nuclear arsenal, or to an unknown independent entity whose technology and interests would be threatened by SDI. In the context of the overall argument of his book, it seems clear that Keith had in mind that this entity had some ties to the postwar “Nazi International".
 
The William Lyne Version:

For our purposes, Lyne’s version of the Two Space Programs Hypothesis is significant for three reasons:

a. Lyne deliberately connects the covert suppression of alternative physics and its secret development to Nikola Tesla whose ideas, he maintains, were subsequently taken up by the Nazis, expanded upon, and developed. In Lyne’s view, the secret suppression and development of this technology is directly linked to facets of Nazi ideology that favor "orporate fascism";
b. In Lyne’s view, this covert development of "Tesla technology" concerns mostly the development of new energy and propulsion sources and technologies that make the "public consumption" technology of space exploration by chemical rockets entirely obsolete;
c. This covert "corporate-fascist" development of alternative technology was begun by the Nazis before the war and continued by them - under various corporate and U.S. Government agency sponsors - after the war.

The Jan Van Helsing Version contains perhaps the most interesting - if unsubstantiated - features:


a. German research into exotic physics and propulsion systems began long before World War Two under the direct inspiration and auspices of various secret societies;
b. These societies in turn held doctrines that were later to become part of the ideology and belief system of the Nazi Party, among them the doctrine of racial purity, and the extra-terrestrial origin of the "Aryan" race;
c. Similarly, these societies maintained that this race and its high culture had "sunk" or disappeared beneath the earth in vast subterranean cities under the poles and the Himalayas;
d. These societies in turn helped midwife the Nazi Party into existence, and their most hidden doctrines - The "Black Stone" and the "Black Sun" - became the hidden doctrines of the upper echelon of the SS, which also continued their research into exotic physics.

The Dark Moon Version:


The Dark Moon version is in many ways the most subtle of the versions, with the exception of Richard Hoagland’s, for authors Mary Bennet and David Percy are far from maintaining that there were no Apollo moon landings. They question, rather, the details of the record and the technological and political implications that those details seem to suggest:

a. Central to one of their arguments is the Neutral Point Discrepancy between the Earth and the Moon. As has been seen, Bennett and Percy use this discrepancy to argue - in my opinion erroneously - for an "alternative physics". While the Neutral Point Discrepancy does point in that direction, I believe that it may be taken as a significant indicator that what von Braun let slip in his "Time" magazine interview was in fact a piece of information that implied the existence of a very advanced technology of propulsion in the LEM (Lunar Excursion Module) in addition to - or perhaps in place of - its conventional rockets. The existence of such a technology points to the existence of a covert space program;
b. In Bennett and Percy’s version, the two space programs of the USA and USSR in fact represent the public and covert aspects, respectively, of one program being co-ordinated and manipulated behind the "public consumption events" of the Cold War. This of course implies some entity or agency of co-ordination existing both within the Soviet Union and the United States;
c. In their version this co-ordination was planned during World War Two, implying that the Nazis and their space scientists were somehow linked to, or were identical to, the hidden agency coordinating the Two Space Programs after World War Two and during the Cold War.

Combining The Versions:


If one now combines the common features of these various versions of the Two Space Programs Hypothesis a rather interesting picture begins to emerge.

a. Two of the versions - Lyne’s and "van Helsing‘s" - maintain that the origin of the Two Space Programs occurred before the war, and that both of them occurred in conjunction with independent entities conducting exotic research;
b. Two of the versions - Hoagland’s and "van Helsing’s" (!) - maintain that some aspect of the hidden program and agenda is dominated by occult and esoteric themes;
c. Two of the versions - Jim Keith’s and "William Torbitt’s" - connect this hidden space program to a carefully hidden and extensive Nazi network of intelligence agents and scientists, and imply a “Trojan Horse” deep penetration of the post-war American intelligence, military-industrial, and aerospace communities;
d. All of the versions either explicitly or implicitly imply the existence of an off-the-books development of a new technology and an underlying framework in a theoretical physics that is very different from that found in texts “for public consumption";
e. One version - Lyne’s - explicitly offers a "hidden history" of physics to buttress its claims, offering an interpretation of some of Tesla’s late work;
f. One version - Hoagland’s - also explicitly states that there is a new type of “hyperdimensional physics” connected with the discovery of artifacts on Mars;
g. One version - Bennett and Percy’s - explicitly states that there was a covert element of co-operation between the USA and USSR in early space exploration, though it does not clearly name the entity for coordinating such cooperation;
h. One version - again Bennett and Percy’s - also suggests an element of suppressed physics and planetary mechanics by exploring the problems surrounding the Earth/Moon system’s Neutral Point Discrepancy, and this implies the possibility that an alternative and secret propulsion technology may have existed in the L.E.M.(Lunar Excursion Module).

Viewed in this way it is clear that no matter how one approaches the data, there does appear to be a solid case that much more was and is afoot in the American and Russian space programs than has been publicly revealed. Additionally, it seems clear that at least some of this hidden component involves the planetary physics that has been carefully hidden from the public, or, when that fails, the data so hopelessly obfuscated that any mathematical or physical calculation becomes problematic, since it is dependent on the already obfuscated data released by the space agencies. This also implies the prospect that at some level there may exist a hidden technology at work. The television footage of the LEM takeoffs from the Moon, which this author believes to be genuine and not hoaxed, suggest one of two things: first, the standard explanation: a rocket lift-off from a low gravity surface, with a barely visible flame plume because of the vacuum. Or it may represent the possibility of the existence of an exotic propulsion technology. The relative lack of an exhaust plume, plus the almost steady rate of ascent might point to the existence of a very different means of getting off the moon than we have been told.

Possible Entities and Requisites for Coordination


This picture raises yet another significant question: What entity or entities would be capable of co-ordinating such a massive venture and such an equally massive “public relations” campaign, including the suppression of alternative science and technologies and their covert development? If one excluded a high-level and very top secret diplomatic collusion between the United States and the Soviet Union at least in the version of Bennett and Percy, then that still would not explain the other versions of the Hypothesis, those of Hoagland, Lyne, or those who maintain NASA has suppressed significant facts about planetary geography. So, if one views these various versions as somehow related, as disparate glimpses of the same two-track space program, again, what entity could possibly co-ordinate it all? To answer that question, one must assume that such an entity have certain features:

1. Adequate financial power and backing;
2. An international base and extension both inside the West and the Soviet bloc;
3. Adequate penetration at various decision-making levels in the USA’s and USSR’s space programs (and anyone else’s that might come along);
4. An ideological and heavy financial commitment to the development of off-the-books technologies;
5. A thorough knowledge of the occult, ceremonial magic, and astrology, and the demonstrated willingness to schedule space missions according to those occult parameters;
6. An ideological commitment to the exploration and military exploitation of space; and finally,
7. A willingness to resort to and the ability to use "active measures" to coerce compliance to its goals when necessary.

Seen in this way, there really are only four possible entities in the world that posses various combinations of the above, and only one of them possesses all of them:

1. International banking and finance; this group lacks only a clear and consistent connection with number 5 above. That is, a consistent, demonstrable, and significant correlation to occult activity and practice;
2. International fraternities, such as the Masons; this group lacks only numbers 2 and 3 above, since the extent of its activities behind the Iron Curtain during the Cold War is largely unknown;
3. The Vatican; certainly not lacking in international extent, financial power or knowledge of esoteric doctrines, this entity obviously lacks only numbers 6 and 7 above;
4. The Nazi International; this is the only entity that exhibits significant measures of possession of all the above characteristics, though it should be pointed out that the Soviets repatriated most German scientists by 1954, and that the KGB was - as far as is known - relatively successful in infiltrating the Gehlenorg’s Eastern European networks and shutting many of them down. Nonetheless, the heavy reliance of the Soviet program initially does raise the remote prospect that recruiting may have been done by the expatriate Germans while working inside the Soviet Union.

Seen in this way, it becomes a remote possibility that one of the key assignments of the post-war "Nazi International" was precisely the hidden co-ordination of that part of the space programs of the USSR and USA visible to the public. A means of corroborating this hypothesis will be to see if there is any indication that wartime research begun by the Nazis was continued by them for a period after the war, and to see if this research was carried out in apparent conjunction either with the US or with USSR’s space programs, or in conjunction with both. But if there are two space programs and if there is a suppressed physics and technology, all of which dating from the Second World War and in some sense stemming from it, then what might that physics and technology be? Would it be worth killing - even a president - in order to protect it?

"The Bell"

Nazis and Occulted Physics

“‘What I believe,’ Stanford said, is that the Canadian and American governments, quietly backed by the British, have been working jointly since the end of World War II on the development of supersonic flying saucers, that they now have a limited number of such machines hidden away in the wilds of Canada or in the White Sands Proving ground, and that those saucers are based on aeronautical projects that originated in Nazi Germany - but aren’t related to the vast majority of UFO sightings. What I also believe is that the U. S. Government knows the origin of the more extraordinary saucers, that it is frightened of what the capability of those saucers might represent in military and political terms, and that its building of its own saucers is a race against time and its secrecy a means of avoiding national panic.’

“‘The Canadian government has flying saucers. The U.S. government has flying saucers. But someone, somewhere, has flying saucers so advanced we can’t touch them. Those saucers don’t come from space. They aren’t figments of imagination. They are real and they are right here on earth and their source is a mystery. ’”

--The character Stanford, from W. A. Harbinson’s novel, "Genesis"
 
"The irritating evidence of French success in the American zone was compounded by intelligence reports that the Germans already in France were working independently of their French controllers and maintaining secret contact with other scientists in Germany"

--Tom Bower, "The Paperclip Conspiracy: The Hunt for the Nazi Scientists"

"Das Laternenträgerprojekt"

“...how did it happen that scientists from the 1940s understood exactly where they were heading? They had applied after all ideas from XXI century physics.... What arguments did they lay down (before the launch of work) that caused them to win the race for funds...? ... The unusualness of all this is summed up by the fact, that descriptions of mercuric propulsion had appeared as long ago as in ancient times - in alchemy and old Hindu books ...It may prove that an explanation of all the technical questions related to work from the time of the war, will reveal a far greater mystery... ”

-- Igor Witkowski, "The Truth About the Wunderwarffe"

It is due to the research efforts of Polish military journalist Igor Witkowski, and the best-selling book by British author Nick Cook, "The Hunt for Zero Point", that anything at all is known of the Bell. And until the publication of Witkowski’s "The Truth About the Wunderwaffe", Nick Cook’s book was the only book in the English language that contained any information at all on the Bell, summarizing Witkowski’s years’ of investigation. With the publication of Witkowski’s research in English, however, one is in a position to see why the Bell was given the Third Reich’s highest classification. Indeed, one can see why some may have resorted to a program of murder to protect its secrets. To appreciate this object’s true significance, however, it is necessary to understand what it was, what it did, what the physics behind it may have been, and, thereby, what the Germans were possibly hoping to achieve with it. We will begin with a survey of Witkowski’s research and his own speculative reconstruction of the Bell’s operating principles, and on the basis of his and other evidence, offer our own reconstruction and speculations of its possible significance and theoretical basis.

The Significance of the Story of the Bell


Before proceeding to summarize Witkowski’s lengthy and weighty research in his chapter on the Bell from his book on German secret weapons, "The Truth About the Wunderwaffe", a word is necessary about its significance. As is well known to UFOlogists, the "Nazi Legend" of UFO origins has been around since the end of the Second World War and the publication afterward of Major Rudolf Lusar’s book on German secret weapons, where the first brief mention is made of the subject, accompanied by the first "schematic" of an alleged "suction-type" German saucer. As many have pointed out, the story rests on few sources, which, when traced back, seem to lead nowhere, except to those sources’ own questionable connections, associations, and agendas. With Witkowski’s research on the Bell, however, one has something entirely different. The story is significantly different from the stories surrounding the "Nazi legend" and its familiar names of Habermohl, Miethe, Schriever, Epp, Schauberger and so on. With the Bell story, one has, as will be seen, clear descriptions of its design, mode of operation, and effects, as well as clear indications of known personnel involved with the project and clear corroborative evidence in the form of installations and residual physical signatures. To put it succinctly, the story of the Bell is the actual probable basis of the Nazi UFO legend.

An Obvious Question and a Not So Obvious Answer


For Witkowski, the investigation all began in August of 1997, when he was asked a very obvious question, a question that in fact hovers over every author who has ever investigated the mystery of wartime Nazi secret weapons research: Just exactly what was the so-called “Wonder Weapon”, or Wunderwaffe? For Witkowski, the journey began when a Polish intelligence officer, who had access to Polish government documents regarding Nazi secret weapons, first made him aware of the Bell.

Among other things he asked me if I had ever come into contact with a device developed by the Germans, which was code- named “the Bell”, and made a sketch of it. On a circular base was some kind of bell jar, cylindrical in shape with a semicircular cap and hook, or some other clamping device at the top. The Bell jar was supposed to be made of a ceramic material, resembling a high voltage insulator. Two metal cylinders or drums were located inside.

Nothing about the description of the object aroused any interest in Witkowski, but he could not let the subject drop, since the individual who had approached him impressed him with his knowledge. “This was no amateur living in a dream world. Of that I was sure.” But what had really piqued Witkowski’s interest were the individual’s descriptions of the Bell’s “quite simply unearthly effects” when it was in operation, effects that conjured in Witkowski’s mind the final scene from Steven Spielberg’s "Raiders of the Lost Ark", effects that were "absolutely shocking". This description, plus the man’s evident sincerity and expertise, made the question he asked Witkowski even more significant:

"(He) asked me the outright disarming yet seemingly trivial question: if I was able to state with full responsibility that the “Wunderwaffe” - that “wonder weapon”, was the V-1 or V-2, as was often mentioned. If in any German documents or in any original sources in general, I had come across information unraveling what the “Wunderwaffe” was. He stated that after all it could not have referred to the V-1 or V-2, since firstly these weapons had been from a military point of view not very effective (and therefore not "wonder") and secondly that the term “Wunderwaffe” had begun to appear in earnest already after the “V” Weapons had been deployed in combat. This was indeed intriguing. Later from the point of view of this, I looked over various volumes from my library and in actual fact it appeared that some kind of unusual weapon had existed, practically unknown till this day".

In other words, Witkowski had come across one component of the Allied Legend - that the Wunderwaffe referred to the V-1, V-2 and various other rocket projects of Nazi Germany - and to nothing more. But the historical record suggested otherwise, as Witkowski notes; the term Wunderwaffe clearly began to be applied by the Nazis to something that was not any kind of rocket, even if that something was only a figment of Dr. Göbbels’ Propaganda Ministry. But the uniqueness of the Bell and the revelations of the intelligence man continued to preoccupy Witkowski:

"My aforementioned informer strongly emphasized that what was involved was a uniquely classified project, the most secret research project ever realized in the Third Reich! Therefore it is surely clear that regardless of the scale of difficulty it was worth verifying such a statement".

In other words, beyond atom bombs, hydrogen bombs, fuel air bombs, advanced rockets, stealth materials, guided missiles, sound cannon, wind and vortex cannon, electromagnetic railguns, laser beams, nuclear powered aircraft, and all the other exotic weapons technology the Nazis were developing, there was one project so important in its scope and terrible promise that it merited its own unique classification, and that project was the Bell. Witkowski began to research the story, and uncovered what is perhaps the most important story to come out of World War Two.

The Personnel and a New SS Player on the Scene: the Forschungen, Entwicklungen, Patente


When Witkowski was able to assemble at least a partial list of scientists and military personnel involved with the project, a very odd picture emerged. To appreciate the oddity of the picture, one must examine each of the individuals Witkowski uncovered in their turn.

SS Obergruppenführer Emil Mazuw

Witkowski was quickly led to the SS, and to one of its departments that was responsible for vetting patents in the Third Reich, and classifying those that seemed to possess potential for further development:

"The whole project was co-ordinated by a special cell co-operating with the SS armament office, subordinate to the Waffen-SS. This cell was designated “FEP”, which was an abbreviation of the words “Forschungen, Entwicklungen, Patente” - research, development work, patents. The chief of this “FEP” cell was a certain Admiral Rhein, while the described project was co-ordinated by a quite mysterious individual - namely SS-Obergruppenführer (Four Star General) Emil Mazuw. Why mysterious? Simply because despite possessing one of the highest general’s ranks in the SS, practically nothing is known about him. I got hold of his dossier in the USA in 1999, but through this he became in my eyes an even more obscure figure. It followed both from his dossier as well as cards from the course of his service, that Mazuw had been at the very top of the SS elite. He was promoted to the rank of SS Obergruppenführer on 20 April 1942, in other words he had possessed the highest possible SS rank at that time (in 1944 the SS Oberstgruppenführer rank was further established, four people being promoted to it). He was awarded with the Honorary saber of Reichsführer SS (Ehrendegen des RFSS) and honorary SS ring with skull and cross-bones (SS Totenkopfring). Such a ring was given by Himmler for special service to the organization. Their bearers constituted the highest caste of SS-men, given admittance to the greatest secrets. Each ring was personally dedicated by Himmler....Mazuw already had it in 1936. He was therefore one of the powers behind the throne of the Third Reich, almost unknown to this day".

What is interesting here in the light of my own, and other’s, previous research into the secret weapons think tank of SS Obergruppenführer Hans Kammler’s, is that the Bell project appears to be under the mysterious “F.E.P.”, which in turn is under an Admiral, implying a Kriegsmarine connection with whatever exotic technology and physics the Bell represented. A second unusual feature of Witkowski’s revelations is that the Bell project itself was not directly coordinated by Kammler, but by the enigmatic Emil Mazuw, though, as Nick Cook and Witkowski both indicate, Kammler’s connection with the project was direct, since he seems to have been involved in Bormann’s secret “evacuation command” structure that was apparently used to fly the Bell, scientific papers, and perhaps Kammler himself, out of Europe at the war’s end. Witkowski, in answer to a personal correspondence from me, explained the odd relationship of the F.E.P. to the Kammlerstab and other agencies in the following way:

"As far as I know, Mazuw wasn’t tied with the Ahnenerbe. The situation was such that apart from Kammler’s office (Rüstungsstab) - which, what has to be emphasized, wasn’t directly responsible for the R&D activities as such but for armaments projects in general, there were "specialized" R&D authorities within the SS (the best proof that they were really important is that it would be virtually impossible to find anything in the literature about it ... It was: the "R&D group" at the armament office of the Waffen-SS, headed by SS-Brigadeführer Heinrich Gärtner and the second was the FEP/Waffen-SS cell, headed by Mazuw...it was theoretically responsible for the protection of inventions in the period when the normal patent law was effectively suspended".

Note that this conflicts with the story of the Kammlerstab first broken by British journalist Tom Agoston, as recounted in my "Reich of the Black Sun". Agoston, relying on the confidential statements of former German weapons expert Dr. Wilhelm Voss, clearly implied that it was Kammler himself, plus his “think tank” staff inside of the engineering division at the Skoda Works in Pilsen, Czechoslovakia, that headed research and development. But this may only be an apparent contradiction. At the rarefied levels of SS Obergruppenführers, contact between Mazuw and Kammler - both involved in sensitive black projects - would have been inevitable. And we know for certain that Kammler himself was in charge of Bormann’s special evacuation command at the end of the war, the command which it appears successfully evacuated the Bell from Lower Silesia via a Junkers 390. But what of Witkowski’s statement that he knew of no direct or known association of Mazuw with the SS‘ "occult bureau", the Ahnenerbedienst? The answer, as in Kammler’s case, must be speculative. However, given that, at its highest level, Himmler intended for his SS to be a kind of "black knights of the round table", and given that his chosen twelve “black knights” with access to the "SS occult center" at the castle of Wewelsburg had to be of at least Gruppenführer (general) rank, then again, it would seem unlikely that Mazuw did not know of the SS’ occult activities and interests. That a four star SS general, about whom almost nothing is known, is not only involved with the Bell project, but actually the overall director of it, raises as many questions as it answers. Did he, like Kammler, disappear into the bowels of some Allied country’s post-war classified projects or perhaps - an equal possibility - simply disappear, to continue the project independently?

Writer Igor Witkowski has speculated that Mazuw was involved in secret programs to develop a Wunderwaffe, a new type of weapon supposed to change the course of the second world war.

On the 9 May 1945 Mazuw, because of his SS  affiliation, was interned and prosecuted and sentenced to eight years in prison on 6 April 1948, relating to denazification proceedings. On the basis of severely abusing political prisoners and Jews in 1933, he received another 8 1⁄2-year prison sentence on 7 April 1951. [Birn, Ruth Bettina. "Die Höheren SS- und Polizeiführer. Himmlers Vertreter im Reich und in den besetzten Gebieten". Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 1986] Served time from the earlier court verdict was applied, and on 19 December 1951, after several applications of grace on the basis of a decree of the Bavarian State Minister of Justice from 4 December 1951, he obtained early release from prison, which would have lasted until 25 November 1953.

He later found employment as a clerk. He died in December 1987 in Karlsruhe.

And the presence of a navy Admiral in the parent organization, the F.E.P., raises a further question: why the indirect connection to the German navy? Does this relationship perhaps indicate something about the nature of the Bell itself

Walther Gerlach
1945 at Farm Hall

Prof Dr Walther Gerlach

Unlike Emil Mazuw, Prof. Dr. Walther Gerlach was and is quite famous, and for any number of reasons. As Nick Cook noted in his "Hunt for Zero Point", Gerlach was a Nobel laureate for his work in spin polarization. A first class physicist, Gerlach went on to specialize in gravitational physics, on the basis of his pioneering experiment [The Stern-Gerlach experiment. This experiment, along with Einstein’s experiment on the photo-electric effect which earned him the Nobel prize, and the well-known Michelson-Morley experiment, are perhaps three of the most important experiments in the development of modem physics], that earned him the Nobel prize. But as any researcher of the German atom bomb project knows, Gerlach was also nominally the head of atom bomb research in Nazi Germany by war’s end, and was one of the scientists interred by the British at Farm Hall in England, where the scientists’ conversations were secretly recorded. Gerlach was also expert in two other obscure topics, both of which, are closely associated with the Bell: the transmutation of elements, and the "fluorescence of mercury ions in a strong magnetic field, in other words, referring to the behaviour of mercuric plasma". Gerlach had evidently been involved in the topic "for a long time, because as far back as January 1925 he wrote to Arnold Sommerfeld about the spin...of ionized mercury". In such matters, Gerlach was "faultlessly well-informed". Even more mysteriously, Gerlach, one of the world’s premier gravitational physicists before the war, never returned to the subject after the war. Nick Cook comments in his well-known book "The Hunt for Zero Point" that Gerlach thus acted as if "something had scared him beyond all reason". While Cook meant his comment in a speculative sense, there is perhaps some truth to it. If he was genuinely frightened, and if this is the reason for his curious post-war silence about spin polarization and gravitation, then this could be due to two causes. First, as the lead scientist involved with the Bell project, and as a loyal Nazi, Gerlach would have been privy to the curious and strange results of the Bell’s operation and possibly have even personally witnessed some of these effects. These effects would have frightened any rational human. So, one explanation - the one that seems to be implied by Nick Cook, in fact - is that Gerlach saw or witnessed something in the very project he headed that had frightened him into post-war silence. But there is a second, and I think, more plausible explanation for Gerlach’s apparent fright-into-silence. Indeed, it is an explanation that would seem to give a factual basis to Cook’s speculation that Gerlach was "frightened" into post-war silence on these admittedly esoteric topics. As Cook himself notes, following Witkowski’s research, the SS shot the sixty-some scientists and their assistants who worked on the project, rather than let any of them fall into Allied or Russian hands.                                                                                                                              

There appear to be only a few scientists, two of them well-known in their way, that survived the SS’ massacre: one was Kurt Debus, and the other was Walther Gerlach. This allows us to undertake something of a reconstruction, speculative though it will have to be. First, it would appear that the SS, by murdering the project’s scientists with the exception of Debus, Gerlach (and one must assume, possibly others), is intent on preserving the project’s independence by preventing its secrets from falling into any Allied hands. That this is the most rational conclusion is evident from the fact that if the SS had bargained with the Allies or Soviets to exchange this project in return for their lives, then the process would be self-defeating, if the Soviets or Allies were denied the very technicians that made the project possible. Such scientists and technicians would have been in the Soviet’s or Allies’ "intelligence targets acquisitions and booty" list, so to speak. By its actions, in other words, the SS is clearly signaling that it has no intention of letting the project fall into Soviet hands, and it is equally possible that it has no intention of letting it fall into Allied hands either.

[I was delighted to discover that Witkowski had come to similar conclusions regarding the real operational purposes for General Patton’s Third Army objectives late in the war as I had: "Simultaneously from this period - from mid-April 1945 comes one of the last known photograph of the Ju 390 - taken in Prague, during preparations for flight". Then the trace comes to an end - there was no aircraft, and no Kammler. Although he was intensively hunted after the war, he completely ‘vanished’. The opinion prevails that only one of the superpowers could have so effectively hidden a high-ranking SS general. It is known from other sources that the Americans (Patton’s Army) drove a wedge deep into Czechoslovakia among other reasons to reach the employees and documents of Kammler’s ‘department’ and lengthily interrogated all of them. These materials are to this day kept top secret. This is very intriguing and once again points to the ‘American trail'"]

So why did Gerlach and Debus escape? They escaped simply because of their sheer notoriety and value to the project. [Witkowski observes that Debus was crucial in the project for the "separation of magnetic fields component". This is highly significant, given Debus’ subsequent post-war employment by NASA at the Kennedy Space Center, and given the allegations of some that there are two spaces programs, one a very covert one employing exotic - and suppressed - technology].  For the SS to have murdered these men, and dumped them unceremoniously into an unmarked mass grave in Silesia, would have inevitably attracted Allied and Russian interest......and questions, after the war. And those questions, in turn, would have inevitably led back to the Bell. Gerlach and Debus, moreover, represented a level of expertise and involvement beyond the mere day-to-day testing and experimentation involved in the project. Gerlach, in particular, was the theoretician, capable of formulating the “big picture” of whatever it was the Nazis had discovered with the Bell. Such men would be needed after the war if the project were to be continued and advanced. Indeed, as will be seen later in this chapter, it may have been Gerlach or someone in his close circle of friends and associates in the physics community, that initiated the Bell project. So what frightened Gerlach? Very simply: perhaps the SS “allowed” Gerlach and Debus - and any other big name scientist that might have been involved with the project - to witness the executions of their comrades. Or perhaps the SS communicated their fates to Debus and Gerlach in some other fashion. In either case, the message was clear: "keep quiet on this subject, and keep cooperating." If that was the message to the two men, then it certainly worked, for Gerlach never even intimated in the Farm Hall Transcripts of his involvement with any project during the war that involved his specialty: gravitation. [Witkowski does mention that according to his sources, Gerlach did speak a great deal in the Farm Hall Transcripts about magnetic fields, atomic nuclei, the earth’s gravitation, and "extraterrestrial space". If this is true then it puts a whole other perspective on the classification of the Farm Hall Transcripts and why they remained classified for so long. Perhaps Gerlach’s comments also caused him to be brought to this country after his internment in England, since as has been seen, he was subsequently interrogated in the U.S.A., where his wartime research diaries remain classified to this day. This would clearly imply that the U.S.A. knew something about these subjects more than it was willing to share with its British ally - and brought Gerlach over to flesh out a full picture of the Bell. And as for Kurt Debus, he apparently never mentioned the more exotic technologies to his new employer after the war, I believe the SS murders of the Bell’s scientists are the best explanation for Nick Cook’s observation that Gerlach never touched the subject of spin polarization and gravity after the war, acting as if "something had scared him beyond all reason".

The Mysterious Dr. Elizabeth Adler

So far, we have encountered in Witkowski’s list of Bell personnel two rather well-known scientists, and one very obscure four star SS general. But there is yet another expert involved, and here, one is confronted again with something of a mystery:

Within the context of one of the people (involved in the project) the problem of "a simulation of damping of vibrations towards the centre of spherical objects"” appeared. In this case it concerned Dr Elizabeth Adler, a mathematician from Königsberg University (this name appeared only once).

Who was Dr Elizabeth Adler? What was her specialty in mathematics? No one seems to know. My own attempts to find out by contacting the University of Kaliningrad, modern day Königsberg, ended in a wall of stony silence. But her presence - even if she is only mentioned in connection with the Bell once - is in itself a significant indicator of something. Since Gerlach was himself a capable mathematician and theoretical physicist, Adler’s presence must indicate a very rarefied form of mathematical expertise was required at some point. This in turn means that the Bell represented no ordinary project. For the SS to have apparently "consulted" a mathematician outside the project must indicate that Elizabeth Adler’s mathematical skills were unique. Find her area of mathematical expertise, and one will have a significant clue into the nature of the physics that the Germans were investigating with the Bell.

Otto Ambros of Auschwitz "Buna" Fame
 
As if this list of personnel was not already strange enough, Witkowski, in the same context in which he mentions the involvement of Dr. Elizabeth Adler, then recounts how another name, again one well-known and somewhat infamous, was involved at some stage in the project:

In descriptions of “the Bell’s” effect on living organisms on the other hand the notion of “ambrosism” (“Ambrosismus”) occurred. This was perhaps invented to honour one of the scientists, who admittedly was not a member of the research team, but was in some sense connected with the whole project. It concerned Dr Otto Ambros - then chairman of the so-called “S” committee, responsible for chemical warfare preparations in Speer’s Armament Ministry. I must admit that from the beginning the plot connected to Ambros was totally belittled by myself, as not matching the whole picture. As it was to become evident a few years later, this was a big mistake - although there was never any doubt that chemical weapons were not responsible for the Bell’s operation, or any kind of chemical agent.

This is the same Otto Ambros that was also appointed by I.G. Farben director Karl Krauch to oversee the construction and operation of its huge “Buna” synthetic rubber plants at Auschwitz, a plant that Carter Plymton Hyrick has quite persuasively argued was not a Buna plant at all, but a huge uranium enrichment facility. Thus, while Witkowski does not seem to be aware of the state of recent German and American research into the actual state of German A-bomb development, his mention of Ambros in this context is for that very reason all the more significant. If Ambros was intimately involved with the SS in the enrichment of uranium, and presumably in the recovery of other exotic isotopes, then he would certainly be involved in the Bell project if any aspect of that project required the use of radioactive isotopes. This last condition, radioactive isotopes, I believe is one of the significant clues into the nature of the device and what the Germans were hoping to accomplish with it. The fact that his position at the Farben “Buna” plant also placed him in the orbit of secret SS research and security jurisdiction of the Auschwitz camps is also another connection that would seem to corroborate Witkowski’s revelations that Ambros was somehow involved with the Bell project.

Dr. Kurt Debus  

From the standpoint not only of the various scientific disciplines but also from that of the various post-war relationships and themes explored here, Dr. Kurt Debus is the most interesting big name scientist allegedly involved with the Bell, not the least because he is one of the high profile scientists brought to the United States as part of Operation Paperclip. Due to this fact, Debus is also perhaps an indicator that if any of the Allied powers became privy to the secrets of the Bell, then it most likely was the United States, since Debus, curiously, became a director of the Kennedy Space Flight center at Cape Canaveral! Debus’ involvement with the Bell project is made the more curious because of the fact that he was intimately involved with the Peenemünde team of Wernher von Braun and, as has been mentioned, continued to be deeply involved with post-war rocket projects in his sensitive position in America’s space program. So what, then, is a rocket scientist doing in a project like the Bell? According to Witkowski’s meticulous research, Debus was not a rocket scientist at all, but rather, was interested in the extremely avante garde notion (even for today) of magnetic fields separation. Moreover, he had apparently designed the power supply for the Bell.

His parent institution was the institute of High Voltages at Darmstadt Polytechnic (Technische Hochschule). In 1942 he was transferred to the research institute of the AEG consortium in Berlin - Reinickendorf, in addition he also co-operated with the centre in Peenemünde. He was the author of several publication and patents regarding high voltage measurement technology. He developed among other things instruments for high pressure measurement and high voltage discharge parameters measurement. At the AEG research institute he constructed a power supply unit, supplying over 1 million volts current and took part in the equipping of a supersonic wind tunnel. He also took part in the development of measurement instruments for the V-2 test launch pads.

Needless to say, such interests would not only have made Debus an invaluable contributor to the Nazi rocket program, but more importantly, such experience in the measurement of high voltage discharge parameters would have made him an expert in phenomena of a wholly different nature, a phenomena that one might qualify under the broad label of “Teslian.” But it was Debus’ character as a loyal Nazi, much like Gerlach, that led Witkowski to discover and corroborate one of his informer’s crucial pieces of information: that the Bell was considered to hold such potential that it was given its own unique classification among all the Third Reich’s admittedly exotic secret weapons projects. Debus, according to Witkowski, had informed on one of his co-workers at AEG, one Richard Crämer, to the Gestapo, in 1942. Crämer was sentenced to two years in prison. But Crämer was apparently no ordinary German, much less an ordinary engineer, for the chairman of the AEG Research Institute, Prof Dr. Carl Wilhelm Ransauer, wrote a letter to the Gestapo:

"Mr. Engineer R. Crämer from the AEG transformers factory in Oberschöneweide is developing together with the AEG Research Institute a project concerning high voltages (Hochspannungsprojekt), which was contracted to AEG by the Ground Forces Armament Office (Heereswaffenamt) and is being realized under the code-name "Charite-Anlage", as a secret device important for the war. The realization of this project is in half dependent on Mr. Crämer, who as the sole employee of AEG possesses necessary qualifications, concerning this special field of electricity. Without the co-operation of Mr. Crämer further realization of this project is not possible. The research and development work must be carried out with full energy, at least until the end of the war. The "important for the war" or "decisive for the war" importance of this project results from the following issues:

1. The project is realized under special priority SS/1040, which is only granted in special cases.
2. Mr. Ministerial Director Prof. Dr. E. Schumann, director of the Research Division of the Ground Forces Armament Office has granted this project the highest level of urgency, which has been described as “decisive for the war” (compare the protocol from the briefing of 21.07.42, which may be submitted upon request).
3. The Plenipotentiary of the Marshal of the Reich for Nuclear Physics, councilor of State Prof. Dr. A. Esay, President of the Physical-Technical Reich’s Office (Physicalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt)... has explained the signing below, that in addition he will prove the necessity of carrying out this work in the interest of the war".
 
Thus, were it not for Debus’ ardent Nazism and denunciation of Crämer, one would never have known even of the existence of the classification “decisive for the war,” or Kriegsentscheidend, at all.

"Kriegsentscheidend"

As for the term 'Kriegsentscheidend', Witkowski notes that this term was highly unusual. While the term “important for the war” (Kriegswichtig) was a technical term implying a lifting of administrative restrictions in order to procure necessary war material, The term "decisive for the war" (Kriegsentscheidend) occurs only in this document and only in connection with whatever research the A.E.G., Dr. Debus, and Mr. Crämer, were conducting. Witkowski notes that he "personally analyzed in depth cubic meters of German documentation referring to technology and never came across this term in a different context - as an official designation of any other research project or activity". What is significant in this context, however, is the fact that none other than Martin Bormann, whenever he corresponded with Gerlach, mentioned the Wunderwaffe. Gerlach also wrote Bormann at the end of 1944 that the project on which he was working would be "decisive for the war!" But most importantly, Witkowski uncovered the work of a Polish historian, Herbert Lipinski, who had some access to the Farm Hall Transcripts in their pre-declassification form. From Limpinski’s descriptions of the transcripts, as compared to their "public consumption" declassified version, "something completely different followed" whenever Gerlach was present and the subject of conversation turned to physics. For "the topics of conversations were most often: 'atomic nuclei', 'extraterrestrial space', 'magnetic fields' and 'the earth’s gravitation'." Clearly, Gerlach and Company were involved in something more rarefied than mere atom bombs. Debus’ involvement with the Bell raises yet another disturbing series of questions. What was such an ardent Nazi doing as a director of the Kennedy Space Flight center in Cape Canaveral, a post which he was appointed to in 1963? And why would he even be interested in mere rockets when the Bell held so much more potential not only for propulsion, but for so many other things? Why did someone, whose expertise was in the distinctively Tesla field of high voltage electricity discharge measurement, not only find himself involved both in the semi-secret V-2 program and the much more secret Bell project during the war, but after the war why was this electrical engineer involved as a director of the Kennedy Space center?

Dr. Hermann Oberth Takes a Trip with some Friends


Dr. Kurt Debus is not, however, the only Nazi “rocket” scientist who was involved with the Bell. Another is the well-known Dr. Hermann Oberth, who, like the Russian Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and American Robert Goddard, is one of the three founding fathers of modern rocketry. Oberth’s involvement remains a mystery, for some time between 15 September and 25 September 1944 he apparently took a "business trip", along with other "Bell" project scientists Herbert Jensen, Edward Tholen, and the enigmatic Dr. Elizabeth Adler, from Prague, to Breslau, and eventually to the region where the Bell itself was being tested. Of course, readers familiar with Tom Agoston’s work on the Kammlerstab, ["Blunder! How the US Gave Away Nazi Supersecrets to the Soviet Union"]7 or with my previous book on Kammler’s super-secret black projects "think tank" [Joseph P Farrell, "Reich of the Black Sun"] will recognize immediately the significance of Prague as the home of a number of Nazi secret weapons projects, and its significance for its close proximity to the headquarters of Kammler’s secret weapons "think tank" at the Skoda Works in Pilsen. And readers familiar with the "Nazi Legend" of the UFO will likewise immediately recognize Breslau as the home of the alleged secret "flying saucer" research being conducted there. So it is indeed curious, from a prima facie standpoint alone, that Oberth, a relatively well-known figure, should be accompanying an obscure mathematician whose specialty is unknown, and two other scientists of relative obscurity, on what is apparently a "fact-finding" mission to the centers of the Third Reich’s most sensitive - and still unknown - secret weapons projects! But Witkowski’s commentary on Oberth’s involvement is perhaps even more unsettling:

"Like earlier in the case of professor Gerlach this information reveals to us a certain unusual and significant fact - significant for the work being carried out. Namely that in principle it is unknown what Prof. Oberth was engaged in during the war. One could have the impression that this is some kind of light at the end of the tunnel, which until now has been cloaked in the darkness of night. After all it is known for sure that Oberth was not connected with the centre in Peenemünde, since in this case he would have undoubtedly held at least one of the positions of command, in other words the fact of his engagement would have been known (thousands of specialists employed there worked after the war in other countries, from the USA and USSR to even Egypt and so is out of the question that a possible secret of this kind could not be kept hidden). So it seems that some kind of alternative program had existed, being carried out for a long time, and quite a serious one at that".

That is, Oberth’s presence on this trip, particularly in the company of the mysterious Dr. Elizabeth Adler, whose only known connection to German secret weapons projects is to the Bell, implies the presence already in Nazi Germany of two “space” programs, the one for “public consumption” represented by the V- 2 and various other rocket projects, and the other, represented by the Bell. Oberth was perhaps the world’s then-leading theoretician of the problems and solutions for long term manned space flight. His presence in the circle of scientists involved with the Bell, such as Dr. Adler, Dr. Gerlach, and Dr. Debus, is yet another clue as to the possible principles of its operation and the possible purpose of the project. We may summarize the possible clues represented by these individuals and organizational relationships surveyed by Witkowski as follows:

From this list of personnel and their known areas of expertise and research preoccupations, it is fairly easy to draw the conclusion that the Bell may have represented some revolutionary prototypical device for very advanced space flight propulsion that was not based on the inefficient reaction-driven chemical rockets. Indeed, such an interpretation would explain the nominal though tacit involvement of the German navy, for manned spaceflight would require the construction of pressure vessels for outer space flight that would entail similar types of expertise as used in the construction of submarine pressure hulls. Additionally, the German navy would clearly be interested in exotic propulsion for its U-boats, to allow them greater underwater cruising time as well as speeds. In any case, the presence of Debus, A.E.G., and the Army Ordnance Bureau (Heereswaffenamt) that also hovers in the background would seem to indicate a more exclusively "weapons" preoccupation with the project. This indication, while mentioned by Witkowski, is, in my opinion, given rather too short shrift in favor of the "propulsion" explanation he seems to prefer. However, one must not be too quick to dismiss this aspect of the project. In any case, the interpretation of the Bell as a breakthrough "field propulsion" device of some sort is clearly the favored theory of British "Jane’s Defense Weekly" author and journalist, Nick Cook, and the "propulsion" theory is clearly that favored and implied by Witkowski.

The Operation of the Bell and Its Effects: Witkowski’s Reconstruction of the Bell


In outlining Witkowski’s presentation of the known operating parameters, construction parameters, and effects of the Bell, I shall attempt to be as thorough as possible in citation of his research, since much of what he says bears directly on my own admittedly more speculative interpretations of some aspects of the Bell. In doing so, I maintain, in concert with Witkowski and Cook, that at a minimum the Bell represented such a breakthrough in "field propulsion", but I maintain that the Bell represents much more than that. I believe that a propulsion breakthrough was the motivation of the project, but I also believe, that along the way and perhaps even near the very beginning of the project before the full-sized "Bell" was built, that the Germans also encountered some un-anticipated effects that also became principal areas of investigation for the project. As I will attempt to show, in the light of contemporary models and experimentation, the Bell exhibits many hallmarks of a device deliberately designed to cohere or "tap into" the Zero Point Energy, and of a device designed to do so not only for propulsion purposes, but for weaponization. It is thus best seen, perhaps, as a prototypical "scalar" device, a prototypical technology of an extremely unified  physics. With this in mind, we turn now to Witkowski’s survey.

Where it All Happened

According to Witkowski, the principal laboratories for the work on the Bell were in Lower Silesia, in the town of Neumarkt (modern day Sroda Slaska), and Leubus (modern day Lubiaz), disguised inside the facility Schlesische Werkstätten der Fürstenau. The corporate backing was provided by A.E.G. (Allgemeine Elekticitäts Gesellschaft) and the giant Siemens electrical firm. Yet another underground facility existed at the Schloss Fürstenstein (Fürstenstein Castle) in lower Silesia, as well as disguised in a coal mine at Waldenburg, where the Bell may have been initially tested. 

A little further away, there is another complex that is a part of the project, the Wenceslas Mine at Ludwigsdorf (modern day Ludwikowize). Here in a very remote valley, again disguised in a coal mine, the SS built a rat’s run of tunnels, Bunkers, and a very odd object that looks like a large concrete Henge, self-evidently a test rig of some sort. 

Witkowski also provided this author with more information that was not available when his book was published. Rainer Karlsch, a German historian who recently published a book in Germany on Hitler’s nuclear program, also mentioned in his book that a team of physicists from a German university (in Giessen) has carried out a lot of research in Ludwikowice302, namely in (the Henge). The result is such that there are isotopes in the construction (in the reinforcement), which can only be the result of irradiation by a strong beam of neutrons, thus that there must have been some kind of device accelerating ions, rather heavy ones. It could be calculated what was the intensity of the radiation in 1945 and generally it was very high.

In other words, whatever had been tested at the Henge - and there is every indication that it was the Bell - it not only required a sturdy structure to keep it down but also it gave off strong, heavy, radiation.

The History and Code-Names of the Project


While experiments on the Bell first appear to have been undertaken in May and June of 1944,304 the project itself was conceived some two and a half years earlier, meaning that it required that long to bring whatever theory that underwrote it to practical and technical manifestation.
The entire research project as such was created in January 1942 - under the code-name “Tor” (“Gate”), which functioned until August 1943. After this it was renamed or rather divided into two “sub-projects”. The code-name “Tor” was replaced by the code-names: “Chronos” and “Laternenträger”. Both referred to “the Bell”, but the project had been divided into physical and medical-biological aspects. It was not established which code-name corresponded to a given aspect of the work. The system powering “the Bell” probably received the codename "Charite-Anlage".

The code-names are suggestive, since “Chronos” means “time” in the Greek, and “gate” is suggestive enough. Both taken together suggest that at least part of the intention behind the product was to engineer time. If so, it is another indicator that the Nazis had abandoned Special Relativity with its locally flat space. Indeed, they were perhaps experimenting in a kind of “hyper-relativity” or a locally-engineered space-time curvature. The significance of the code names, then, points to a very radical and exotic physics, one that, while based upon some of Witkowski’s speculations, far exceeds them. But what of the other code-name, Laternenträger? Literally, it means a “lantern bearer” or “lantern carrier,” i.e., the individual who lit gas street lights in the era before electric lights and photovoltaic cells dispensed with the need for such lamp-lighters. But there may be something more significant in the choice of this particular code-name, as Witkowski notes: "(One) can look at this from yet another angle. It could be, as it was suggested to me, a not too literal translation of a certain ancient name — the name of ‘Lucifer’, i.e., ‘he who carries the light.’" In any case, the important points for our purposes are not only that the code-names may be indicative, at least in a general way, of the exotic physics the project was to investigate, but also that the project was apparently underway for at least two years before a practical technology - the Bell itself - resulted. This implies a high degree of theoretical background work was its inspiration, and that in turn means we must investigate the clues very carefully in an attempt to reconstruct what that theoretical basis might have been.

The Last Flight of the Ju 390

  

  The Last Known Picture of a Ju 390,
coincidentally taken in Prague in 1945.
(From Igor Witkowski’s "The Truth About the Wunderwaffe")

So what happened to the Bell and its research team? As detailed in two of my previous books "Reich of the Black Sun" and "The Giza Death Star Deployed", most of the scientists and technicians were murdered by the SS, and the project hardware itself was evacuated. Indeed, there is now strong evidence that “Project Lantern Bearer” (or if one prefer, Project Lucifer) was evacuated in April of 1945 by a six-engine Junkers 390. This is intriguing, since one of the last pictures of the Junkers 390 was taken at approximately the same period at an airfield in Prague. Since at the end of the war there was only one Ju 390 left in existence, this means that it flew from Prague to near Ludwigsdorf (probably the aerodrome at Opole, in Poland), picked up its additional cargo there, and then, according to an SS officer who was involved in the project and his interrogation records which Witkowski found in the Berlin Document Center, it was flown to Bodo airbase in Norway, after which, like the Bell and General Hans Kammler, it simply disappear

Nick Cook’s hypothesis is that Kammler had not, in fact, died in Czechoslovakia at the end of the war, but that he had either made his way into post-war America’s secret black projects along with the Bell as part of a comprehensive bargain struck between the United States and various high ranking Nazis, including Martin Bormann, or that he simply disappeared with it into an independently-run and continuing Nazi secret weapons project. Witkowski has uncovered certain circumstantial information that appears to corroborate the “American scenario.” Among the many other scientists involved with the Bell, there was one Herbert Jensen, whom we have not mentioned until now. Jensen accompanied the well-known Hermann Oberth, and the very mysterious Elizabeth Adler, on their “business trip” from Prague to Lower Silesia. Oberth and Jensen were some of the main “prizes” sought by the USA after the war, along with Kurt Debus. In other words, behind the mad scramble to acquire the Peenemünde rocket scientists and pry open the secrets of the Nazis’ atom bomb project, a concerted effort also seems to have been underway to reassemble as much of the personnel as were involved in the Bell as possible. Given the extremely secret nature of Project Lantern-Bearer, one must assume that the knowledge of the personnel involved with the project, as well as the knowledge of who escaped the SS’ execution of various scientists and technicians involved, could only have come from within the SS itself. As for Gerlach and Debus, we have already speculated that their high profiles perhaps saved them from the SS’ death squads. Perhaps this is also why Gerlach, having been thus “warned off’ the subject of spin polarization and gravity research, never publicly returned to these subjects after the war.

In this regard it is also noteworthy that Gerlach, after his internment by the British at Farm Hall, was also the only Farm Hall scientist who was subsequently transferred to the United States for further intensive interrogation. In my view it is extremely significant that his wartime work diaries were appropriated by the American OSS, where they remain classified in the CIA archives. Almost nothing is known of their contents. The fact that Gerlach was singled out for such interrogation and that his wartime diaries were placed under tight classification speaks volumes. Witkowski also entertains the notion that the Ju 390, which was one of the first aircraft in the world equipped for mid-air reJueling, a technique pioneered by the Luftwaffe, might have flown its contents to Argentina to continue its research independently of the prying eyes of the Allies, and under the watchful protection of the Peron government. Indeed, Peron had built a modern laboratory for some of the exiled German scientists for research into plasmas and high voltage at Bariloche. Unlike Witkowski, Geoffrey Brooks unequivocally maintains that the Bell, General Kammler, and the missing Ju 390, made their way to Argentina and eventually to the plasma and high voltage laboratory at Bariloche as part of their super-secret strategic evacuation plans known as Operation Regentröpfchen (Raindrop), in which the Gauleiter of Lower Silesia, Karl Hanke, played a significant role. In the light of Carter Hydrick’s thesis that Martin Bormann actually aided the United States in the surrender of the U- 234 and its valuable cargo of fissile uranium and atom bomb components, Brooks’ remarks again underscore the significance and importance as a “decisive war-winning weapon” that the Bell had for the Nazis:

"The Nazis were particularly anxious to protect documents containing the highest classifications of secret knowledge designated Geheime Reichssache relating to the development of arms, aircraft and submarines. The most important of all these, files relating to a super aviation fuel and advanced aircraft, went by long-range Junkers Ju 390 transport aircraft directly to Argentina. From the point of view of the US Government, the 260 tons of strategic material aboard the German U-boat U-234 escorted into Portsmouth Navy Yard, New Hampshire, on 19 May 1945 is so absurdly secret that the fact that it is classified as top secret is a secret, as are the documents pertaining to Dr Heinz Schlicke and the nature of the assistance he afforded the Manhattan Project in the three months after his capture. The most secret item of cargo aboard U-234 remains the eighty small cases of uranium powder which have never appeared on any USN Unloading Manifest and which will have been the fissile material for a rudimentary atomic explosive. But as far as the German High Command was concerned, the voyage of this U-boat with its extraordinary cargo of war materials and passengers did not rate so highly as to fall within the ambit of the General Plan of Evacuation". [Geoffrey Brooks, "Hitler’s Terror Weapons']

According to Brooks, whose information in this regard corroborates Witkowski’s own discovery of the Bell’s classification as 'Kriegsentscheidend', the Bell rated higher than the atom bomb in the German High Command’s estimation. While this may seem odd or unusual, it should be recalled that a similar classification scheme has been alleged for captured "UFO" technology in the post-war USA, rating it higher than the hydrogen bomb. In any case, Brooks then adds significant detail about the Bell in Argentina:

"A leftist correspondent of a leading Neuquen daily newspaper active in exposing Nazi war criminals in the Bariloche area of Argentina and who prefers anonymity for that reason has stated in writing that he inspected official documents confirming that the German anti-gravity experiments SS-E-IV and SS-U-13, together with the notorious Bell... arrived aboard a Junkers Ju 390 long-range transport aircraft which flew non-stop from Norway to Gualeguay aerodrome in Entre Rios province, Argentina, at the war’s end. If true, this might be seen by some as suggestive that the SS anti-gravity aircraft project was the post-war utmost priority for the National Socialist scientific elite. [Brooks, "Hitler’s Terror Weapons". SS-E-IV is the designation of “SS Entwicklungsstelle IV” the super-secret SS unit investigating the properties of vacuum flux or Zero Point Energy, one aspect of which would have been the investigation into the control of gravity].

If Brook’s scenario is correct, then it is sobering in its implications, for it indicates that an independent and on-going Nazi development of exotic weapons technologies continued after the war. And it highlights the Two Space Programs Hypothesis in yet another fashion, for "“one would also think it safe to assume that if the USAF had been able to make head or tail of German anti-gravity, they would not have bothered with the same old rocket propulsion methods at Cape Kennedy three decades afterwards". Or perhaps,  there was a space program within the space program, developing and utilizing an exotic technology, and wrapping it in rockets for show.

The Design of the Bell and Its Effects in Operation


Witkowski’s anonymous intelligence informant aroused enough interest in the Polish journalist in subject of what really constituted the so-called Wunderwaffe that he began to search for references to it. The quest began with yet another characteristic statement from Propaganda Minister Dr. Josef Göbbels relayed by his wife, Magda, to her sister-in-law. The Nazi propaganda minister, it seemed, had seen a weapon "so visionary" that it would guarantee ultimate victory. Such statements were, of course, standard fare for the beleaguered Reich. But Witkowski soon uncovered odd corroboration from another source, this time from the aide to the well-known SS commando, Otto Skorzeny: Karl Radl. Radl disclosed, in documents Witkowski uncovered at the American archives’ Berlin Document Center, that Skorzeny had engaged in numerous acts of sabotage behind Russian lines in 1944 because he had "come into contact with the ‘wonder weapon’ and as a result (had) ‘been possessed’ by the idea of ‘Sonderkampf’ (‘Special Warfare’), regarding the use of this weapon, to such an extent, that he considered it the only sure way to win the war". But the matter did not rest there. After the war, according to reports in the Spanish press that were soon followed by similar articles in the American press, Skorzeny had attempted to sell the secrets of this unknown Wunderwaffe to the Americans. These articles "mentioned that among other things what was involved was some unusual flying object, with ‘electromagnetic’ propulsion, which simultaneously had been ‘responsible for a wave of flying saucer observations over North America that summer.’" The article went on to state that these "saucers" were built in Spain by exiled German scientists, and that their flight principle was based on the gyroscope. His curiosity now definitely piqued, Wikowski again arranged for further meetings with his anonymous informant. From these meetings, the following picture of the Bell emerged:

"That mysterious device - “the Bell” (“die Glocke”) seemed at first glance relatively simple, although the unusual effects of its operation contradicted this. The description was admittedly incomplete and non-scientific, since it had originated from military personnel, who had not had access to all of the data, but even then it included, many valuable details. The main part of “the Bell” was made up of two massive cylinders-drums around one meter in diameter, which during the experiment span in opposite directions at tremendous speeds. The drums were made of a silvery metal and rotated around a common axis. The axis was formed by quite an unusual core, with a diameter of a dozen or so, to t