What if Hitler had survived? [And how he could have escaped the Bunker]
The BV222 was one of the biggest flying boats ever built. The plane, built by Blohm und Voss, had a 140-foot wing span, was 36 feet high and could carry 92 fully equipped troops at a speed of 240mph. It had a crew of 16 and was defended by an array of machine guns. The plane could stay aloft for up to 28 hours, making it ideal for long-distance flights.
The Blohm & Voss BV222 sea plane had a range of approximately 3,800 miles, well within flying distance from Travemünde [on Germany's northern Baltic coast] to the eastern coast of Greenland. A number of U-Boats operated in Greenland waters and as the giant flying boats used 2-stroke Diesel engines refueling from U-boat was perfectly feasible. Also there are upwellings of warm water around Greenland which stay ice free year round suitable for water landings.
Furthermore Enigma signals decoded at Bletchley Park revealed that the Abwehr [German secret service] sailing vessel 'Santa Barbara' was positioned in the mouth of the Orinoco River.
'Santa Barbara' was the former French Lobster sailing yawl 'Passim' from the Bay of Biscay and had done several trips to Argentina during the war. It is perhaps even possible that a BV222 could reach the Orinocco River directly from a Bavarian lake.
In O'Donnell's book "The Berlin Bunker", Hitler's pilot Hans Baur was quoted from interviews saying he could have flown Hitler out until the very last day, but Hitler was determined to stay and kill himself. Also Albert Speer said Baur did have plans to do so on 28/29 April 1945
An article appeared in a German newspaper in the 50s reminiscing about long range flights to Japan by Junkers Ju-290 aircraft.
Ju 290 aircraft were converted to civilian airframes with extra fuel capacity and these were transferred to Deutsche Lufthansa (DLH) during the war. These aircraft flew from Bulgaria to Yin-ch'uan also known as Ninghsia, which is 540nm west of Beijing.
Aerospace Historian,XXXV, No. 2 [Summer/June 1988], debunks the myth of Ju 290 flights to Japan/Manchuria. A Ju-290 could in theory fly one way to Manchuria, and such flights were at one time envisioned, to fly from Odessa and Mielic, carrying aero engines and "special" cargoes out and rare metals and raw rubber and other strategic materials back. The story got started through disinformation provided by a captured German serviceman, Unteroffizer Wolf Baumgart, which was duly recorded in Ninth Air Force A.P.W.I.U. Report 44/1945. As well, research by Günther Ott, the leading authority on the type, has established the careers and fates of all these long range modified aircraft and ascertained that no such flights were actually carried out.
Fernaufklärungsgruppe 5 provided 3 Ju 290s with crews for a planned flight from northern Norway [Banak or Bardufoss] to Manchuria in October 1944. The aircraft were modified in Hamburg to carry a lot of extra fuel by stripping them of excess weight, such as armament. The modification work continued into January 1945, but by that time the Germans had withdrawn from the bases in northern Norway. Accordingly, the flights were never made. In fact, there were no wartime flights made by German aircraft, either Luftwaffe or Lufthansa, to Asia. Only the Italians made one: a S.M. 75 flight to Malaya in summer 1942.
-- Herde, Peter "Der Japanflug: Planung und Verwirklichung einer Flugverbindung zwischen den Achsenmächten und Japan 1942-1945". Pub. 2000.
The same article also refers to flights by BV222 aircraft in Lufthansa registrations to Sakhalin Island which was then part of Japan.
It may be fair to surmise therefore that Hitler's pilot Hans Baur planned to evacuate the Führer to Japan via a refueling stop at sea with a U-Boat near Greenland.
One rather secretive U-Boat the U-534 was often posted to perform weather duties near Greenland, but was in the Baltic at the time. Other U-Boats often landed spies in Canada. At any given time late in the war there was usually one U-Boat performing weather duties near Greenland. From there Sakhalin was probably within range of the BV222.
Had Hitler wanted to escape even up to the last moment it was possible. On 30 April 1945 a large BV222 flying boat was prepared to fly senior VIPs to Greenland to escape.
What if Hitler had survived? [And how he could have escaped the Bunker]
There were few better pilots in the Third Reich than Hanna Reitsch, and none more loyal to its leader, Adolf Hitler.
Her flying skills and fanaticism were fully displayed on the night of 26 April 1945, when Reitsch landed her small Fieseler Storch plane on a makeshift airstrip on the Tiergarten in the centre of war-ravaged Berlin.
Accompanied by General von Greim, the head of the Luftwaffe, Reitsch made her way to Hitler's Bunker, where she found a scene of chaos.
Drunken Wehrmacht officers caroused with secretaries, while nearby artillery shells provided a rumbling background soundtrack of impending doom.
According to most accounts, Reitsch's mission was little more than an expression of her complete devotion to her Führer.
The Hitler she found in the dying days of the war was not a well man, his gait shuffling, his face lined, his body coursing with a noxious torrent of prescribed drugs.
She expressed a wish to die alongside her ailing hero in an epic scene of Wagnerian drama.
But Hitler insisted that the fight was not over, and that although his body was weak, his will still radiated the same power as it had back in the 1930s.
Hitler informed the 33-year-old pilot that her next task would be the most important she would ever perform - she was going to help him escape.
The Führer told Reitsch that although the battle for Berlin was surely lost, the battle for the hearts and minds of the German people was still not over, and that Nazism would always survive so long as he was still alive.
Four days later, just after 11pm on 30 April, three figures cautiously emerged into the flickering gloom of the Chancellery garden. Two members of the party were female - one was Reitsch, and the other was the newly married Eva Hitler, better known to the world as Eva Braun.
The third figure was wearing the uniform of an army corporal, and his face was divested of its trademark toothbrush moustache.
He carried a Walther PPK 7.65mm pistol, as well as three vials of cyanide - one for each of the group should they be captured by the Russians.
Sidestepping shell holes, burst water mains and corpses, the small party eventually reached Reitsch's small aircraft on the Tiergarten.
Although she had expressed severe misgivings that the aircraft was large enough for three people, Hitler was nevertheless insistent that he take his new wife.
My friend Professor Rick Hillum has kindly shared with me some of his encyclopedic knowledge of WW2 aviation. I bow to Rick, as all of you should...
Thinking about the Storch as a Means of Escape for Hitler
Just as an observation, the Storch could well have taken off with three people as fitted with a 240hp engine, it was well within the lifting capacity of 880lb of luggage and people. most four seat Cessna’s only have 100hp but will only climb at around 500ft per min. However my only comment is that it would never had reached 20,000ft as suggested by the article as it only had a service ceiling of 17.500 with one persons on board. With three, I would be surprised if it achieved greater than 10,000ft and it would have taken a long time to reach that altitude exposing it to small arms fire for quite a long time until it reached a safe altitude. Despite 240hp the engine was un-supercharged and the power would have dropped like a stone as the aircraft climbed.
The other issue worthy of consideration, would be the need for oxygen for all on board when flying above 10,000ft. Depending on the version being flown would have varied the standard oxygen equipment. Having said that - I would be surprised if the aircraft was fitted with three oxygen masks, let alone have a large enough supply to support three persons for any period of time. The real strength of the Stork was it exceptional short take-off and landing performance [STOL] and I would have thought the concern that HannaReitsch would have expressed - was not one of if the aircraft would take off with three persons, but one of would it take off in the available runway.
Further, if such a trip had taken place, I believe that the pilot would have flown low to avoid enemy fighters that would have been undoubtedly patrolling a higher altitudes.
With three persons on board the aircraft would have flown at a speed of around 90mph and had a range of around 240 miles depending on head-wind. It is very feasible therefore that they could have flown directly to Malmo in Sweden without the need to land and refuel. With longer range tanks it could have made it to Norway in one flight; albeit unless the trip planned beforehand, obviously it is unlikely to have been fitted with the non-standard additional fuel tanks.
Certainly technically, the aircraft would have had the lifting capacity with three on board plus an additional fuel tank to have made the trip feasible.
-- Guy Walters
Reitsch was accustomed to dangerous flights, but this journey was like no other. With its extra passenger, the plane only just managed to clear the wreckage of a shattered Panzer halfway down the Tiergarten, and as soon as they were airborne, it seemed as though every Soviet gun opened up on them.
The explosions tossed the Storch around like a feather, and it required all of Reitsch's skill to keep them in the air. Both the Führer and his bride were sick - yet Frau Hitler was still able to crack a quip that not many brides had honeymoons that had started quite like this.
When the plane reached 20,000ft, it settled into a smoother flight, safe from anti-aircraft shells. Hitler peered down to look at the blazing centre of his once glorious Reich, and vowed that he would rebuild it twice the size.
From that altitude, the Führer would not have been able to see whether his orders were being carried out faithfully by his valet, Heinz Linge, but he was confident that they would be.
Linge was a loyal servant, and when Hitler had asked him to arrange for the execution of a middle-aged man and a younger woman, and then to dress their corpses in the clothes of Hitler and his wife, he knew Linge would oblige.
He also knew that Linge would make sure that the bodies would be cremated beyond recognition with some 200 litres of petrol - a scarce enough commodity even for the occupants of the Führerbunker.
After a two-hour flight, the plane reached its destination - the coastal town of Travemünde, some 160 miles northwest of Berlin. There, moored in the water, was an enormous six-engine BV 222 flying-boat, its fuselage marked with the identifier V7.
With a range of nearly 4,000 miles, the aircraft was the ideal vehicle to spirit Hitler away from the clutches of his enemies.
Captained by Colonel Werner Baumbach and navigated by Captain Ernst König, the plane took off at a little after four o'clock in the morning, and headed towards the North Sea.
Its destination was Greenland, its icy wastes forming the perfect redoubt from which Hitler could plot the resurgence of his vile creed.
Unlike many Nazis, Hitler had no wish to travel to South America, which he knew would be the first place his pursuers would look.
After 13 hours, the mighty BV222 landed on the near-frozen waters near the village of Ittoqqortoormiit on the eastern coast of Greenland.
The huts of a German weather station on a small island a few miles out to sea constituted, for the time being, the final destination of a man who had unleashed the most destructive conflict in history.
But could such a scenario have happened? Is it possible that Hitler did not commit suicide with his wife in his Bunker on 30 April - and that he actually escaped?
After all, in the years after the war, doubts about Hitler's death were frequently expressed.
How I prepared the Nazis plan for great escape to Greenland Nick Fielding The Sunday Times - Britain December 28, 2003
A German navigator has described for the first time a daring plan by the Nazis to evacuate their surviving leaders by flying boat to Greenland at the end of the Second World War.
The plan, which was scuppered by the German surrender, would have involved Hermann Göring, Heinrich Himmler, Albert Speer, Alfred Jodl and other senior figures taking off from north Germany to continue their struggle from abroad. Hitler himself was determined not to leave Berlin, where he eventually committed suicide.
The Greenland operation has been revealed by Captain Ernst König, 93, who had previously been determined to keep the story secret until after his death. He was persuaded to speak earlier this month by friends in Britain.
The last-ditch mission described by Köoenig also involved an attempt to pick up a copy of the Führer's Will from Berlin, but this had to be abandoned because of heavy Russian fire.
König said he had just finished preparing two giant BV-222 seaplanes for the escape flight when the allies launched an air raid.
The two BV-222s were completely destroyed as they sat on the water said König. The plan was not abandoned, he added. "We had another in the workshop and that, too, was made ready. It required a lot of work, but it was done and once again stores arrived for loading on board".
Terry Charman, a historian at the Imperial War Museum in London, said he believed König's story was credible and was backed up by incidental details revealed by other Germans. [cf. Albert Speer, "Inside the Third Reich' 622-623]
"I believe Hitlers architect, Albert Speer, also made mention of an escape attempt to Greenland which was abandoned," said Charman. He added that Colonel Werner Baumbach's KG200, a secret special operations section of the Luftwaffe, was known to use BV-222s and may also have been involved.
König gave his account of the operation from his home in a sheltered housing complex in the north German port of Travemünde, from where the flight was to have begun.
König, who became Travemünde's harbour master after the war, spent his early years as a navigational expert. During the war he worked at a secret seaplane research centre in the town.
"Previously I had been in the merchant marine and studied for my navigational qualifications," said König. "That is why I began working at Travemünde. It was a centre of excellence. We tested all the latest flying boats and equipment".
König was drafted in to improve the Luftwaffe's navigational techniques, which were primitive at the beginning of the war. The centre was connected to the rocket research complex at Peenemünde, further east along the coast.
Among the aircraft tested at the base was the BV-222, one of the biggest flying boats ever built. The plane, built by Blohm und Voss, had a 140ft wingspan, was 36ft high and could carry 92 fully equipped troops at a speed of 240mph. It had a crew of 16 and was defended by an array of machineguns. The plane could stay aloft for up to 28 hours, making it ideal for long-distance flights.
"Only 13 were built." said König. "The first eight or nine were used as transporters to take equipment to north Africa, but the rest were submarine killers. By April 1945 we had just three left at Travemünde".
"Early that month," said König, he had received orders to prepare two of the planes for a long journey. Large quantities of equipment began to arrive at the docks including skis, tents, sledges and supplies of food".
König believes the plan was developed by Hans Baur, Hitlers personal pilot, who later said he had offered to take the Führer anywhere he wanted to go, including Greenland, north Africa or Madagascar. He told a post-war allied interrogator that he could have done this right up to the last day.
Why would Hitler even contemplate going to Madagasgar, Greenland or North Africa? All these places were occupied by the Allies from 1943 onwards. Why did he not just hand himself over to the Allies in Europe instead of flying thousands of miles to do so?
König described how he had been ordered to make preparations for as many as 30 of the most senior surviving Nazis to be airlifted out including Göring, head of the Luftwaffe, Himmler, chief of the SS and the Gestapo, and Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz, Hitlers chosen successor, who led the Third Reich in its final days.
The aim was to pick up the men from an inlet just north of Kiel, where the remnants of the German high command were gathering. They would then embark for Greenland, a Danish territory.
The aircrew had experience flying between Germany and the weather station in Greenland to maintain its supplies.
As the plane used Diesel fuel and a number of submarines operated in Greenland's waters, it would be possible to refuel and easily reach Argentina or even Japan.
Hitler was already trapped in Berlin and determined not to leave, along with his deputy Martin Bormann, who was eventually killed as he tried to slip out of the encircled city.
On the night of 8 April 1945, an allied bombing raid put an end to the first attempt. Two weeks later Hitler told the remaining Nazi leadership that the war was lost and they should make their own arrangements to escape.
According to Klaus Dieter Brodzig, a former pilot and unofficial historian of Germanys seaplane service, once Hitler had killed himself in the basement of the Chancellery in Berlin, a further plan was hatched to send a small BV-138 seaplane to land on the Wannsee lake in Berlin and pick up a copy of his Last Will.
"The flight took place on 1 May, the day after Hitler killed himself," said Brodzig. The pilot took off from Copenhagen but he couldnt land on the Wannsee because he came under Russian tank fire.
Back in Travemünde, which was caught between advancing British and Soviet forces, the last BV-222 had been made ready, but it was soon too late.
"We were called on to the base on 2 May," said König. "Our commanding officer, Captain Mayerling, called us together. He told us his responsibilities had ended as the war was over, gave us our papers and sent us all home. Then we destroyed the final boat with explosives".
With a lack of firm proof that the dictator had perished, the Russians initially claimed that Hitler was being sheltered by the Americans and the British.
But it turned out later that many of these early Soviet allegations were part of the deliberate disinformation game which was taking place at the birth of the Cold War - it suited Stalin's propaganda aims to smear the Allies with the idea that they were protecting Hitler.
However, there were many supposed sightings of the Führer, and the Allies were obliged to take them seriously.
Some believed that Hitler had escaped on board U-977, a German submarine laden with valuables that had supposedly escaped to Argentina after the war. Although there was no truth in this "submarine route" - in fact no ranking Nazis are known to have escaped in such a way - there were plenty of other theories.
In September 1945, both Hitler and his private secretary, Martin Bormann, were reported to have sailed out of Hamburg on a luxury mahogany yacht, and to have hidden in one of the many inlets and islands on the Schleswig-Holstein coast.
Once again, after a thorough investigation by the British, the story was found to be groundless.
Even the most absurd claims were taken seriously. In October 1945, the British Legation in Copenhagen felt obliged to inform the Foreign Office that a Danish woman had reported that a friend of hers had dreamed that Hitler was disguised as a monk in a monastery in Algeciras in Spain.
As the supposedly psychic Dane had also had accurate premonitions about RAF raids during the war, the Legation told the head of the German department that the story "might conceivably be of interest to you". It is not known whether any enquiries were made.
In December that year, the U.S. War Department's Counter Espionage department -X-2 - discovered there was a possibility that Hitler had in fact escaped to the Balearic islands.
According to an informant, Hitler had landed by submarine in Majorca, and had holed up at the Hotel Formentor with a group of nuclear scientists. An investigation was launched, and the story was soon found to be yet more nonsense.
But still the rumours persisted, sometimes abetted by those who should have been more wary. In April 1947, an American former intelligence officer, William F. Heimlich, told the Press that he believed Hitler was alive and hiding somewhere in Europe.
Describing himself as the officer in charge of searching for Hitler at the end of the war, Heimlich declared that Hitler and Martin Bormann "left the air raid Bunker together before the date of their purported deaths and certain persons helped them escape from Berlin".
Like so many other "experts", Heimlich was unable to furnish evidence to support his story.
Nevertheless, he did feel confident enough to rubbish other accounts that claimed that Hitler was living in the Antarctic, and that Bormann was living in Cairo. But Heimlich's stories were no more truthful than those he so readily dismissed.
As the years wore on, theories about Hitler's fate grew increasingly outlandish.
By the 1970s, some cranks were even speculating that Hitler was in fact living on the Moon, biding his time on a Nazi lunar base built in the 1950s.
But even if one casts such rubbish aside, it is important to remember that it was certainly feasible that Hitler could have escaped from his Bunker.
After all, many senior Nazis had done so, and the escape from Berlin by aircraft, as recounted above, is just one way in which the dictator might have fled.
So if Hitler had ended up somewhere far-flung such as Greenland, what might he have done? Although Germany was thoroughly controlled by the Allies, there were still plenty of Germans who secretly remained loyal to the Nazi cause.
Broadcasts by Hitler might have helped to foment a resistance movement. However, without access to a regular supply of arms, it is likely that any uprising would have soon been crushed. Four huge Allied armies occupied the country for decades, after all.
The Allies, too, would have done their best to find Hitler, knowing that as long as he remained alive, so would Nazism.
And while many Nazis were not tracked down after the war owing to a lack of resources and political will, every effort would, of course, have been expended to hunt Hitler.
Perhaps this would have forced Hitler to flee reluctantly to South America, where he could at least have been sheltered by the Argentine dictator Juan Peron. However, even there he would have been in danger - the prospect of a large bounty offered by the Allies would surely have loosened the tongue of someone in the Nazi community or the Argentine secret police.
Once Hitler had been found, the Argentine dictator would have come under the most immense international pressure to release his "guest". A mixture of diplomatic sanctions and economic bribes would have forced Peron, who had a weak grip on power, to surrender his charge.
At some point in the early 1950s, Hitler would have been brought to face justice at another Nuremberg trial and he would have been hanged after what would have been the trial of the century.
Although such a chain of events was certainly feasible, it is a mistake to confuse a possibility for likelihood. The truth is, the notion of Hitler's escape goes against all the evidence.
The most authoritative investigation of the dictator's death was carried out by the historian and MI6 officer Hugh Trevor-Roper, in which he interviewed many of those who had been present during Hitler's final hours.
Trevor-Roper was able to demonstrate convincingly that Hitler had in fact killed himself, and that his corpse and that of Eva Braun were incinerated.
As well as Trevor-Roper's account, many of those who served in the Führer Bunker, such as Hanna Reitsch and Heinz Linge, have also published their memoirs, all of which - with a few minor discrepancies aside - show that Hitler took poison and shot himself with his Walther PPK.
If Hitler had really escaped then all these people would have to be either participants in a massive conspiracy, or wildly mistaken. Both of these alternatives are so unlikely as to be ridiculous.
But what of the fragment of skull? Can we take the Russians' reassurance that it is genuine at face value?
In fact, the fragment has been dismissed as evidence on previous occasions, as the bullet hole is not nearly large enough to be the exit hole of a round fired from a Walther PPK at close range.
And the fire damage is not nearly extensive enough - Hitler's body was almost completely burned, and any piece of skull or bone that survived would have been far more burnt than the Moscow fragment.
In addition, if Hitler did escape, he left the bottom part of his head in Berlin, as charred pieces of his lower and upper jaw were unearthed in the German capital in 1945 and matched to X-rays of Hitler's skull and teeth.
They also matched the details in the testimony left by Hitler's dentist, Hugo Blaschke. However, the jaw fragment has since been hidden away in KGB archives.
But if the skull fragment is not from Hitler, then who did it belong to? One theory is that it came from Eva Braun, but as she did not die from a gunshot wound, the fragment cannot be hers. The truth is, many thousands were killed in Berlin in 1945, and the fragment could have belonged to any one of them.
The most likely explanation is that the fragment of skull belonged to yet another victim of the horror that Hitler had created. The only thing that Hitler escaped from was justice.
-- Guy Walters is the author of "Hunting Evil: The Nazi War Criminals Who Escaped"
The Blohm & Voss BV238 was a German flying boat [Flugboot] built during World War II. It was the heaviest aircraft ever flown when it first flew in 1944, and was the largest aircraft produced by any of the Axis powers in World War II. The BV 222 was both the largest flying boat and largest sea-based German aircraft to achieve operational status during the war.
The BV 238 V1, bearing the four-letter factory radio code of RO + EZ, first flew in April 1944. Six 1,750 hp Daimler-Benz DB 603 inverted V12 piston engines were used in total, arranged in three forward-facing engine nacelles on each wing.
According to American sources, the BV238 V1 was destroyed September 1944 by P-51 Mustangs of the US 361st Fighter Group. The lead Mustang, Detroit Miss, was piloted by Lieutenant Urban "Ben" Drew, and another was piloted by William D. Rogers. Drew was told after the attack that he had destroyed a BV222 'Wiking'.
He continued to believe this was the case until he was contacted by the BBC in 1974 for a documentary and told that their research had determined that the aircraft he had destroyed was actually the BV238 V1, undergoing flight tests at the seaplane base at Schaalsee.
German sources, based in part on the testimony of nearby inhabitants and Blohm & Voss employees, claim that the BV238 V1 was discovered by the RAF between 23 April and 26 April 1945.
The Allies were reportedly concerned that Adolf Hitler could use it to escape to South America, and so an attack followed shortly afterwards.
According to the British, the attack happened on 4 May 1945. The aircraft was attacked by Hawker Typhoons, or Hawker Tempests. Their strafing set the engines alight, and the aircraft burnt and sank with only part of a wing remaining above the surface. During the strafing, the back of the flying boat broke and the forward part of the plane sank into the water.
Smaller BV138 flying boats evacuated Nicholas von Below who escaped from Hitler's Bunker after Hitler's suicide. These aircraft landed at night on Lake Havel and flew VIPs from Peacock island.
It is historically factual that a KG200 unit of Bv138 flying boats did operate to Lake Havel on the night of 2 May 1945 and declassified Enigma signals also refer to orders for these operations. These Bv138 had been operating flights to Lake Havel at night since 25 April 1945. From 25 April onwards troops of the MarSchB 903 [903rd naval infantry battalion] were flown into Berlin via Lake Havel using Bv-138 of 8/KG200 and floatplane versions of the Ju-52 operated by 3./I./TG 1, from the seaplane base at Pütnitz near Ribnitz.
In British captivity Hanna Reitsch wrote to her brother. She mentioned on 28 April 1945 as she and Ritter von Greim were departing Berlin on the improvised Tiergarten's East West Axis runway they saw a Ju-52 transport waiting next to the Brandenberg gate with its engines running and a pilot standing beside it. That letter and its contents were read and publicised by her British captors.
Hanna Reitsch recorded in her memoirs that she, with a heavily bandaged General von Greim by her side, flew out of Berlin from the Tiergarten, at dawn on 30 April 1945, according to her 5 December 1945 press interview. In testimony to Captain Robert F. Work, Chief Interrogator on 8 October 1945, regarding the 'Last Days of Hitler', the departure from the Bunker is stated as after 1:30 am on 30 April 1945.
Several days earlier according to Albert Speer's memoirs, Speer had a huge row with Hitler's pilot, Hans Baur who had trees felled along the East West Axis [Unter den Linden] to permit large aircraft to use it as a runway.
Hohenzollerndamm is the name of a wide boulevard in the Wilmersdorf section of southwest Berlin. The nearest wartime airfields were Berlin-Gatow, about 7.5 km WSW of the Boulevard, and Berlin-Tempelhof, about 5 km east of the Boulevard. But both of these airfields could no longer be used after about 22 April as they were under direct Soviet artillery fire and hourly attacks by Soviet fighters and ground attack aircraft. The Germans then began using Berlin's wide boulevards for courier, liaison and med-evac flights, of which there were only a few with these usually being flown at night.
Hans Baur's deputy George Beetz who did not survive the break out from the Chancellery flew in from Rechlin. Berlin was surrounded on 21 April.
On 20 April 1945—Adolf Hitler's 56th birthday—Soviet troops were on the verge of taking Berlin and the Western Allies had already taken several German cities. Hitler's private secretary, Martin Bormann, put into action "Geheimoperation Serail" [Secret Operation Harem, also called Seraglio], a plan to evacuate the key and favoured members of Hitler's entourage and important files flown out of the encircled Berlin to an Alpine command center near Berchtesgaden - Hitler's retreat in southern Germany.
Ten airplanes flew out from Gatow airfield, the night of 21/22 April under the overall command of General Hans Baur, Hitler's personal pilot. The final flight out was a Junkers Ju 352 transport plane, piloted by Major Friedrich Gundlfinger—on board were ten heavy chests under the supervision of Hitler's personal valet Sergeant Wilhelm Arndt. The plane crashed into the Heidenholz forest, near the Czechoslovak border.
Some of the more useful parts of Gundlfinger's plane were appropriated by locals before the police and SS cordoned off the crash. When Baur told Hitler what had happened, the German leader expressed grief at the loss of Arndt, one of his most trusted aides, and added: "I entrusted him with extremely valuable documents which would show posterity the truth of my actions!" Apart from this quoted sentence, there is no indication of what was in the boxes.
In the decades following the war, the possibility of a hidden cache of private papers belonging to Hitler became, according to the journalist Robert Harris, a "tantalizing state of affairs [that] was to provide the perfect scenario for forgery".
The improvised runway was on the Unter den Linden Ost West Achse from the Brandenburgertor gate to the Victory gate of 1870-1871.
A Deutsche Luft Hansa Focke Wulf FW200B-2 D-ASHH 'Hessen', crashed on high ground 21 April 1945 on a flight to Spain with documents and staff from the Chancellery at Berlin.
On 23 April 1945 Albert Speer and Col Manfred von Poser flew from Rechlin to Gatow by Fw-190 and from Gatow to Brandenburg Gate in the Tiergarten at Berlin in a pair of Fieseler Storch.
Luftwaffe Gen Karl Koller also flew directly to Berchtesgarden from Berlin on 23 April to visit Göring. Koller began flying a fleet of 15 Ju-52 into Berlin from 23 April onwards.
On 23 April, Luftwaffe Col Niklaus von Below also flew the opposite direction from Göring's side in Bavaria to Berlin to hand deliver Bormann a copy of the signal which Göring sent proposing to assume leadership of the Reich at 10pm that evening.
The argument with between Baur and Speer occurred on Tuesday 24 April 1945. Speer before being flown out protested in his capacity as Berlin's chief planner about Baur desecrating trees for an emergency runway which were lining Unter den Linden.
Gatow and Kladow airports came under artillery fire from 24 April, but were not closed or captured until 27 April 1945. Tempelhof was captured 25 April and at 1pm that day Bormann learned that Berlin had been encircled by Russian forces, yet it seems Gen Hans Baur was operating a regular airport from the Tiergarten by then. There was an SS controlled unit in the Luftwaffe which operated Ju 52 aircraft. Hanna Reitsch mentioned a Ju 52 in Berlin disgorging twelve SS Wehrmacht troops. The unit was known as Ergänzungsstaffel Erg.St./Fl.Gr. z.b.V. 7.
A massive artillery barrage of Berlin took place on the evening of 27 April and early 28 April.
James P O'Donnell in his book "The Berlin Bunker," 1979, refers to a steady shuttle of Storches or trainers from Rechlin after Gatow and Kladow airports closed.
Hans-Ulrich Rudel and Hanna Reitsch practiced with a Focke Achgelis Fa 223, which had twin rotors on transverse outriggers, through November and December 1944 making rescue flights to the Tiergarten with this aircraft, but by April 29 the helicopter at Rechlin kept for this task was destroyed by air attacks. Von Greim and Reitsch flew in by Fi-156 'Storch' but flew out on an Arado Ar-96.
-- In "The Fall Of Berlin" by Anthony Read and David Fisher it says that the Luftwaffe pilot who flew Greim and Reitsch from Rechlin to Gatow was the same pilot who had flown Albert Speer to Berlin for his final visit.
"The FW190 had only one passenger seat, but the diminutive Hanna, who stood barely five feet tall, squeezed into the space in the fuselage behind it". The same "warrant officer pilot" [Luftwaffe Feldwebel] landed an Arado 96 training aircraft on the "East-West" axis to fly Greim and Reitsch out again, "setting course for Rechlin air base they flew safely on their way".
-- Anton Joachimsthaler, "The Last Days of Hitler,"1995;
The original German 1951 memoir of Hanna Reitsch is much more elaborate than the later English translation.
Hanna confirms the identity of the pilot, insofar she states that it was the same pilot who flew them from Rechlin to Gatow a couple of days before, and she continues:
“Jetzt mussten wir zu dritt herausfliegen, obwohl die Maschine nur zweisitzig war" [Now the three of us had to fly out together, although the machine only was a two-seater].
However, it does not clarify the identity of the pilot.
The name of the pilot -Jürgen Bosser- appears in a Spanish language books only and apparently nowhere else.
"In the meantime, however, the Fieseler Storch in which both of them [Greim – Reitsch] had flown in from Gatow had been destroyed by shellfire near the Victory Column. A new plane was summoned from Rechlin Airfield".
-- Also Erich Kuby, in his 1978 account, "The Russians and Berlin 1945," says:
"Greim’s Fieseler Storch was now a wreck in the Tiergarten. Luckily a daredevil Luftwaffe pilot [Jürgen Bosser] had succeeded in bringing a training machine into the city during the night, and now flew Greim and Hanna Reisch out of Berlin and back to Rechlin".
However, Nicolaus von Below, Hitlers Luftwaffe adjutant, states in his memoir, "At Hitlers Side":
"On 28 April I succeeded, with the greatest difficulty, in getting his [von Greim] Fieseler Storch clear to start, after which Greim and his companion got out of the shambles and reached Rechlin – a very meritable achievement".
According to Marshal Georgy Zhukov, on 30 April 1945 "....a small plane took off at dawn at the Tiergarten runway with three men and a woman on board".
Zhukov added: "It is also indisputably established that a submarine left Hamburg before the arrival of the British troops, taking several passengers, including a woman".
This theory, according to which Hitler and his wife took a plane from Berlin to Hamburg and then boarded a state-of-the-art submarine type XXI seems probable, Especially since two ships were lost in the South Atlantic after the end of the hostilities and were traveling on the "probable" route of the submarine in which Hitler would have fled.
Finally, to sow even more doubt, it seems necessary to compare the statements of the personnel of the Bunker of Hitler, as to the time and the way Hitler died which has persisted, but also when he was married to Eva Braun and what time he said farewell.
30 April 1945 is contradicted by the concordant testimonies of the nurses of the Bunker, reported by Roger Depley. On 1 May at 10:30 pm, they were all surprised to learn that Hitler wished to bid them farewell, for they thought he had left for several days for an unknown destination. Hitler received them in the company of Professor Strumpfegger, his special surgeon. This same collective testimony at the same time invalidates all the declarations that Hitler took his own life on 30 April.
Nor should one forget Dr. Stumpfegger's presence in the Bunker. He came from the camp of Ravensbrück, where he performed experiments on people, including, supposedly, the achievement of "doubles" very successfully.
During the last days of Hitler, the people in the Bunker noticed abnormal behavior in the Führer: He was not talkative, and seemed lethargic or drugged.
On the other hand, the hypothesis of a long-range U-Boot entering the port of Hamburg between the morning of 1 May and the dawn of 4 May can be retained, since the Second British army did not enter the city until the 4th.
Between 25-28 April a number of aircraft of Hitler's personal squadron, "Fliegerstaffel des Führers" commanded by Baur were operated from Rerik, transporting 7th Marine SS Division Skanderbeg into Berlin.
These aircraft included Fw 200 C-4/U1, W. Nr. 0137 "Condor" [CE + IC], the pilot was Capt Joachim Hübner, also Ju-290 (9V + BK), whose pilot was Lt. Wagner and Ju-352 [KT + VJ], piloted by Olt Schultze. Another Fw 200A-0 [S-9] Wk.N. 3099 D-ARHU "Immelmann III" was operated into Berlin during these days piloted by Hauptman Kurt Herzog. Three Ju-52 aircraft were known to be ferrying troops of the 7th Marine SS Division into Berlin. These aircraft were Ju 52/3m fe Wk.N. 4021, Ju 52/3m Wk.N. 4053 D-AHIT, Ju 52/3m Wk.N.4065.
From 26-27 April 1000 sailors of 1.FuMLAbt at Fehrman were flown into Berlin by F.d.F.
Furthermore, Squadron "Mauß" operating Ju-352s from Rostok flew 476 naval troops into Berlin. Oberfeldwebel Paul Kohler operated Ju-352 G6+EX, another Ju-352 G6+RX was operated by StFw Kurt Becker. OltZSee Clemens Zuborg recalled after the war witnessing two Ju-352 unloading about 80 sailors at the Reichs Chancellery.
One of these aircraft received heavy Soviet ground fire stopping two of its three engines and was forced to make a crash landing which miraculously its pilot Herbert Schultz, his crew and passengers all survived. Schultz and his crew are known to have flown out of Berlin on 29 April 1945, making their flight out a day after Reitsch and Greim's the last flight out of Berlin. There is a suggestion that other aircraft got in after this but none waited for passengers to fly out.
[c.f. "Companies Reich Chancellery", by Günther Ott in Jet and Prop 04/95; Verlag Heinz Nickel, Zweibrücken, 1995; "Das bittere Ende der Luftwaffe", [The Bitter End of the German Air Force] by Ulrich Saft; military book publisher in Walsrode, 1992-94; "Schiffsschicksale Ostsee 1945", [Ship fate of the Baltic Sea 1945] by Wolfgang Müller, Köhler's publishing company in Hamburg, 1996: "Gesunken und Verschollen", [Sunk and Lost] by Wolfgang Müller and Reinhard Kramer; Köhler Verlagsgesellschft in Hamburg, 1994-96; "Die letzten Kriegstage; Ostseehäfen 1945", by Heinz Schön [The last days of the war, the Baltic ports in 1945] engine book publishing house in Stuttgart, 1995; "Die deutschen Kriegsschiffe 1815 - 1945" [The German warships 1815 - 1945] Band 8 / 1, by Erich Gröner, Bernard & Gräfe Verlag, Bonn, 19]
"Hitler however had planned to stay expecting his armies to surround the Russians as they attacked Berlin. Hitler's armies however melted away and abandoned him. He made one last attempt to bargain with the Soviets for his own escape through SS LtGen Wilhelm Mohnke under a flag of truce. The Russians rejected a generous offer to surrender all German forces in North Germany and Denmark in return for Hitler's freedom but the Russians refused".
Mohnke's truce talks with the Russians whilst Berlin was surrounded are scarcely secret. Hitler offered the Soviets the surrender of all forces in Northern Germany and Denmark to Soviet forces on condition that he be allowed to fly to Tokyo. Mohnke was well placed to know these matters as head of Hitler's SS bodyguard in Berlin. He conducted talks with the Soviets. The British were compelled by this to rush north and capture Lüneburg Heath, just southeast of Hamburg, before the Soviets got there.
Dönitz under Hitler's instructions had already begun the evacuation of German forces from Denmark.
Source: "The Bormann Brotherhood", Stevenson, William. Corgi Books 1975. Stevenson was a wartime RN intelligence officer contemporary with Cmdr Ian Fleming and freely disclosed in his book his exposure to many top secret intelligence reports on Hitler.
Stevenson's book discloses at page 210 that Mohnke revealed a series of secret communications for many months prior to the fall of Berlin, concerning a secret surrender deal.
Hitlers Escape Plane is reported to have been found at Travemünde, near Hamburg.
The "News-Chronicle's Hamburg correspondent describes it as a huge four-engined transport, aircraft acommodating only three passengers. It has special tanks carrying 30,000 gallons of petrol.
"The plane was kept fully fuelled, and made daily test flights," the correspondent continues. "The crew had secret orders always to be ready to take Hitler to Japan. It was spotted making a test flight last April by a R.A.F. Typhoon pilot. He strafed the plane as it was landing, and forced it off the runway and its right wing was damaged".
Another Hitler Tale Army News [Darwin, NT] 27 June 1945
NEW YORK - Another story that Hitler may be still alive has come into circulation. An American general, who has Just arrived in the United States from Germany, has quoted the anti-Nazi, Pastor Niemöller, as saying that Hitler hoped to get to Japan after the collapse of Germany and there was a likelihood of him having succeeded in doing so.
On the other hand, Hitler's escape plane--a four-engined bomber equipped with special extra-fuel tanks has been found in Germany.
It is also worth adding that a German nuclear scientist recalled after the war that on 27 April 1945 just days before Germany collapsed, citizens of Munich were being told that the use of an atomic weapon was imminent. Hitler believed to the last that a wonder weapon would save him.
Four questions about the German supposed ownership of an A-bomb:
1. How did the Germans collect the fissible materials needed? In which installations? 2. How come that Ultra, which delivered enough information for the British Scientific Intelligence to know exactly what such ultra-secret weapons as the V-1 and V-2 were as early as 1943, caught absolutely nothing about a German A-bomb project? 3. About "testing": how come the desperate Germans [more exactly, the desperate Hitler] didn't order such a test over Moscow? Or at least over some of the many Soviet troop concentrations in the Eastern Front? Or over London?. 4. The most important one: how come that the Soviets, who captured the most important German atomic research centers [those based at Berlin such as Kaiser Wilhelm Pychics institute, and most if not all of the German sources of Uranium oxide at Silesia and Bohemia], took two full years before producing an A-bomb themselves, having as they had both total "backdoor" access to the Manhattan project secrets, and the access to the most important German atomic research centers and machinery [which they promptly moved to the USSR], all that backed up with a total and absolute priority amongst the Soviet military projects?
When the Soviets entered the Bunker, Russian leader, Josef Stalin immediately asked for a report on the whereabouts of Adolf Hitler. The first news he received from his generals was definite: the most wanted man had escaped. Stalin informed the United States in the exact same words. This striking piece of first-hand information is even more shocking when the Soviets state that Hitler had fled in a submarine, bound for Spain or Argentina. Everything stated here has been documented, it was even published by newspapers of that time, and whoever wants to question Hitler’s escape must first of all know the facts about the official history, hidden too by official misinformation.
From the very first day, Stalin had the idea that Hitler could have escaped to Spain [as quoted by Trevor-Roper]. General Berazin said: "My opinion is that Hitler has gone into hiding and is somewhere in Europe, possible with General Franco". Stalin said that he was alive "in hiding... possibly with General Franco". "Pravda" declared in an article entitled "Hitler's Agent, General Franco!" [6 July 1945] that the Fascist regimen in Spain should be destroyed as soon as possible.
"The sole Ju 290 A-6 was initially conceived as a pressurized personnel transport
for Hitler's personal flight. Some pressurization trials were conducted at
Prague but this scheme was abandoned at an early stage, and the aircraft was
completed as an unpressurized 50-passenger transport. This aircraft was
eventually taken on the strength of I/KG 200 at Finsterwalde for special
transport operations, and in the last week of April 1945, was flown to Barcelona
by Hauptmann Heinz Braun, the original Staffelkapitän of LTS 290 who subsequently
served with FAGr 5, and with the disbandment of that Gruppe, joined
Kampfgeschwader 200 [or by Flugkapitän Paul Sluzealek according to some sources].
"The I/KG 200 was largely responsible for the
transportation of escaping Nazi leaders, and the identity of the passengers
ferried to Barcelona aboard the Ju290 A-6 is open to conjecture".
Warplanes of the Third Reich" by William Green
Its passengers may have included SS Lt General Hans Kammler who disappeared from Prague about the same time. Kammler was the head of the V-2 rocket project and other secret technologies.
Hitler’s Spanish Sojourn Investigator claims Nazi leader fled to Barcelona instead of committing suicide in Berlin Bunker
Nazi leader Adolf Hitler spent a month in Spain before fleeing Europe for South America, according to an Argentine investigator.
Abel Basti claims to have found an FBI document, which states Hitler did not commit suicide in his Berlin Bunker.
Instead, he flew to Spain with lover Eva Braun and 13 high-ranking Nazi officials.
"They took off from Berlin and landed in Barcelona on 27 April 1945, via Linz in Austria," claims the journalist, who is investigating post-World War II Nazi activity in his native Argentina.
The FBI paperwork claims the Nazi leader and his party travelled in a Junkers 290 aircraft, which had the serial number 0163.
In the summer of 1945, Allied forces discovered this plane in the Travemünde airbase, close to the German city of Hamburg.
Using its flight documentation, the military traced the aeroplane’s movements to Spain.
In 1947, the US army searched for the Führer, but the Nazi leader had long gone.
"Hitler used Spain as a ‘trampoline'. He spent a month in the country before escaping to South America by submarine.
"By the time, US soldiers started their search for him, Hitler was in Argentina," Basti claims.
Now the South American journalist Abel Basti has joined the ranks of those - this author included - who have been researching the vast Nazi compound and postwar influence in the Argentine province of Rio Negro. Basti has now authored a trilogy covering the story, a story that first began to be noticed and reviewed in the old magazine "The Police Gazette". Indeed, I have recently come into the possession of even more information concerning the Nazi goings on and secret research being done in that province near - you guessed it - San Carlos di Bariloche, headquarters of the "fusion" project of Dr. Ronald Richter after the war.
Basti provides a clue in the form of a document:
"Hitler's Special Journey to Barcelona"
The Führer and his companions leave Hörching airport on 26.04.1945 at 20:00
The Führer's companions are as follows:
Dr Göbbels [his name is crossed out in the original] Mrs Göbbels and her sons [also crossed out] Reichsleiter Bormann* SS Gruppenführer Müller* SS Gruppenführer Fegelein* General der Infanterie Burgdorf Botschafter zbV Hewel* SS Oberstubf. Betz SS Stubf. Dr Stumpfegger [with a question mark in the original] * SS Hauptstuf. Gross Frl. Braun* Frl. Manzialy 4 men from the Security Unit Command
The handover of the luggage [of the distinguished persons named above] will take place from 16:00 onwards at the Hörching airport entrance.
The document does present some historical ones, and rather egregious ones at that. The names of the Göbbels family have been crossed out, suggesting that the document, if authentic, was prepared prior to the Göbbels' suicides. Beyond this, Gruppenführer Fegelein, according to the Nazi witnesses whose story still forms the "official" version of the final events in the Bunker, was executed under orders from Hitler, and yet his name is not crossed off the list.
Yet suggestively enough, Bormann's name appears along with Gestapo chief Heinrich Müller, both of whom, very likely made it out of Nazi Germany via airplane and the voyage of the U-234, whose log book is missing, twelve whole days prior to its equally suspicious surrender to the American Navy. But, there is some slight evidence to suggest that Bormann had Eva Braun "dispatched," to have one less person - and from Bormann's warped point of view, one less needless person - to have to spirit out of Nazi Germany before the final collapse.
The document itself raises suspicion, for why would a documentary trail of a planned escape even be created when so much of the rest of the trail is so thoroughly and carefully obfuscated? Why take the chance that such a plot would be discovered and undone by creating a document? But assuming the document to be genuine for the sake of argument, it does suggest what other evidence is presented by myself and others, clearly corroborates, namely, that there was indeed an attempt to ferry out the most prominent Nazi leaders - Hitler included - at the end of the war. The official story of the final moments, that story created by Trevor-Roper at the behest of British intelligence, and on the basis of the testimony of the Nazis themselves, was never accepted by the Argentine locals of Rio Negro province, who maintain, to this day, and over all opposition, that the high Nazi leadership did indeed live in their country for a number of years after the war. And as far as the document itself goes, if genuine, then perhaps it was intended as further obfuscation, for it indicates an escape from Germany by air to Nationalist Spain, a hazardous undertaking to say the least, since any available route from Berlin to that country would have flown through air space thoroughly under Allied control.
In the final months of World War II, planes sent by the Nazis arrived in Argentina as part of a plan to evacuate funds, documentation and correspondence, according to an American intelligence document. This is a report signed by General B.R. Legge, United States Military Attaché in Switzerland, to be sent to Military Intelligence [CID No. 123156 / IG 4812], dated 28 March 1945:
In the document, the American Intelligence states: "We have succeeded in establishing the existence of a regular air bridge between Germany and Spain. The devices do not fly over France, but over northern Italy and the Mediterranean. These four- or six-engine aircraft were built some time ago with the purpose of ensuring the escape of the Nazis' bigwigs to Japan or Argentina at the right time. To this end, the squadron of aircraft called Führerstaffel, with carefully selected crew, was formed ... This provision was adopted in the event of failure of the official negotiations on asylum ... ".
The report states that "in February 1945, two of those planes flew to Buenos Aires. The data has been verified".
On the face of it then, the escape plan itself - even if the document is genuine - is ludicrous.
Perhaps the most sensational "revelation" in "Gestapo Chief: The 1948 Interrogation of Heinrich Müller", by Gregory Douglas, is that Hitler did not commit suicide on 30 April 1945, as those who were with him in the final days of the war later unanimously testified, but instead escaped to Spain. Müller insists that, with his help, Hitler and his mistress, Eva Braun, left Berlin on 22 April 1945, and flew from Austria on the 26th in a special four-motor aircraft that arrived the next day in Barcelona. "Listen to me," Müller tells his American interrogator. "Hitler went to Spain. I know for certain his plane landed safely ..."
To confirm this testimony, the author presents what appears to be a facsimile reproduction of an authentic German document dated 20 April 1945. Headed "Special Führer Journey to Barcelona," and signed by Müller, it declares that "the Führer and his entourage will depart from airfield Hörching [near Linz] on 26 April 1945".
Müller says that, as part of the escape operation, he found a man who looked like Hitler to serve as a "double". Thus, Müller says, Hitler's wedding to Eva Braun in the Berlin Bunker on 28 or 29 April 1945, was "pure theater." Afterwards, Müller goes on, the "double" was shot and his body left so that the Russians would find it, to mislead them into believing they had discovered the Führer's corpse.
The man who crafted this that the "Gestapo Chief" series of books is a known fabricator of documents who has used a variety of names over the years, including Peter Stahl, Samuel Prescot Bush, and Freiherr Von Mollendorf. His real name, apparently, is Peter Norton Birch or Peter Norwood Burch.
Perhaps the most obviously suspect feature of the "Gestapo Chief" series is that the author will not permit any independent examination of his "original" documents. [To be sure, not all the documents he presents are fraudulent. To add credibility to his book, "Douglas" includes, among his forgeries, a number of indisputably authentic wartime documents].
Characteristic of this entire series is the clearly fraudulent "facsimile document" of 20 April 1945. This is actually the author's second, "corrected" version. The first appeared with an article he wrote for the spring 1990 issue of "The Military Advisor", a magazine issued by the same firm that publishes "Gestapo Chief". But whereas the "SS" characters are rendered in this earlier "facsimile" as normal typescript letters, they are rendered in "Gestapo Chief" as "lightning bolt" runes.
How did these amazing documents come into the author's possession? In "Gestapo Chief", the first volume of the series, "Douglas" tells the reader that "In the early 1980s, by means that are not of concern here, all of Müller's personal files came into private hands". Later "Douglas" claimed that Müller personally gave him these extraordinary documents ["Spotlight", 6 January 1997]. In another "Spotlight" interview [9 November 1998], "Douglas" claimed to have met Müller in 1963, and to have known him well until his death in 1983. Remarkably, no mention of this twenty-year relationship appears in volume one of "Gestapo Chief".
To credit Douglas' fantastic yarns requires one to accept that Hitler's Personal and Political Testaments of 29 April 1945, are phony, and that all those who were with him in the final days in the Berlin Bunker, and who survived the war, conspired for decades in a lie to hide the German leader's escape to Spain. These persons include Hans Baur, Hitler' pilot; Traudl Junge, the secretary who typed Hitler's final testament; the pilot Hanna Reitsch; Otto Günsche, Hitler's personal adjutant, who carried the body of Eva Braun from the Bunker up to the courtyard where it was burned; Erich Kempka, the chauffeur who helped burn the bodies of Hitler and his wife; Heinz Linge, Hitler's valet; and Artur Axmann, the Hitler Youth leader [Linge and Axmann later testified to having seen Hitler's corpse]. Some of these witnesses were questioned by British historians Hugh Trevor-Roper and David Irving; others, during Soviet captivity, by the Russians. Their stories tally.
The problem simply won't go away, and only appears to be growing with each year's distance from the end of the war, as more and more details slowly are coming out. But the problem may be boiled down to a simple question: Suppose there were life insurance policies on Adolf Hitler and Martin Bormann through Prudential Insurance Company in 1945. Is the evidence for suicide in Hitler's case strong enough for the Prudential to avoid paying a policy on him to his estate? And by the same token, in Bormann's case, are the various versions of his death also strong enough to compel the Prudential to pay on his policy?
-- Joseph P. Farrell
In the book "KG 200 The Luftwaffe's Most Secret Unit" by Geoffrey J. Thomas Barr Ketley, the mission of the Ju 290 flight to Spain is described.
The flight never actually took place. The pilot Hptm. Heinz Braun and his crew waited at the airport in vain.
On 2 May Braun flew the aircraft to Königgratz in Czechoslovakia and waited for further orders. On 8 May, he loaded the aircraft with women and children that were fleeing form the Russian advance. He flew the aircraft to Münich where he landed and surrendered to US Forces.
His account of the surrender:
"On the Czech-German border, we were intercepted by two P-51 Mustangs in extremely bad weather while flying low. By rocking the wings and lowering the landing gear, we were able to avoid an attack and subsequently flew unhindered to München-Riem where we were able to land on a narrowly marked out runway free of bomb craters".
In Münich he surrendered the aircraft with 70 women and children on board.
Germany was an close ally of General Franco, the right-wing dictator who ruled Spain following his victory in the Civil War in 1939 until his death in 1975.
The Germans supplied Franco’s rebellion in the first days of the Civil War with supplies, such as ammunition, weapons and military intelligence.
The German Air Force – the Luftwaffe – is claimed to be behind the bombing of the Basque town, Guernica, in 1937.
Germany invaded the USSR on 22 June 1941. On the 24 June 1941 in Madrid a spontaneous demonstration of Falangist [members of the Spanish fascist party)] mainly students; that wanted to join Germany in the fight against Communism, took place. The Spanish Foreign Minister: Ramón Serrano Suñez (a well know pro-German) spoke to them and supported the idea of sending Spanish volunteers to the East front. If that had not happened, Franco would have never sent a single soldier to fight for Germany. On October 1941 the Spanish Blue Division started to fight against the USSR. In October 1943 the main part of the division returned to Spain, and on February 1944 the rest. So, when everything was going fine for Germany, and it seemed that the final victory was very close for Hitler, Franco sent a single division [about 18000 men]; and the moment that the things started to go badly for Germany, Franco retired his help; just when more help was needed. Also on September 1942 he fired Serrano Suñez and appoint a less pro-German as foreign minister.
Basti, who will soon publish "Destino Patagonia. Cómo Escapó Hitler" – his third book on Nazi movement in Argentina, believes the accepted suicide of Hitler was "a ruse" so that the leader of the Third Reich could escape the advancing Allied soldiers.
"The Germans left the body of Hitler’s double in the Bunker. The Nazis also left unknown corpses, which had in their pockets the paperwork of the hierarchy that escaped with the Führer. This deceived everyone into thinking they had all killed themselves".
Basti believes that Hitler Braun and the 13 officers arrived in Argentina, "between July and August 1945. He then moved between the provinces of Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Mendoza and La Rioja".
It would appear that since at least the 1930s, the USA has been the centre of a vast secret fascist network. Top Americans financed Hitler and carried on his work after World War II.
Author Abel Basti, in his 2003 book "Hitler In Argentina", said Hitler and Braun escaped to Argentina and lived in the area of San Carlos de Bariloche, a tourist site 1,000 miles southwest of Buenos Aires.
In his book "Bariloche Nazi-Guía Turística", Basti included documents, affidavits, photographs and blueprints to show the sites where Hitler and his fellow Nazis lived in Bariloche.
Basti refers to the Incalco Ranch, in Villa la Angostura, where Hitler lived.
The ranch belonged to Argentine businessman Jorge Antonio, a friend of President Perón.
Basti also claimed Hitler lived at Hacienda San Ramon, 10 kilometers east of Bariloche, which belonged at the time to the German principality of Schaumberg-Lippe.
In Argentina, the "CIA funded Navy Mechanics School [ESMA] was where opponents [active or perceived] to the dictatorship were raped, tortured, murdered and scientifically experimented on... Klaus Barbie, famous for his torture techniques during Hitler’s reign of terror, was undoubtedly called upon in an 'advisory capacity' at ESMA. Barbie was a CIA asset".
There would appear to be a secret fascist network that runs a number of governments.
After World War II, the U.S. military brought a large number of the top German Nazi scientists to the United States. The code name for this operation was Project Paperclip. Under Operation Paperclip the US and British governments helped many Nazis to escape from Germany.
"Soviet soldiers dug deep into the rubble of the Reich Chancellery for Hitler's corpse. They did not find it," states the 14 May 1945 issue of TIME magazine.
Stalin announced to Truman during lunch in Potsdam on 17 July 1945, 78 days after his "death", that Hitler had escaped.
The American FBI kept a file on Hitler, long after 1945. The FBI investigated reports from newspaper articles and individuals claiming that Hitler was in Argentina.
Back in 1944, Hoover had been told by an informant that Hitler would receive refuge in Argentina.
A memo stated that Argentine's leaders planned to conduct secret meetings with Hitler "for the arranging of importing arms and technicians into Argentina"..... a "large wealthy German colony in Argentina affords tremendous possibilities... as a refuge for Hitler.... Count Karl Ludwig von Luxburg (Karl Ludwig Graf von Luxburg), has been mentioned as operating a ranch which would serve in providing a haven"."
Just after the war ended, Otto Abetz, Germany's wartime ambassador to France, was quoted in "France Soir", as saying that Hitler "is certainly not dead", which statement is found in the FBI files pertaining to Hitler's apparent escape to Argentina.
On 20 June 1948, "El Tiempo", a newspaper published in Colombia, claimed that Hitler had escaped by submarine to South America
Abel Basti, in "Bariloche Nazi", claims Hitler escaped to San Carlos de Bariloche, in Patagonia, in Argentina, and died in 1960.
According to Basti, Hitler reached South America by submarine on 28 July 1945. The official story is that Hitler committed suicide in his Bunker on 30 April 1945. Reportedly, the Russians found the corpse of Adolf Hitler's double near Hitler's Bunker.
Basti states that traces of Hitler's presence in southern Argentina gradually emerge.
He claims to have eyewitness accounts from qualified people who were with Hitler in Argentina, and reports, FBI, British Intelligence, and Argentinean Navy documents discussing the presence of Nazi subs in the South Atlantic in July and August 1945. In his book, Basti reproduces documents, affidavits, photographs and blueprints concerning the sites that sheltered Hitler, Josef Mengele and Adolf Eichman.
Rumors in southern Argentina were always constant and Abel Basti stated in his book, "Following in the Footsteps of Hitler", the definitive research on the Nazi leader postmortem exile in Argentina and other countries in the region, published in Basti Editorial Planeta and summarizing 20 years of hard work: "I ended up believing it when I started interviewing witnesses who had been with Hitler in Argentina".
Numerous testimonies cited by Basti corroborate the presence of the Führer in the region.
Such is the case of Eloisa Luján, who was one of the "tasters" of the of the meals served Hitler to assure him that the foodstuffs were not poisoned, and Angela Soriani, the niece of Hitler's cook, Carmen Torrentegui at Hacienda San Ramon.
The presence of the German leader in this corner of Patagonia was an open secret, "..it was not that everyone knew that Hitler was on that estate but those who did know, such as employees of the Hacienda, downplayed the topic, "said Basti.
"For rural people the war was practically nonexistent, no radio, newspapers were sent once a month and not everyone read them. They there had been a war but did not have the dimension of the conflict nor the particular characters", he added.
Basti, in his book also includes data on the Regentröpfchen operation, which was supposedly the escape plan designed by the Nazis in 1944 to evacuate westward men - military, scientific, technical - currencies, gold, inventions, technological developments, etc. in order to leave nothing in the hands of the Russians, and recorded some 20-30000 Nazis who arrived in Argentina.
Hitler "did not live cloistered" but freely moved not only around Bariloche but also visited other South American countries like Paraguay, Brazil, and Colombia. He used different identities but the most important one was Kurt Bruno Kirchner. Under that name he traveled to Asuncion after the overthrow of Gen. Juan Domingo Peron in 1955.
In the Army Group North Sector probably the most famous Sturmgeschütz ace was the Knight’s Cross holder Wachtmeister Kurt Kirchner from StuG.Abt.667.
With his assault gun III [Sd.Kfz. 142] in three days of fierce fighting in February of 1942, he destroyed 30 enemy tanks of the Red Army. Sturmgeschütz III, short version E "Stub" [fitted with a low-velocity 75 mm StuK 37 L/24 gun to destroy soft-skin targets and fortifications], was actually powerless against the KW-1 and T-34 tanks of the enemy, only the long version F [Sd. Kfz. 142/1 equipped with a high-velocity 75 mm StuK 40 L/43 main gun] had a chance. Nevertheless, Kirchner proved that even with the short barreled main gun it was possible by deft maneuvering and clever use of terrain for the StuG III to overpower the most fearsome armored adversaries. He was awarded the Knight's Cross for this outstanding performance.
Abel Basti in his book states that Nogueira de Araujo was an active sergeant in 1973 and was 29 years old when he received a special invitation from his friend Harold Ernest, son of a Brazilian Nazi leader to travel for some days to Paraguay, with fully paid trip and accomodation.
"Fernando was the only Brazilian representative invited to participate in this incredible event attended by about forty selected people, mostly elderly who had known Hitler'.
Nogueira de Araujo with wife traveled to Paraguay, according to the story, but she could not attend the ceremony because women were denied access.
"Already nearly forty or so guests were gathered, Fernando was the only Brazilian. They descended in an elevator to the lower levels of the Bunker. There was a door to a staircase leading to a crypt, where Hitler's coffin was placed.
"When the whole group was assembled, it was announced that the entrance to the crypt would be sealed, and one of the people who were present took a bucket of cement and a trowel. Then, he began to lay bricks to close the narrow entrance to the crypt of the Führer, building a wall that blocked access to the coffin that holds the mortal remains of Hitler. After that job was done, the ceremony concluded and the guests left".
Given that this story sounded fanciful, reporter Diego Ponce de León, the prestigious journal of "Post Brasilia", sought to at least confirm whether such Sergeant Fernando Nogueira de Araujo existed in reality.
Not only did he find him, but Nogueira de Araujo sent him a current photograph of himself, at 70 years of age, the first to be disclosed in the press.
Nogueira de Araujo did not want to give an interview, but agreed to answer through his friend and eventual spokesperson, freelance journalist Marcelo Netto, Sao Paulo, giving the same information he gave to Basti, for inclusion in his controversial book .
"When he [Fernando] was invited to attend the ceremony, he did not know what it was. He figured that he would only find his friend Harold [Ernest]," said Netto. "The certainty that was Hitler began to take shape during the ceremony itself, all took for granted that it was the corpse of Hitler.
"Any doubts were dispelled when he [the sergeant Nogueira Araujo] returned to Brazil and found two other people who had participated in the event".
Nogueira de Araujo, as well as Netto and Basti, refuse to give further details about where the crypt could be found, the name of the alleged German hotel and its exact location.
Fact or fantasy? In the absence of more concrete evidence, doubts remain. But at least the indirect testimony of the former Brazilian sergeant is another element that confirms the version already established previously by other authors, such as the Paraguayan historian Mariano Llano, who in the first edition of his book "Hitler and Nazis in Paraguay", published in 2004, argued that Hitler died in Paraguay.
With the fall of Juan Domingo Peron in 1955, several Nazis preferred to leave Argentina and chose to go live in Paraguay. Peron himself, before the uprising that ousted him, chose to flee into exile in Paraguay on a war ship bound for Asuncion, the capital of the neighboring country, then continuing to Central America and finally to Spain.
At that time, Paraguay and Chile were the safest for the Nazis in South America countries. Alfredo Stroessner maintained close relations with the United States and received loans and US military aid for his anti-Communist policy. But, despite this aid, it was characterized by not allowing Americans to have a direct say in his government. He was not a docile ally and for this reason, in 1989, the CIA orchestrated a coup that deposed him. Now, it is known that Stroessner gave shelter to important Nazis, such as Hans Rudel, Otto Skorzeny, Eduard Roschmann and Dr. Josef Mengele, among other fugitives. But is it possible that the Führer also resided in Paraguay?
Mythology: Books asure that Hitler lived in Argentina. It is a version that has multiplied like a legend.... By Isidoro Gilbert
Ian Kershaw is considered the most important biographer of Hitler and one of the most important historians of the period 1936-1945. About the last moments inf the Führer Bunker in the Chancellery in Berlin on 30 Apri l1945 he wrote later that "Hitler retreated behind the doors of his studio for the last time. Eva Braun followed him almost immediately. It is almost 3:30 pm. During the next few minutes, Göbbels, Bormann, [...] and other of the Bunker community wait. Günsche stood guard at the door of the room ... It was Linge who took the initiative after waiting about ten minutes without being having heard anything in the room of Hitler, with Bormann, and opened the door cautiously. Hitler and Eva Braun were sitting together on the small sofa in the narrow and cramped study. She was slumped to the left of it. Her body gave off a strong odor of bitter almonds, the characteristic odor of prussic acid. Hitler's head hung limply. A bullet hole in his right temple dripped blood. At his feet was his pistol, a Walther 7.65 mm....."
However, a myth was born. Hitler did not die in the Bunker and survived, in Patagonia, for example.
Kershaw then tells how both bodies were cremated outside the Bunker and that after the Soviets arrived there on 2 May found the remains. "Nine days later they showed a cigar box containing part of a jaw and two dental bridges" that dentists, checking their files, said belonged to Hitler and Eva.
Academics and intelligence came to the same conclusion about the end of Hitler and Eva Braun. But not the Argentine journalist Abel Basti, who argues that the dictator and his wife came to Argentina in the winter of 1945. Basti, "Ambito Financiero" correspondent in Bariloche and editor of the "South", repeating the subject, has published another work, "In the Footsteps of Hitler" - The final research - His life in Argentina - Who hid it - Where he died.
Basti states that the fugitive couple arrived in a submarine departed from Hamburg to a point in the Patagonia. In San Antonio Oeste he took the train line, under guard, to Bariloche where a Mercedes Benz took him to the Estancia San Román, owned by a German and Nazi businessman. He traveled to Cordoba, where a family friend, with whom he had corresponded in the past, owned La Falda Hotel Eden; Also to Mar del Plata and Chubut from where he watched the Atlantic sitting on a bench, seen by locals who identified him as Hitler. He also traveled to other places according to the story, even traveling to Colombia, Brazil and Paraguay. In the last country he died and his remains were stored inside a concrete block under an unnamed hotel. Braun had conceived two children with him. In all places where the Führer was he was "greeted with respect and honor" he had talks even with Juan and Eva Peron, Jorge Antonio and other leaders of Peronism, as well as the Croatian Ante Pavelic, Bormann and other Nazis, all, Basti says, protected by Peron. Something else: he died the dictator, Bormann later had differences with Peron, and in anger, financed the military coup against him in 1955.
Basti filmed thirty witnesses in different places as he walked "in the footsteps of Hitler". Few said they had seen him, most remember hearing the story from a member of their family.
Given the conditions of many thousands of Germans coming to Argentina after World War II, the legend is easy to weave. The ease with which criminals managed to reach Argentina after the war, can be easily been demonstrated, not only Germans but Austrians, Croatians, Italians, Serbs, Romanians, White Russians. The idea that eventually became widespread is the underwater arrival on Patagonian beaches or at the Villa Gesell; unloading bullion, jewelry and especially former officers preparing the ground for myth, or rather legend. It is not a minor detail that since before World War II, Argentinia was based on a strong German community with acute Nazi influence with some bastions: Belgrano, Villa Ballester, Villa General Belgrano, La Falda, La Cumbrecita, Bariloche. This helped encourage the power of the legend.
There is also public skepticism about many events. For instance, even now 11% of Americans disbelieve that man reached the moon in 1969. How many, not only in Argentina, have doubts about the fate of Adof Hitler?
The first official reports, in 1945, talk of an escape.
When the Red Army entered the Bunker, Stalin asked for confirmation of Hitler's death and the general in charge reportedly said that he could not give confirmation as there was no body.
According to Basti: "In 1950, two sailors from the 'Graf Spee', a German vessel sunk by its own crew on the River Plate, said that they received at least two submarines in Patagonia on 28 July 1945".
Basti states that "The only 'official' story is the report made by General Zhukov, commander of the Soviet armies that occupied Berlin. Zhukov reportedly stated that Hitler and several Nazi leaders had escaped, presumably to Spain or the Americas. "This is what Stalin advised the U.S. government," says Basti.
Basti refers to Peron's secretary Rudolf Freude, son of a German millionaire. Freude allegedly looked after former Nazis in Argentina, among them Eichmann, who was captured in 1960 outside Buenos Aires by Israeli commandos.
Rodolfo Freude, the scion of a wealthy Argentine German family, was a close advisor of Argentine President Juan Perón and served as his Director of the Information Division [División de Informaciones]. Peron named him his Chief of Intelligence in 1946.
According to Argentinian historians, he was a savior to some of the most notorious war criminals in history. Thanks to him, hundreds of Nazi officers and alleged French, Belgian and Croatian collaborators found a haven in this faraway South American country.
According to documents, Freude's agency organized a network of agents who smuggled the fugitives to Buenos Aires through way stations in Milan, Italy, Madrid, and other cities.
The revelations in Uki Goni's "The Real Odessa," have led Jewish organizations here to demand that the government release documents related to the Nazis.
In polite, brief letters, the Secret Service and the Foreign Ministry have said their files contain no such documents.
"It's totally inconceivable that the Argentine Secret Service has nothing on this period," Goni, a writer and investigative journalist, said in an interview.
Freude was part of a secret assistance network for suspected Croatian, Belgian, French and German war criminals, according to documents uncovered by Goni and other investigators.
Given new identities by Argentine spies and by sympathizers in the Italian church, the suspects would receive visas from immigration officials here to work as "technicians."
Josef Mengele, the infamous doctor of Auschwitz, escaped to Argentina in 1949 thanks to the network, arriving in Buenos Aires still in possession of the records of his ruthless experiments on twins in the Nazi death camps.
Beatriz Gurevich, an investigator with the Delegation of Argentine Israelite Assns., traveled to Argentine embassies and consulates in Stockholm, Milan and other cities to pore through their records.
But it was in the National Archives in Buenos Aires that Gurevich found perhaps the most revealing document. It detailed the existence of "secret advisors" with the authority to smooth the passage of suspected war criminals through Argentine immigration.
"Their signatures carried the weight of law," Gurevich said, even though most of the advisors were themselves suspected war criminals, such as Branko Benzon, who was ambassador to Berlin for the Nazi puppet state in Croatia. "The documents made it clear their authority had come directly from the president."
Perhaps the most important man in the Argentine intelligence network aiding the entrants was Carlos Fuldner, an Argentine-born captain of German descent who served in Hitler's SS.
After the war, Fuldner joined Freude's secret service, establishing "rescue offices" in Italy and Switzerland. Some fleeing suspected war criminals were granted an audience with President Peron just days after their arrival in Buenos Aires, according to documents uncovered by Goni.
A strongman who ruled Argentina from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974, Peron told friends privately that he believed the Nazi leadership had gotten a raw deal in the landmark war crimes trials at Nuremberg.
Basti emphasises the "vital assistance" offered by Peron's government at the time "to admit the Führer's henchmen into that country".
Hitler as a young man Notice his thin nose
The real Hitler?
Sir Alan Lascelles was King George VI's private secretary from 1943-52.
Lascelles, in his diaries, entitled "King's Counsellor", wrote that, in June 1944, General Georges Catroux, of the Free French forces, had asked the British government's Alfred Duff Cooper "to see a certain French officer, urgently".
The diary entry for 21 June 1944 continues:
"This man, who is a very big noise in the French intelligence service, told Duff that he had very reliable information that Hitler had fled from Berlin to a villa near Perpignan, where he is now hiding and waiting a favourable opportunity to slip across the Spanish frontier".
By 1944, Hitler no longer appeared in public.
Why might Hitler have wanted to leave Germany in 1944?
According to Lascelles, Germany talked of peace terms as early as 1943.
In his diary entry for 27 December 1943, Lascelles wrote:
"Hughe Knatchbull-Hugessen telegraphed yesterday from Ankara that Numan [Turkish Foreign Minister] had told him ... that the German Minister in Bucharest had called [in uniform] on the Romanian Foreign Minister, and told him Germany would accept peace on the following terms: they would surrender fleet, submarines, merchant fleet, air force, disarm completely, evacuate all occupied territory, undertake never to ask for colonies, and leave Europe to be organised according to the wishes of the Allies.
"The only condition they asked for is economic freedom for Germany, but this is to be arranged as found suitable by the Allies".
Roosevelt and Churchill insisted on unconditional surrender. And this worked to the advantage of Russia, which ended up controlling Eastern Europe.
In 1943, sections of the German military showed signs of wanting rid of Hitler.
Between 1943 and March 1944 there were seven plots against Hitler. The 20 July 1944 plot failed to kill Hitler, or his "double".
Abel Basti says Hitler escaped from Spain by submarine into exile in South America. He claims to have a document showing the FBI searched for the Hitler in Spain in 1947.
If Hitler fled from Berlin in June 1944, then who was acting as his "double" back in Germany, up until April 1945, when Hitler supposedly died?
According to TIME magazine, in 1935: "Adolf Hitler last week became the first Dictator frankly to employ a double.
"Impersonating the Realm leader, a pudgy-fingered, smudge-mustached person officially opened the new motor highway from Holzkirchen to Munich. Suddenly the crowd recognized Dictator Hitler standing unobtrusively a few yards from his double and good-natured German cheers were given first for one, then for the other".
In November 1944, the "Daily Express" published photos of Hitler 'past' and 'present', suggesting that the 'present' Hitler was not the real Hitler. The "Express" pointed out that the ears on the 'present' Hitler were different from the ears on the 'past' Hitler.
"The Daily Express", according to Sir Alan Lascelles in his diary entry of 23 November 1944, "proves fairly conclusively" that the man in the recent photos "cannot be the real Hitler."
The 51-year-old journalist claims Hitler died in the South American country in 1960.
Aribert Heim – the Austrian doctor known as the Butcher of Mauthausen for his vicious experiments on prisoners in Nazi concentration camps – also spent time in Spain before fleeing to Chile.
Some peopleaccept that Adolf Hitler died in his Bunker for Closure, but consider the following:
No records show an Adi Lupis ever being born or having died nor any record of him arriving or leaving Spain, yet there is proof of an Adi Lupis being a gardener working for Franco, from the 1 May 1945 to when he died of a heart attack on the 1 November 1947.
According to Senor Stefan Aceituna, who was one of General Franco's drivers during 1945 and beyond, he was sent to meet a plane arriving at the Madrid airport on the night of 30 April 1945.
He described the plane as "of German origin" and remembered that it arrived very late, "probably after
In May of 1945 the East wing of General Franco's residence in Madrid was sealed off from the rest of the palace and surrounded by a fourteen foot high wall. No explanation of this construction work has ever been forthcoming. The staff assigned to this wing were all fluent in the German tongue.
In May 1945 Franco's medical staff ordered from Spain's largest pharmaceutical company a carton of 144 bottles of "Doctor Koster's Anti-Gas pills". This order was repeated on a monthly basis until October 1947.
Theo Morell, Hitler's personal physician had introduced Hitler to the anti-flatulence medication and Hitler had become so addicted to the strychnine base of these pills that he was known to swallow them by the handful.
Suddenly, in May of 1945, General Franco has a need of the identical medication and the need continues unabated until October 1947.
About thirteen miles from the Presidential Palace in Madrid is a medical establishment known as "The Clinico San Carlos."
At the end of 1947 the director of this clinic, one Dr Victor Vega Diaz, also held the title of "President of the International Association of Cardiologists". In other words, he was recognized as the world's foremost heart specialist.
According to Vega Diaz's personal diary, he received a telephone call from the Presidential Palace in the early afternoon of Wednesday, 1 November 1947 to examine a "member of Franco's gardening staff". From the way in which the doctor has boldly underlined 'From Generalisimmo Franco' it appears obvious that this call was not made by a member of the Palace staff but emanated directly from the Spanish President himself.
Why would the Spanish dictator contact the 'Hospital Clinico San Carlos' when the larger, more modern, and much better equipped 'Hospital Francisco Franco', named in his honour, was almost twelve miles nearer? Could it be because all previous medical needs of the General himself and the members of his entourage had always, until this day, been catered to by the hospital bearing his name, and that the General did not want any record of Senor Adi Lupus added to his personal file?
Dr Diaz' diary describes the patient as "between fifty and sixty years of age … in an emaciated condition" His personal files record that he examined a patient 'in his late fifties or early sixties' [at that time Hitler would have been fifty-eight years and six months of age] and records that at 3:32 pm he certified the patient's death from "Cardio Myopathy", a fairly basic heart attack and it appears that no autopsy was performed. .
At the top of the page, beside the words "Patient Identification" the doctor had written: "Senor Adi Lupus".
Unfortunately the doctors personal notes do not elaborate further and the Clinico San Carlos has relocated since 1947 and if any official hospital records ever existed they are now lost for ever.
Doesn't it seem illogical to summon the best cardiologist in the world to treat a lowly gardener?
Despite lengthy searches of all cemeteries within reasonable proximity to Madrid, no record can be discovered which documents the burial or cremation of Senor Adi Lupus.
No amount of searching has been able to uncover a document anywhere in Spain which relates to Senor Adi Lupus.
No birth certificate, no marriage record, no tax file or employment history, no registration on an electoral roll. Until 1 November 1947 he appears not to have existed. The only mention of his name is in the notebook of Dr Vega Dias.
Is it no more than coincidence that Lupus is Latin for wolf, the nom-de-plume which Hitler favoured, the title he appended to his yacht [The Sea Wolf], his plane [The Flying Wolf] and two of his Führer headquarters [The Wolf's Lair and The Wolf's Den].
He used the pseudonym Mr Wolf when he first met Eva. If it is purely coincidental, then we must apply the same assumption to the Christian name 'Adi'. This happens to be the form of address used in private by Eva Braun.
This Man Claims Hitler Is Buried in Spain 19 February 2014 By Javi Camino
Julio Barreiro Rivas is a Spanish sculptor, composer, writer, and historian living in Venezuela. The octogenarian was born in the Galician province of Pontevedra and since then has led a pretty interesting life: heading up a family band called Los Hijos de la Casa Grande, masterminding an alleged orgy island for senior Venezuelan military officers, and claiming to have met Hitler. In fact, Julio has an interesting theory about Hitler: He says that history's most despised man never killed himself at all and actually died and is buried in a cemetery in Galicia, northwest Spain.
“This finding wouldn’t change Europe’s history; it would just modify it," he told me modestly during a 30-minute international call. "People in Berlin and Russia know that Hitler and Eva were very unlikely to commit suicide one day after their wedding. Their friend Franco needed to compensate them for their favors in times of war, so he kept Hitler’s gold in Spain."
Admittedly, there are a vast amount of holes in Julio's story. Who are these "people in Berlin and Russia" who "know" for certain that Adolf and his lover would not have spent their honeymoon killing themselves? And how does he know that the former fascist dictator of Spain owed Hitler a favor? Still, Julio is committed to his tale and tells it with a burning intensity. When you speak to him, you get the feeling that this isn't a prank, a joke, an attempt at being snide, or even some kind of artistic allegory. When I spoke with him, he genuinely seemed to believe what he was saying.
"Even more nonsensical is the story about their bodies being burned with gasoline in the chancellery garden," Julio continued. "Only those who would be truly interested in eradicating the memory of Hitler would believe it. That is, the Germans, who might believe it out of shame, and the Russians and the Americans, because they weren't able to catch him.” Or just people who don't really care about where exactly history's most evil man is rotting. But Julio went on.
“Hitler set off early in the morning of 29 April 1945, aboard a three-engine airplane. He landed in a small village called Córneas, hidden amid the mountains of Lugo, where an escort from the Guardia Civil [the Spanish military police] and some donkeys carrying saddlebags full of gold bars and other relics were waiting for him. He headed for Samos, through the towns of Cebreiro, el Hospital, and Triacastela, where he would eventually meet a committee from Samos’s convent. I don’t think anyone can refute my theory, since I saw Hitler, alive and kicking, in the convent.”
I guess he's right. Who can dispute the claims of an 80-year-old Spanish man in a funny hat? According to Julio, he was 14 when he first encountered Hitler, Eva Braun, and some other German and Italian refugees. He was helping his uncle, a stonemason, build the Guardia Civil headquarters in Samos, and the contract included a little secret job: the construction of an underground maze beneath the building for Hitler to live in. Apparently Franco was on very good terms with Mauro Gómez, who was then serving as abbot of the monastery, and the fascist leader visited Samos in 1943. Julio said that it was thanks to this job that he got to see the Nazi fugitives.
“I was the master builder’s nephew and the friend and confidant of the monastery’s abbot. I gained the confidence of all the people lodged there. I got to meet Adolf Hitler and his wife Eva personally in 1945. Aside from being a very pretty woman, Braun was young and nice, and the only thing she could say in Spanish was, "Hola, ¿cómo estás, guapo?” ["Hello, how are you, handsome?"] I made friends, doing a job as their errand boy. He would tell me about all the things he used to buy for them and that Germans must have a lot of money, since they handed out really generous tips.”
I asked him about the specific purpose of the tunnels, but Julio was reluctant to provide an exact answer, apparently out of respect for his trade. “Soon after I arrived in Venezuela, I was hired by a government-owned company for the construction of a holiday resort and for other projects that I consider a state secret. What would the Venezuelan people think of me if I revealed these other secrets? I was not directly hired to build the Guardia Civil headquarters in Samos or Hitler’s Bunker-apartment. But I think I am the only survivor who knows where he is buried. These jobs were commissioned by Franco. What would happen if I went to Spain and lifted the stone leading to Adolf Hitler’s tomb?"
I would pay to see that. I would also pay to see Hitler dressed as a Benedictine monk waltzing around a Galician convent. It is a fact, however, that Galicia was a strategic enclave for the Führer. Germans kept antennae in the town of Cospeito, submarines in the waters of the Atlantic coast, an airport in Las Rozas [Lugo], and even a tomb in San Amaro’s cemetery in A Coruña. Some alternative historians, like Abel Basti, also support the theory that the dictator didn’t pass away in his Bunker but fled to Argentina from the Galician coast. Julio explains that he doesn’t know exactly how long Hitler could have been living in Galicia, although he is confident that his remains are still there. Unless a fire that occurred in 1951 eliminated all traces.
“It looked as if the monastery fire was a case of arson, with the only purpose of burning down any trace of Hitler and his cronies from Samos Convent," Julio asserted.
Based on this information found in a newspaper archive, Franco visited Samos again after it had been rebuilt in 1960. It wasn’t until 1947 that Julio found out how Hitler got to Galicia.
"My master announced that we had to leave, loaded with suitcases crammed with iron, for the construction of a furnace. We went past El Cebreiro, arrived at Piedrafita, and we plunged into a stone path. After a long walk, we got to Córneas. The first thing we saw was the majesty of a German three-engine airplane that, as we found out, had landed there on the first of May, 1945, where it had remained for nearly a year.
"I spent three months working in Córneas. The landowner told me how they had ruined his potatoes. There were eight passengers on board, including a woman. He also said that one of the passengers got injured when landing. I believe there must be someone in this little village who remembers the plane.”
At this point, I started to feel like a detective in a Nazi B movie. It is easy to find data on the web apparently confirming that a three-engine aircraft, namely a C-352, did land in Córneas. For example, here’s a comprehensive article by Luis G. Pavón, published in issue 67–68 of the "Revista Española de Historia Militar", with photographs and details about this most strange event. Most of the facts match Julio’s description: anonymous and mysterious passengers, a skilful Blue Division pilot, strange accidental deaths of some witnesses, the Guardia Civil reception, and the remains of the aircraft guarded by soldiers for months. According to this version, the plane landed in 1950, coming from Getafe [Madrid], and both the plane itself and its passengers were Spanish. I point this out to Julio.
“That story cannot be true, since by that time the war was over, and so was the Blue Division. I was at the Pontoneros barracks, in Zaragoza. The locals in Córneas told me that the plane landed on 1 May 1945, with a frightening noise. That was the same day the Second World War ended and the German disengagement was a fact, so all the Spaniards from the Blue Division had to rush out".
I decided to travel to Córneas following in the supposed footsteps of the Führer. If you are ever looking for a place to hide and never to be found, this is it; it's basically just a bunch of micro-villages scattered throughout a mountain valley. According to Julio, the plane landed in a spot called Escanlar, on the property known as Finca do Noceiro. The mistress of the house confirmed it happened, though she could not specify a date. “It happened many years ago; I wasn’t here at that point. My husband knows about it, but he’s napping now,” she said. I decided against asking her if Hitler was one of the passengers. “Do you know if any of the passengers were German?” I asked. “No idea," she replied. "Those who were on board were fine. I think they just ran out of fuel.”
I asked a few more neighbors, who also said they were too young to remember. One of them said that a few years ago a Gypsy had visited the village who remembered things vividly. “He said that he came to help scrap the plane when he was a kid and that he had great memories of those days.” I didn’t find anything else, and I have no idea why I expected I would.
I asked Julio whether it was true that he had tried to contact Baltasar Garzón, the judge who avidly pursued the extradition of General Pinochet, the prosecution of the Basque separatist group ETA, and the opening of an inquiry into crimes against humanity committed by Franco. If there was one man in Spain who might be up for investigating Julio's version of the facts, it would be Garzón.
“I went to Garzón when I found out he was interested in looking for the dead bodies of the victims of Franco’s repressive regime. It would be important for Spain and the entire world if they searched the catacombs of the monastery of Samos and found the remains of the most dreadful criminal in the history of humanity. It took me so long to tell him my version of events because there used to be a strict control over state secrets."
Perhaps tellingly, Garzón never answered.
Hitler buried in a Galician tomb, secret tunnels, fascist monasteries, mysterious planes. Is Julio right or wrong? Is he crazy or not? Maybe no one should listen to the ranting of an 80-year-old man without skepticism. Draw your own conclusions. I only know one thing: There's a part of me that really wants to believe.
"Adolf Hitler, son of the Catholic Church, died while defending Christianity. It is therefore understandable that words cannot be found to lament over his death, when so many were found to exalt his life. Over his mortal remains stands his victorious moral figure. With the palm of the martyr, God gives Hitler the laurels of Victory".
-- Spanish dictator [Francisco Franco, Knight of the Order of Christ] published on the 3 May 1945, the day of Hitler's death [sic]. ["Reforme", 21 July 1945]
Adolf Hitler's Third Reich ended in Berlin on 30 April 30 1945
Thunder reverberated from a storm of Russian artillery that was bombarding the ruined capital. The day before, along with the incoming shells, came particularly bad news for the Füehrer, who by this late date in World War II was confined to his underground Bunker beneath the Reich chancellery.
Hitler had learned that two days earlier his Axis partner, Italy's Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, had been captured by paramilitary Italian resistance fighters. Mussolini and his mistress, Clara Petacci, were executed and their bodies were left hanging from lampposts in a Milan piazza. This news was especially worrisome to Hitler because only hours earlier he had married Eva Braun in a small civil ceremony inside the Führerbunker.
Hitier had previously vowed never to be captured alive, and reiterated to his entourage that neither he nor his new bride would be made a "spectacle, presented by the J ews, to divert their hysterical masses." He made obvious preparations for the end of his reign. He handed out poison capsules to his remaining female secretaries and had Blondi, his favorite Alsatian dog, poisoned.
Two other household dogs were shot.
Dictating a last will, he stated, "I myself and my wife— in order to escape the disgrace of deposition or capitulation— choose death."
He ordered that their bodies be burned immediately. But Hitler, decorated World War I soldier and hardened political fighter, made it clear that he and his philosophies would not leave the world stage quietly.
He added, "From the sacrifice of our soldiers and from my own unity with them unto death will in any case spring up in the history of Germany the seed of a radiant renaissance of the National Socialist movement and thus of the realization of a true community of nations."
Hitler then passed along a line of his entourage, mostly women, and shook their hands while mumbling inaudibly.
Frau Traudl Junge, one of the secretaries present, recalled that Hitler's eyes, "seemed to be looking faraway, beyond the walls of the Bunker".
At about three P.M. on 30 April, members of Hitier's entourage heard a single shot from their leader's quarters.
Some time later. Hitler's valet, SS Sturmbannführer Heinz Linge, and an orderly emerged with a blanket-covered body. Martin Bormann, Hitler's private secretary, head of the Nazi Party and the most powerful man in the Reich after Hitler, followed with the body of a woman.
The corpses were carried up to a garden area, placed in a shell crater, and burned with gasoline. However, these remains were never found, reportedly due to the constant shelling.
By evening, a Soviet flag was flying atop the Reichstag.
It appeared that Hitler and his Third Reich were finished.
The Escape of Hitler
It was well known and publicly reported that Hitier often made use of doubles, men who closely resembled him, for use at certain public presentations. Pauline Köhler, a maid at Hitier's Berghof in Berchtesgaden, insisted that she knew of at least three men who doubled for Hitler.
Did Hitler make use of one final double in the Bunker?
After all, the few persons who testified that he was dead were ardent Nazis who were eager to please their captors— whether Russian, British, or American— with accounts of the leader's death. Was the strange execution of Eva Braun's brother-in-law, Hermann Fegelein, due to his knowledge of Hitler's escape plan with the use of a double?
Fegelein had left the Bunker but protested when captured by an SS search party that he planned to return. He was later shot by a firing squad in the Chancellery garden for desertion.
Yet, days earlier. Hitler had urged others in the Bunker to flee.
"Get out! Get out!" he cried. "Go to South Germany. I'll stay here. It is all over anyhow."
Why make Fegelein the exception?
Evidence that Fegelein was privy to secret knowledge comes from Kristina Reiman, an actress who met with Fegelein in Berlin on 27 April.
She told author Glenn B. Infield, "He was very worried. We had several drinks together and he kept repeating that there were two Hitlers in Berlin.... I thought he was drunk. Just before he left me, however, he said that if the Führer ever discovered that he, Fegelein, knew his secret. Hitler would kill him."
To fake Hitler's death would have been simple.
A Hitler double could have been secreted into the Bunker any time prior to his reported suicide. After Hitler got Eva to take poison— or a dead duplicate Eva brought in— the double, dressed in the Führer's clothing, could have been shot, a poison capsule placed in his mouth, and left to be covered by Bormann and retrieved by the unsuspecting valet Linge.
Hitler could have then passed from the study through his living quarters to a small conference room containing a stairway to the garden above.
Hitler had instructed Linge to wait, "at least ten minutes before entering the room."
While Linge and others from the entourage waited in the hallway outside Hitler's study, the Führer's party and an armed SS escort could have made their way to a secluded spot to await darkness.
Under the cover of night. Hitler could have moved along Hermann Göring Strasse, then cut across the Tiergarten to the Zoo Station near Adolf Hitier Platz. From there, they could have followed the rail lines to the Reichssportfeld and crossed the Scharndorfestrasse to the Piechelsdorf Bridge, a short walk to the Havel River, where a Ju-52 floatplane would have been waiting to fly the Führer out.
Indeed a Ju-52 pontoon plane had landed on the Havel the previous night, at the radioed request of someone in the Führerbunker. It took off that same night. Author Infield has suspected this was a practice run for the following night.
Once away from Berlin, an airplane could have taken Hitler almost anywhere in territory not under direct control of the Allies— Switzerland, Spain, or any number of other friendly locations.
But did this happen?
Conventional history says that Hitler and Eva Braun committed suicide in the Bunker— end of story, despite tantalizing tidbits of information that have surfaced since the war.
On 17 July 1945, during the Potsdam Conference, Soviet leader ]osef Stalin reportedly told U.S. president Harry S. Truman that Hitler did not commit suicide but probably escaped.
Years later, the Russians produced photos purporting to be of Hitler's dead body, which contradicted their earlier accounts that the bodies of HitIer and his mistress had been immediately burned.
Today, while Hitier's fate may be intriguing and undoubtedly will be argued for years, it is immaterial, a moot point. What is certain is that Hitler's legacy— National Socialism— lives on.
The history of how the Nazis, armed with advanced technology and the greatest hoard of treasure in history, were able to escape justice at the end of World War II is perhaps the greatest untold story of the twentieth century.
From the days of Lyndon B. Johnson to those of George W. Bush, there has been talk of "Amerika" turning "fascist." Most people, this author included, dismissed this as radical rhetoric. Unfortunately, as shall be seen, this might not be so far from the truth.
The Germans were defeated in World War II... but not the Nazis. They were simply forced to move. They scattered to the four corners of the world. Many of them came to the United States and penetrated what President Dwight D. Eisenhower termed "the military-industrial complex."
They escaped with the loot of Europe as well as rocket science and even more exotic technologies. Some of this technology was so advanced that it remains classified in U .S. government files even today.
Both Nazi science and ideology were brought to America in the aftermath of World War II with the aid and assistance of the very same self-styled globalists who created National Socialism in the first place.
- Jim Marss, "The Rise of the Fourth Reich: The Secret Societies That Threaten to Take Over America"
Did Adolf Hitler escaped from Berlim in 1945? The Facts and the Doubts 12 May 2012
In a exhibition held in Moscow, Russian officials have exposed a piece of a skull that is supposed to be of Adolf Hitler, who allegedly committed suicide on April 30, 1945. Over the years the disclosure of some facts, the publication of some works of credible and reputable researchers with access to the alleged forensic evidence saved by the Russians opened the door on the theory that Adolf Hitler did not in fact died in Berlin in 1945. In fact the official version of events leaves many doubts as to its veracity.
The official Version of the Death of Adolf Hitler
The final moment
On 29 April 1945, the day of the final meeting. General Weidling, military governor of Berlin, and commander of the LVI Panzer Corps, raised the possibility of an attempt to escape through the Soviet lines, but dissuaded Hitler. He had neither troops nor equipment or ammunition to any type of operation. The option was to stay and die!
The Führer then formally saluted the closest people that have followed him so far.
After lunch, on 30 April 30, he shut himself up with Eva Braun in his chambers. There was only one shot. When the close colaboraters entered they found him with his head shattered by a bullet and the gun lying on the lap. Opposite him, in the languor of dead, was Eva Braun, with no visible injuries. She ingested cyanide, a very powerful poison. It was 15:30 hours. Quickly the two bodies, were wrapped in tarps, removed to the courtyard and, with the help of 180 gallons of gasoline, a vigorous pyre was fired up. Around them, a silent fascist salute paid them the ultimate tribute.
On 2 May, the last German defenders of Berlin capitulated before the Soviets. The Red Army entered the bunker where the Hitlers had been in retreat since 17 January. They found the charred bodies of Josef Göbbels, his wife Magda and their six children who had been poisoned. In the same place, the corpse of a man with a mustache, made the soldiers believe that it was Hitler. A detailed observation, concluded it was a lookalike .., and thus arose the suspicion that Hitler had fled, eliminating his double.
Doubts about the death of Hitler would last for decades. Two charred bodies were buried and found in a crater three feet from the door of the Bunker. Secret autopsies were done to the bodies that were supposed to be those of Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun, who would have committed suicide after getting married. The obscure operations of the Soviets and the omission of facts, created doubts about the death of Hitler. For over a decade the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation), service of American intelligence, undertook a hunt around the world, chasing false information that said that Hitler was living with a new face in the United States, Japan, Brazil, Colombia, and further investigated the hypothesis, Argentina. Unaware of autopsies, Stalin himself believed that the Nazi leader was alive. The final conclusions would only end with the Soviet Union in 1991, presenting secret documents to the world. In 2000, the top of a skull, attributed to Hitler, was the attraction of an exhibition held in Moscow to commemorate the 55 years since the end of World War II. Some historians have doubted the authenticity of the skull, which they said could only be confirmed through DNA analysis. Legends, lies, obscure facts.....The death of Hitler was a disappointment for the Allies, who had no visible body of the dictator for public viewing. Hitler's death left many suspicions that the man who for decades had become the most feared and powerful in the world could still be alive.
There always have been doubts as to Hitler's alleged suicide in his Bunker in Berlin on 30 April 1945. The most authoritarian doubter was the Russian Dictator Josef Stalin who was convinced that Hitler escaped to Spain in April of 1945. A serious and well researched book by Ron T. Hansig entitled 'Hitler's Escape" in makes a very convincing case that Stalin was correct in his statements to his western Allies in 1945, telling them that Hitler [and Eva Braun] were still alive. One of Hansig's starling revelations is, that the man present in the last days of April inside the Bunker was, in reality a double of Hitler.
Hitler's death, at the end of World War II, assumed to be by his own hand, remains unproven. This assumption was the result of, what many conceive as, a conspiracy by the Western Powers, bowing to political pressures and to fight Nazism, to come up with Hitler's suicide story. This then would explain Hitler's disappearance from Nazi Germany after Germany's defeat.
Even if one takes the submitted Russian report on Hitler's autopsy at face value, there still remains the fact that there was no trace of the corpse of Eva Braun, Hitler's mistress and later wife. This alone disproves the double-suicide theory now part of German history.
Based on the well-documented revelations, this book can rightfully be called "the biggest detective story of the twentieth century".
It is almost certain that the story of the death of Adolf Hitler is a hoax.
If in fact Adolf Hitler managed to escape from Berlin in 1945 a question apears, HOW?
The Evasion Tunnel
In fact there is a real possibility there was an escape route in the underground of Berlin, integrating Germaniaproject (Project for the World's great new capital to be raised after the final great victory of the Reich),
Part of this project were several tunnels coming in and out from Berlin that would integrate massive highways, these tunnels would reach 8000 km in extent and there are news of that at the date of fall of Berlin about 800 km had already been built, making an excellent escape route.
The 1996 film "The Empty Mirror" shows Hitler in the underground Bunker where he and his clan of loyal backers strive to outlast the destruction of the Third Reich. It is a fictional drama set within the scope of a delusional fantasy; that attempts to explore a psychotic scenario surrounding Adolf Hitler. He interacts with others, among them children, to whom he shows his Welthauptstadt Germania, saying that it was to be made for them.
From 1934 on, the city planners and architects of the Third Reich were building large representative structures, wherein the extent of the underground levels surpassed all previous buildings. A typical example was the extension of the Reich Bank with its three underground floors and the largest safe in Germany. Also the Tempelhof airport, then the biggest building in the world, has in addition to an underground train connection, over 4.3 kilometres of traversable supply canals wherein the entire infrastructure of the building is housed.
In order to prepare Berlin for the 1936 Olympic Games, construction began in 1934 on a north-south tunnel of the S-Bahn. For this large project, the new rulers were able to make use of plans from the 1920s. The project was also used successfully for propaganda purposes, in that with one stroke thousands of workers were able to be employed, who dug the trench more or less by hand. Slogans like: “we thank the Führer that are building here” were hung above the construction site
The network of subway and city transit line tunnels could be used for covered movements by both friendly and enemy troops. In case of necessity they could be blocked at various points by setting off explosive charges that had already been planted. In the course of the battle the city transit line tunnel under the Landwehr Canal was blown up, after which it filled with water. It could not be determined at whose orders this measure was carried out. With the blowing up of the Ebert Bridge (east of the Weidendamm Bridge) the city transit line tunnel there was also destroyed, although this was apparently unintentional. Because of these and other explosions, water flowed into large parts of the subway and city transit line tunnels in the heart of the city.
It could not be proven that any appreciable loss of life resulted from the flooding of these tunnels, but it can be seriously doubted that it was justified by military necessity.
The tunnel leading from the Zoo railroad station (Bahnhof Zoo) to Ruhleben was heavily used by troops and civilians trying to break out toward the west.
Does Secret Tunnel discovered under Berlin prove Hitler Survived WW2 and fled Germany? Could Adolf Hitler have fled the ruins of Berlin to live out his days in South America? The theory is being taken seriously for the first time after the shock discovery of a secret tunnel beneath the German capital. By James Rampton Express 13 October 2015
A major eight-part documentary series draws on newly declassified FBI files and makes startling discoveries which suggest Hitler may not have died in his Bunker at the end of the Second World War after all. Instead, the programme ventures, he could actually have been spirited out of Berlin under the noses of the invading Soviets.
Then, having travelled on a U-boat from Spain, he may have spent the rest of his life plotting the rise of the Fourth Reich at a secret compound in the Argentine jungle.
On an exclusive tour last week of the tunnel network Hitler had built under Berlin, the "Express" found out more about the astounding claims.
And in the process of filming 'Hunting Hitler, which starts on the "History Channel" on Monday, November 2, the producers have made a discovery that may change the way in which Hitler’s demise is viewed by historians.
They have found a false wall in a Berlin subway station which could have facilitated the Führer’s escape 70 years ago.
The programme makers describe the discovery of the wall as their “Eureka moment”.
Last year, the FBI declassified 700 confidential documents. These indicate that perhaps the greatest war criminal in history may not have committed suicide in the “Führerbunker” but instead fled to South America as Nazi Germany collapsed.
A secret memo from FBI director J Edgar Hoover declared that: “American Army officials in Germany have not located Hitler’s body, nor is there any reliable source that will say definitely that Hitler is dead.”
In the aftermath of the war, many experts wondered if the Führer had faked his death and the US Army even mounted a clandestine operation to search for him in Spain.
Armed with cutting-edge technology and these newly released FBI files, 'Hunting Hitler’s 'team of renowned investigators approached this like a cold case.
In Berlin last week, the "Express" met the investigators, including Bob Baer, an ex-CIA veteran, the model for George Clooney’s character in the 2005 film "Syriana" and one of America’s most elite intelligence officers; Tim Kennedy, a top US special forces operative who was part of the unit tracking Osama Bin Laden after 9/11, and Sascha Keil, a German historian from the Berlin Underworlds Association.
The producers have found out that there was a mass Nazi exodus from Tempelhof Airport on 21 April 1945, the day after the last recorded public sighting of Hitler.
On that date, eight planes were apparently loaded with the Führer’s personal effects.
The expert team on 'Hunting Hitler' initially worked out that the Nazi leader could have made it from his Bunker to the airport almost entirely underground, except for the final 200 yards.
Rumours have long circulated of a hitherto unknown tunnel connecting this final 200 yards from a nearby subway station (once known as U6 and now called Luftbrücke) to the airport. And now, using a state-of-the-art sonar device regularly employed by the US military in their manhunts, the team investigating the mystery of Hitler’s possible evasion have unearthed that tunnel.
This provides the “missing link” from what was the U6 subway station to Tempelhof and could have allowed the Führer to escape without being captured above ground by the marauding Soviets.
Tapping the false wall in the subway station to prove its hollowness, Jason Wolf, the show-runner on 'Hunting Hitler,' recollects the moment they made this massive breakthrough in their investigation.
He says: “It was a Eureka moment. We were looking for the tunnel when Sascha suddenly went rogue down the subway. He knocked on the wall and it sounded hollow. We brought out the sonar and confirmed it was a false wall.
“We looked at each other and went, ‘Holy cow!’”
Hideout Found - Hitler Missing Daily Mercury [Mackay, Qld] 10 May 1945
LONDON: While combing the ruins of Berlin for traces of Hitler and other Nazi leaders, Russians to-day discovered Hitler's vast underground headquarters; but it failed to yield up their bodies, reports the "American Press" Moscow correspondent.
The entrance to the hideaway was through a concrete tower in the courtyard of the Chancellery. The hideout consisted of several floors comfortably furnished and equipped with electric lifts. Tunnels connected the headquarters with all government buildings and exits miles from the Chancellery.
The Escape by Aircraft
It search for means of escape from Berlin at the end of the war comes the mysterious flight out of Berlin in a light aircraft of German pilot Hanna Reitsch who flew a small plane in and out of Berlin, so even at the end of the Reich it was possible to escape from Berlin.
Hanna Reitsch spent three days in the Bunker just before Hitler's supposed suicide. On 28 April, she flew out with the newly appointed Chief of the Luftwaffe, General Robert Ritter von Greim, whose orders were to mount a bombing attack on the Russian forces who were now approaching the Chancellery and the Führerbunker.
Reitsch or another pilot would undoubtedly have been someone who could have removed Hitler out of Berlin....there were at least four excellent pilots in the Bunker on the last days, three of them disappearing forever during the fall of Berlin.
Many researchers say that Hanna Reitsch took off downwind in a Arado Ar96 Storch, from the Tiergarten adjacent to the Führerbunker in Berlin on 28 April 1945, then flew Hitler and Eva Braun to Norway, where they joined a flotilla of submarines that sailed to Argentina or the Antartica.
Others believe she took them to Jugoslavia, then under the military governorship of Sepp Dietrich head of the Waffen SS, who arranged for their secure tenure in that country, whence they left for Argentina in 1947.
Up to six Ju-352, two Ju-52, two FW200, and two Ju-290 flew marine reservists into central Berlin from 25-29 April 1945.
A floatplane Ju-52 and BV-138 flying boats from a KG200 seaplane base at Rügen also landed at Havel See up to 30 April 1945 evacuating VIPs and the wounded.
Hanna Reitsch wrote a letter to her brother during her internment mentioning how as she was about to depart Berlin that she saw a Ju-52 with engines running at the East West axis runway near the Reichs Chancellery. Two Fw200 condors and one Ju-290 9V + BK, of F.d.F also flew missions in and out of Berlin up to the very last moments. Flights were also flown to Tutow airfield and Gatow.
The last land plane out of Gatow with passengers was a Ju-352, Stkz KT + VJ flown by ObLt Schultz on the morning of 29 April after Hitler's wedding. There is a suggestion that other aircraft got in after this but none waited for passengers to fly out.
There are conflicting accounts by witnesses to Hitler's wedding that it happened before midnight on 29 April and before Reitsch departed Berlin, yet Reitsch denied all knowledge of the wedding. The Marriage certificate stated the wedding happened on 29 April, yet at least four witnesses said the wedding happened before the 29th.
An editorial in "Zig Zag," Santiago, Chile, 16 January 1948, states that on April 30, 1945, Flight Captain Peter Baumgart took Adolf Hitler, his wife Eva Braun, as well as a few loyal friends by plane from Tempelhof Airport to Tondern in Denmark [still German controlled]. From Tondern, they took another plane to Kristiansund in Norway [also German controlled]. From there they joined a Submarine convoy.
Peter Baumgart, allegedly a Luftwaffe pilot with 128 kills over Crete, Italy, North Africa and the Eastern front. Also an Iron Cross Holder. Appears to have also held SS rank. Born in South Africa in 1915 , arrived in Germany 1935. Possibly flying with KG 200 in April 1945 Sentenced in Warsaw in 1948 to five years imprisonment for being a member of the SS.
"At Midnight on 27 April 1945 Adolf Hitler, Eva Braun, and her brother in-law SS General Hermann Fegelein slipped away from the hell of the Führerbunker through a secret tunnel in Hitler’s personal quarters in the devastated Reich Chancellory to the Berlin Underground. They were replaced by doubles chosen by Reichsleiter Martin Bormann and his close associate SS-General Heinrich “Gestapo” Müller.
"Hitler and his party walked through the Underground tunnels to the exit at Fehrbelliner Strasse. Waiting for them on the cleared roadway of the Hohenzollerndamm was a Ju 52 transport aircraft piloted by SS Captain Peter Baumgart of the secretive Luftwaffe Unit KG 200. The group flew to Tonder in Denmark, where the party took a second Ju 52 to the Luftwaffe base at Travemünde. Changing planes again the party boarded a long-range Ju 252 and flew to the Spanish Military base at Reus, 80 kms south of Barcelona, in Spain.
"General Franco supplied a further aircraft, in Spanish markings, to fly the party to Fuerteventura on the Canary Islands, where 24 hours later they boarded U 518 under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Hans Werner Offermann".
--Gerrard Williams and Simon Dunstan, "Grey Wolf – The Escape of Adolf Hitler"
During the Nuremberg War Trials he was doubted and sent to an asylum for psychological evaluation because he maintained that he was the man who facilitated Hitler’s escape. The asylum concluded that this man was very sane and he still maintained his story to his death. The war crimes tribunal simply passed him off as a “lunatic” even though their own psychiatrists had testified he was not insane at all. Why was this man's testimony not believed?
According to period newspaper accounts, the pilot—Baumgart—was briefly imprisoned in Poland after the war, released in 1951, and “never heard of again.” However, Baumgart after his release from Polish prison surfaced in the form of a TWA passenger manifest. According to it, Baumgart flew from Europe to New York before catching a flight for Washington, D.C., within weeks of his 1951 parole.
Luftwaffe Pilot Sent to Gaol For Five Years The Canberra Times 9 February 1949
WARSAW, Tuesday. Captain Peter Baumgart, a former Luftwaffe pilot, was sentenced to five years for being a member of the S.S., a crime which is punishable by death.
He told the tribunal that he was bom 'in 'South Africa but in 1935 he renounced British citizemship. He was the holder of the Iron Cross and other decorations. Baumgart said that just before the fall of Berlin he flew Hitler and Eva Braun to Denmark, where they joined a submarine. The plane made a forced landing at Magdeburg, but, upon Hitler's insistence, he flew the [following day through an artilery barrage to the Danish shore. Hitler'shook hands with' him and gave him a cheque for 20,000 Marks.
One of the judges reminded Baumgart that Allied 'Intelligence reports showed that Hitler and Eva Braun killed themselves on May 3, 1945 [sic], but Baumgart stuck lo his story, adding that, Hitler was 'not the kind of man to take his own life.'
Peter Baumgart, a South African-born Luftwaffe pilot who claimed to have flown the Hitler entourage to Denmark, the first stop on their trip to Argentina, own claims would be separately corroborated by the testimony of a German prisoner of war, Friedrich Argelotty-Mackensen. The transcript of Mackensen’s interrogation by U.S. Admiral Michael Musmanno records a sighting of Hitler speaking to wounded German soldiers at an airfield, in Tonder, Denmark, three days before he was supposed to have died in Berlin
Musmanno: “Who had command of the plane?”
Mackensen: “Well, of course, I have no idea. I only know that in one of the planes in which Hitler was, that this plane was being flown or piloted by a certain Captain Baumgart. I was lying in the grass and then I was being picked up again. I was carried to some certain place around the plane. Then somebody set me down. All the others were standing there already. Somebody put a knapsack under my head and then Hitler was standing there and… one moment now. Now, now, at the crucial point! Hitler has said that Admiral Dönitz is now in supreme command of the German army and Admiral Dönitz will enter into unconditional surrender with the Western powers. He is not authorized to surrender to the Eastern powers".
-- Interrogation of Friedrich Arthur Rene Lotta von Angelotty-Mackensen, Nuremberg Palace of Justice, 18 March 1948 [Gumberg Library Digital Collections of Duquesne University, "Musmanno Collection—Interrogation of Hitler Associates"].
Mackensen’s three-hour interrogation by Michael Musmanno, is rambling, and he repeatedly confuses dates. He was by then using a wheelchair, having suffered a broken spine in a forced landing in southern Sweden on 8 May after his attempted flight to Malaga, Spain [his was one of eleven German aircraft that were shot down or force-landed that day during such attempts]. He had recovered consciousness in a hospital at POW Camp 404 in Marseille, France, on 16 May.
Throughout his interrogation Mackensen states that he had been delirious for much of his time on the ground in Berlin and Denmark. Although it was dismissed as "fantastic" by Musmanno, close reading of Mackensen’s story reveals details that coincide with Baumgart’s account. Mackensen, too, seems to have vanished from sight after the war.
Maintains Hitler Escaped to Denmark The Advocate February 9, 1949
LONDON, Tuesday. - Captain Peter Baumgart, a former German Luftwaffe pilot, who insisted that he flew Hitler and Eva Braun to Denmark shortly before the fall of Berlin, was today sentenced by a tribunal of three Polish judges to imprisonment for five years for being a member of the S.S.
Baumgart told the tribunal that he was born in South-West Africa, but renounced British citizenship in 1935. He claimed he had shot down 128 Allied aircraft in Crete, Italy, North Africa and the Eastern Front, and was the holder of the Iron Cross and other decorations.
He added that on May 25, 1945 [sic], shortly before the fall of Berlin, Hitler suddenly summoned him and ordered him to fly to Denmark.
Hitler, Eva Braun and a German general, with others, boarded his plane in Berlin, and it took off for Denmark. The plane made a forced landing at Magdeburg, but, upon Hitler's insistence, he flew the following day through an artillery barrage to the Danish shore.
They landed about 44 miles from the Eiter River in a field. Hitler shook hands with him, gave him a cheque for 20,000 Marks, and ordered him to return to Berlin immediately. Baumgart added that he believed Hitler and his party had boarded a submarine.
Final Luftwaffe flights into and out of Berlin during late April 1945 - "Grey Wolf : The Escape of Adolf Hitler" 3 November 2011
In the UK author Gerrard Williams managed to get a lengthy "Sky News interview" [his former employer] and the book has garnered plenty of [far more skeptical] newspaper column inches. Starting from the premise that there is no 'proof' that AH died in the Bunker in Berlin in April 1945, Williams' and Simon Dunstan's lengthy 'research' indicates that AH escaped to South America after being spirited away from Berlin in a Ju 52 during the last days of April 1945. It was during the night of the 27-28th April that AH and Eva Braun left the Bunker via a 'secret' tunnel, their place in the Bunker being taken by doubles - who presumably managed to fool Misch, Junge and all the other acolytes- and were flown to the coast on board a Luftwaffe Junkers Ju 52 before boarding a U-Boot heading for South America.
British author Sir Max Hastings used the words "absolute drivel " in a "question-and-answer session" in front of an audience of 250+ people at a recent book festival and added, "imagining new revelations from WWII is a disease of reporters and newsmen everywhere. In fact there haven't been any since the mid-1970s and the "Ultra' secret". However the subject of final flights into and out of the doomed Reichshauptstadt is certainly an interesting one but there are so few sources of any description aside from personal accounts that any attempt to either prove or disprove the version of events related in Dunstan's work is fraught with difficulty.
With German-held territory shrinking rapidly and the country cut in two, flights reaching Berlin after the fall of the last airport within the city limits [Gatow, 26 April 1945] were "resupply" missions - supplies dropped from transport aircraft and gliders operating from a handful of airfields on the Baltic coast. However, amidst a whirl of rumour, conjecture and half-truths -opinion masquerading as "facts"- the authors believe that there was a concerted effort made to fly high-ranking personalities out of Berlin - among them AH. This operation - codenamed "Unternehmen Reichskanzlei" - was presumbly inspired by Günther Ott's articles published in "Jet & Prop" magazine during 1995 entitled "Unternehmen Reichskanzlei". However Ott did take the trouble to point out that no such codeword/operation for these flights existed - it being simply post-war journalistic shorthand for those various ad-hoc attempts to bring in supplies to Berlin for the besieged Bunker occupants and their defenders. Dunstan and Williams conveniently overlook this small detail and go much further. Of course Hitler did indeed have his own "flight" of transport aircraft, the so-called Fliegerstaffel des Führers [or more colloquially 'FdF' ..Für den Führer..] but this unit was equipped with large multi-engine types including Ju 290s from FAGr 5, virtually all of which had been effectively grounded for months due to shortages of fuel. AH may have been urged by his acolytes to flee to some Alpine "fortress" or other in southern Germany but only a handful of ad-hoc transport flights out of Berlin for high-ranking regime members were possible from mid-April, activity suddenly spurred by the opening of the last Russian offensive against Berlin launched on 16 April 1945. On 21 April Lt. Herbert Wagner flew 48 passengers from Berlin to Salzburg in a FAGr. 5 Ju 290 A-2 transport [9V+BK], returning to Gatow on the following evening. Hitler's personal transport Fw 200 C-4 coded "TK+CV" flew 12 passengers to Wittstock on 24 April but by now the last remaining airport within the city [Gatow] was coming under heavy Soviet artillery fire.
An important role in this "story" is played by the Charlottenburger Chaussee - the so-called Ost-West Achse. Hitler had designated this wide and long boulevard in central Berlin as a takeoff and landing strip in his "order for the preparations of the defence of the Reichs capital". But no large multi-engined aircraft could hope to land here. Perhaps this is why the authors of "Grey Wolf" would have us believe that the "final" flight was not made from this location. One of the most "notable" final flights into the centre of Berlin and the East-West Axis was made by Ritter von Greim and related by Hanna Reitsch. Summoned to the Bunker, the last CO of the Luftwaffe and Reitsch had been flown into Gatow south of Berlin centre under escort from JG 4 Fw 190s. By 25 April Gatow was the only airfield within the city boundary that was still in German hands although coming increasingly under Soviet fire. Indeed 26 April may have been the last day Gatow saw Luftwaffe aircraft take off. Routes into the city from the airfield had already been cut and the only way into the centre and the Chancellery as Hanna Reitsch and Ritter von Greim discovered was via Fiesler Storch. Their Storch came under Russian fire on the subsequent flight and von Greim was injured. According to Reitsch's own account, Hitler [presumably his double] ordered them to save themselves late on Sunday 29 April 1945. They had one last chance to flee – a Junkers Ju 52 and an Arado 96 had just landed unscathed on the East-West Axis. Von Greim and Reitsch left the Bunker and climbed aboard a half-track which drove them to the Arado under a night sky that was lit up by countless flashes and explosions. The pilots were waiting – the same Feldwebel who had brought them into Gatow aboard a Focke Wulf 190. This time he had touched down near the Zoo – the strip that was still in German hands amounted to no more than 400 metres in length and was shrinking progressively. The Arado trainer took off under a rain of fire and immediately sought refuge in the banks of cloud and smoke that had shrouded the city for weeks.
James P O'Donnell in his book "The Berlin Bunker" referred to Hanna Reitsch letting slip in her US Army interrogations that when she and von Greim went to fly out just before midnight on 28 April 1945 in an Arado 96 , that they saw a Ju-52 parked with a pilot in attendance. O'Donnell alluded it was waiting for SS LtGen Fegelein.
Hanna Reitsch recorded in her memoirs that she, with a heavily bandaged General von Greim by her side, flew out of Berlin from the Tiergarten, at dawn on 30 April 1945, according to her 5 December 1945 press interview. In testimony to Captain Robert F. Work, Chief Interrogator on 8 October 1945, regarding the "Last Days of Hitler", the departure from the Bunker is stated as after 1:30 am on 30 April 1945.
O'Donnell suggested that the Ju-52 was sent by Himmler for Fegelein and others have suggested that Fegelein was tasked to return with Hitler's corpse as proof to the Allies.
O'Donnell cited Speer saying that Baur had serious plans to fly Hitler out on 23, 28 and 29 April 1945. He also quoted Baur himself after the war saying "right up to the last day I could have flown the Führer anywhere in the world".
When Speer and Baur claimed after the war that there were serious plans to fly Hitler out on 28 and 29 April 1945, did they mean on the Ju-52 which had flown in for Fegelein on the evening of 28 April and left again in the morning of 29 April?
Probably not. That Ju-52, according to O'Donnell may have been the ship allocated to Fegelein by Himmler, but it is doubtful that it was known to Baur that it was even parked there as Baur had shut down his tower and thereby recalled its staff earlier that day. After 9:00 pm or thereabouts on 28 April, any pilot of a plane sent by Himmler to fetch Fegelein would have been arrested because Himmler's negotiations with Count Bernadotte became known to Hitler.
The Ju 52 that had 'successfully managed to land' on the Ost-West-Achse that night and then take-off again was apparently flown by one Oberfeldwebel Böhm from II./TGr 3. This was reported by another young Ju 52 pilot from this unit, Uffz. Johannes Lachmund who described events in his 2009 memoir. Although a pilot Lachmund flew on this sortie as a gunner. Lachmund records that this mission was flown from Güstrow to Berlin with five aircraft to evacuate high-ranking personnel from Berlin, including Ritter von Greim. As Lachmund reports, three of the five Ju 52s had to return after missed approaches, chiefly because the visibility was so poor from the heavy smoke from the fires everywhere on the ground. One Ju-52 was shot-down by the Soviets during the approach.
Lachmund mentions discussions via telephone from the 'air traffic control' command-post at the Siegessäule [Berlin's Victory column] between Ofw Böhm and the Bunker in the Reichskanzlei. There was apparently some dispute over the passengers to be flown-out, chiefly because Hanna Reitsch wanted to fly out Ritter von Greim herself at the controls of the Arado Ar-96, and not leave Berlin as a passenger on this Ju-52 flight. Eventually, the Ju 52 boarded only a few other wounded passengers but not the VIPs. Because of damage to the 'runway' from shelling, the Junkers transport had only 400 metres in which to get airborne. It is worth noting perhaps that Deutsche Lufthansa record the minimum take-off distance for their lighter (unarmoured and unarmed) Ju 52/3m as 500 metres. [Johannes Lachmund : "Fliegen ; Mein Traumberuf – bis zu den bitteren Erlebnissen des Krieges", Verlagshaus Monsenstein und Vannerdat OHG Münster, 2009].
As mentioned one fighter Geschwader charged with escorting senior figures in and out of the smoke-shrouded capital, including Hanna Reitsch and Ritter von Greim, was Jagdgeschwader 4. JG 4 had flown some of its last ground-attack missions of the war around the capital and the area of Neustrelitz on 29 April. Uffz. Manfred Kudell of 8. [Sturm]/JG 4 was one pilot who paid the price, airborne over Berlin at 08:45 that morning:
“Between 14 and 29 April I flew 29 combat sorties over Berlin and its suburbs. These were mostly Jabo ground attack flights but we also flew plenty of Schlachtflieger escort missions over the Kremmen-Nauen sector in an attempt to slow the encirclement of the capital. Over Berlin itself we generally ran into Yak fighters. During the last days we flew such a high rate of sorties that there was little time to properly plan them, which meant that they were mostly ineffectual. I was airborne – with my Schwarm – on 29 April. My Fw 190 carried a 250kg bomb and I had orders to target Soviet tanks heading for the Chancellery. There was little hope of us successfully carrying out this mission given the huge pall of smoke that shrouded the city – it was impossible to make out anything on the ground clearly. In fact only those pilots – such as myself – who knew the city and could pick out landmarks to navigate by were dispatched. Each pilot was assigned to attack a street in the vicinity of the Reichs Chancellery. My objective was Stresemannstrasse. Airborne from Rechlin, we swept in over the Reichskanzlei at roof-top height. We had no radio or visual contact with each other and Berlin was one huge cloud of smoke. We had no idea where our own troops were. We dropped our ordnance and turned onto a northerly heading in an attempt to reach Rechlin. As I came out through the clouds of smoke I was immediately set upon by Soviet fighters and despite my desperate manoeuvres, had to bale out at 3,000 metres..I landed – badly burnt – in the midst of street fighting. I was captured by Russian soldiers.." [translated from Vol II of Erik Mombeeck's history of JG 4 " Storming the Bombers"].
So with the Russians virtually at the gates of the Reichskanzlei and the Ost-West Achse swept by heavy fire we are being asked to believe in this new book that AH disappeared from the Bunker to be flown out of the city. Pilot for what must have been an epic feat of airmanship was one "Captain Peter Baumgart", a 128-victory ace [sic], seconded to " the secretive" KG 200 during 1943. So secretive that his name fails to appear in any of the documentation reproduced by Günther Gellerman in his history of KG 200 "Moskau ruft Heeresgruppe Mitte.." Perhaps this "character" was a pseudonym? No, apparently not - author Williams confirmed that 'Baumgart' was indeed a real person.
According to the authors "Baumgart" was apparently put on trial and sentenced to a term in prison in Poland postwar - the authors reproduce facsimiles of period newspaper reports.
Luftwaffe Pilot Sent to jail For Five Years
WARSAW - Captain Peter Baumgart, a former Luftwaffe pilot, was sentenced to five years for being a member of the S.S., a crime which is punishable by death. He told the tribunal that he was born in South Africa but in 1935 he renounced British citizenship. He was the holder of the Iron Cross and other decorations. Baumgart said that " just before the fall of Berlin he flew Hitler and Eva Braun to Denmark, where they joined a submarine
The plane made a forced landing at Magdeburg, but, upon Hitler's insistence, he flew the following day through an artillery barrage to the Danish shore. Hitler “shook hands with him and gave him a cheque for 20,000 marks”.
One of the judges reminded Baumgart that Allied Intelligence reports showed that Hitler and Eva Braun killed themselves on May 3, 1945, but Baumgart stuck to his story, adding that Hitler was not the kind of man to take his own life..."
Some of the 'final flights' often referred to in the literature did occur - bv BV 138 seaplane operations from Lake Havel. Others did not - the air transport of large numbers of Kriegsmarine- and SS- infantry by land aircraft to Berlin 26-27 April referred to in statements by Dönitz and Jodl. They were planned, but they did not take place. Researchers have found no evidence to substantiate this. [see "Jet & Prop" 2/1996].
From German Naval Infantry in the Defense of Berlin By Mike Bennighof, Ph.D. October 2010
Sailors in Berlin
It started all with an phone-call. In the KTB of the OKM, with the date of 24 April 1945 at 24:00 hrs, it is recorded as follows:
Kpt z.S. ASSMANN informed the OKM via phone about a Führerbefehl. HITLER had given the order to VAdm VOß to transport some battalions of the Kriegsmarine, fully equipped with all kind of infantry weapons, to Berlin. He wished the sailors to join the defense of Berlin.
The plan was for two battalions of sailors from 1. SStR to be air-lifted into Berlin already the next night [25/26 April]. The units thus had to march immediately to distant air-fields.
- The so-called alarm battalion from Stralsund had to march to the seaplane base at Pütnitz near of Ribnitz, from where 175 men were to be flown with the 3./I./TG 1, which was equipped with a floatplane version of the Ju 52, and to Tutow, from where another 288 men were to be flown with Ju 352‘s of the Squadron „Mauß".
- Another alarm battalion from Rostock, with 476 men, had to march to the local air-field [this navy unit is unknown].
The following night (26/27 April), it was planned to transport a regiment from the island of Fehmarn, with some 1000 men, to Berlin from the airport of Rerik [sailors were part of the 1.FuMLAbt].
It seems, as GrAdm DÖNITZ wished to co-operate. He mobilized the 1.SStR in Stralsund and the 1.FuMLAbt on Fehmarn. These were also the "bravest" of his men, he would send to Berlin for the personal protection of the "beloved" Führer. The highest elite of a supreme-commander, was the impression of HITLER in his Bunker under the Reichskanzlei.
1. SStR in Berlin
1.SStR [1. Schiffstamm-Regiment], which was the 1st naval instruction regiment, CO was Kpt z.S. Herbert ZOLLENKOPF, consisted of:
- 1.SStA [1. Schiffstamm-Abteilung], the 1st naval instruction battalion, CO was KKpt Wolfgang DITTMERS, stationed on Dänholm - 2.SStA [2. Schiffstamm-Abteilung], the 2nd naval instruction battalion, CO was KKpt Franz MAYERHOEFFE, stationed in Flensburg-Mürwick - 3.SStA [3. Schiffstamm-Abteilung), the 3rd naval instruction battalion, CO was FKpt Richard STEFFEN, stationed on the Schwedenschanze. At this time, this batallion was already mobilized as MarSchB 903(903rd naval infantry battalion]. It was almost completely unarmed, except some carbines for the ranks, and very few submachine-guns for some officers. More about this battalion later. - 4.SStA [4th Schiffstamm-Abteilung], the 4th naval instruction batallion, CO was KKpt Herbert BANZHAF, stationed from February of 1945 in Flensburg-Mürwick. - SSS 'Gorch Fock', CO was Kptl Wilhelm KAHLE.
The 1.SStR was augmented in manpower, as it wasn‘t only the Crew I/45 drafted, but also the Crew IV/45 was called to equip. It seems the Kriegsmarine had drafted these men to prevent them from being mowed down at the front, a process commonly known as "Heldenklau" [Heldenklau/Operation Heldenklau was catchy black humor Landser slang to describe the efforts by the High Command to replace the enormous and steadily increasing losses suffered by the Heer, especially on the Eastern front, during the last year of the war by combing the personnel of the rear (also derisively called "Etappenhengste", or Home Front Studs, by the frontline soldiers) for men capable of carrying and firing a rifle or Panzerfaust. Literally translated, the word means something like 'grabbing the heroes' (Held = hero, klauen = slang word for stehlen, meaning to steal)].
Around noon on 25 April 1945, there was the issuing of orders for the Operation "Berlin" or "Reichskanzlei". There they stood, not veterans with fighting experience of some years, but young, untrained soldiers of the 1927 – 1929 age group.
After the distribution of food, ammunition and weapons [mostly captured guns], hand-grenades, Panzerfäuste and some Panzerschrecks, they had to wait for transport. Many of them were from the special navy training course for HF-technology "Tegetthoff".
CO of this alarm-battalion was the recently decorated Kptlt Franz KUHLMANN. The officer corps of this battalion was a mix of officers of the entire 1.SStR. On the evening some busses and lorries transported part of them to Pütnitz. It remains unknown if they were transported to Berlin by the floatplane versions of the Ju-52 aircraft.
The rest of the unit arrived at the Tutow air-field at 22:00 hrs. Due to attacks of the Russian "Nähmaschinen" ('Sewing machines' – Landser slang for the slow-flying Soviet observation plane (max. speed 93 MPH), the Polikarpov Po-2 bi-plane, whose motor sounded like a sewing machine from the distance; it was regarded as a real nuisance, because it would sometimes also drop small fragmentation bombs that caused death or injury to the Landsers on the ground. To get even, they would fire their rifles at them, often bringing one down in the process) it looked like the transport flights would have to be postponed.
Once again there was a phone call from Berlin, GFM KEITEL pointed out the importance of this airlift. So, Mjr MAUß, CO of the "Großraumtransportstaffel" (large capacity transport squadron) , made all clearance for the commencement of the airlift. With great difficulty 5 or 6 Ju 352‘s were cleared to take-off. There had been a of loss of 5 planes [4 Ju 352‘s and 1 Ar 232] the night before [24/25 April] on a supply operation for the encircled 9th Army.
Between 01:35 hrs and 02:35 hrs on 26 April all left Tutow. The aim was to land at the Berlin airport Gatow, as the Tempelhof airport wasn‘t available as of 23 April, due to heavy Russian attacks, and it fell to them the following night.
It seems each Ju 352 carried 40 soldiers, which is their maximum troop capacity. At least one Ju 352 had in addition 4 t of Panzerfäuste and Panzerschrecks. 40 soldiers and 4 t of ammunition means, that the aircraft was close to the maximum load of this type of plane
OFw Herbert SCHULZ [G6 + .X] was the first to take-off from Tutow, as he received the landing permission in Gatow. His plane came under heavy attack from all types of weapons. With only one engine it was not possible to fly a full loaden Ju 352. OFw SCHULZ tried to make an emergency landing, but crash-landed. Somehow, the entire crew managed to escape the explosion of 4 of the Panzerfäuste. On 29 of April they returned to their squadron, which was stationed in Großenbrode at this time. Nothing is known about the fate of the 40 soldiers from this Ju 352.
StFw Kurt BECKER (G6 + RX] wasn‘t succesfull in landing at the Gatow airport, because of heavy anti-aircraft fire, he decided to return to Tutow, where he landed a 03:00 hrs. These soldiers, including the acting CO of the 1st coy, Kptlt BRANDT, were relieved of the fights in Berlin.
A further Ju 352 [G6 + .X] couldn‘t land in Gatow, due to heavy machine gun fire from the ground. The plane was hit in the landing gear and in the cockpit, however no crew or troops were wounded. To avoid an emergency landing on the small airport of Tutow – which could have lead to a stoppage of all air-lifts in Tutow- he made an emergency landing near Barth. The plane was destroyed, but again no one was injured.
OFw Paul KÖHLER [G6 + EX] left Tutow at 02:35 hrs, but needed almost two hours to land in Berlin-Gatow at 04:25 hrs. Maybe he had tried to land in Berlin-Staaken, according to an officer of the navy. After 20 minutes on ground he took off for Tutow, where he landed a 05:40.
In the literature about the battle of Berlin, whenever some reference is written about the German Kriegsmarine-sailors in Berlin, the numbers mentioned are far too high. According to a NCO, his plane was the last one landing in Gatow. In a wood near the airport his group of sailors joined up with another 40 sailors.
According to Olt z.S. Clemens ZUBORG, an Olt of the reserve and then adjutant in the staff of the alarm-battalion, mentioned the landing of 2 Ju 352‘s and the arrival of about 80, maybe 100 sailors, in the Reichskanzlei, which they had to defend.Kptl Franz KUHLMANN wrote in his memoirs about his meeting with Adolf HITLER: "At this date, I didn‘t know in which bad health HITLER was. I never thought that the signs of breaking up and the feelings of doom would led to such a chaos to the hierarchy of orders".
All officers of the unit survived the Battle of Berlin, except one, Lt z.S. BÖING who was killed in the garden of the Reichskanzlei by a mortar grenade.
There are many hints, of the landing of sailors (and other soldiers) on the so called "Ost-West-Achse". However no exact confirming source is available.
1. FuMLAbt in Berlin
On 25 April 1945 there was a issuing of an order, in which the CO of the 1.FuMLAbt, FKpt BORMANN (a brother of the Reichsleiter) tried to enlist volunteers for Berlin. He stressed that they had the duty of the close, personal protection of the Führer.
During 26 April 1945 the first soldiers of the FuMLAbt were transported by MFP [German LTC‘s] from Puttgarden/Isle of Fehmarn to near the airport Rerik. On arriving at Rerik, they found that there were no aircraft available. They were ordered to sleep in a nearby hangar/shed. However at 22:00 hrs new orders were given. New groups of sailors were created at random. One witness said, one reduced coy marched to the airport. At the airport no "normal" transport planes were waiting for them, however there were aircraft of the F.d.F. [Personal Squadron of the Führer].
At least 3 planes were waiting:
- a Fw-200 'Condor' [CE + IC], the pilot was Hptm Joachim HÜBNER, - a Ju-290 [9V + BK], the pilot was Lt WAGNER, - a Ju-352 [KT + VJ], piloted by Olt SCHULTZE
Some sources say there could have been one other planes involved in this operation:
- a second Fw-200 "CONDOR", the pilot was Hptm Kurt HERZOG or Fw BAUER
HÜBNER‘s Fw-200 was the first to be loaded and to be clear to take-off. In his aircraft were 17 sailors. The 14 leather-chairs inside the aircraft were covered for protection by strips of canvas. The last 3 sailors sat on boxes of Panzerfäuste. The highest rank among the sailors was a NCO, OFm [OBtsM] Julius LANGHALS.
The "Condor" was in a height of 120 meters, as it was hit by anti-aircraft fire. One of the right engines was burning, the pilot tried to make an emergency landing, but crashed into a house in Wilhelmshorst. 12 of the 17 survived, two because Russians transported them into a hospital, another two were hidden in Wilhelmshorst by civilians, and eight hid themselves in a nearby wood.
Coming near to Berlin, the surviving soldiers saw red flares, so another plane was hit by heavy anti-air fire and had to fly away for an emergency landing. A sailor of this unknown plane, said after the war, that they landed in Rerik again after 1 hour, because two engines stopped working, after these were hit by anti-aircraft fire.
But Lt WAGNER wrote in his after-flight report, he had to abort his flight with his Ju-290 after 15 minutes due a malfunction of engine No. 3. He landed back again in Rerik at 23:30 hrs, with 50 sailors on board. Also two sailors on board of WAGNER‘s Ju-290 mentioned, they were never hit by anti-aircraft fire, and returned with three engines to Rerik after a short time.
So another plane with four engines [maybe the Fw-200 of Hptm HERZOG/Fw BAUER] was involved in this operation.
Olt SCHULTZE started with his Ju-352 at 23:40 hrs from Rerik. The airport Berlin-Gatow was under heavy Russian artillery fire, as he tried to land. At 01:00 hrs, after two attempts to land in vain, he succeeded in his third try. On board were some 40 sailors. They were used to defend the airport just a few minutes after landing. One officer, Lt z.S. Horst THIELE, was last seen in a machine-gun position.
SCHULTZE had to wait for about 36 minutes in Gatow, as he got the order to transport 25 wounded soldiers out of Berlin. His plane was the last to leave Gatow, as all other planes [maybe II./TG 4] didn‘t wait for wounded soldiers.
2. The MarSchB 903
As earlier mentioned, 3. SStA of the 1. SStR had already been mobilized by late April, and was known as MarSchB 903. CO was FKpt Richard STEFFEN. It was organized into 4 – 5 coys with 500 petty officers, and almost unarmed (except carbines for ranks and NCO‘s and some sub machine-guns for the officers).
On 24 April 1945 in Nauen, just a few kilometers from the Russian forces, FKpt STEFFEN was ordered by an unknown Kpt z.S. [maybe Kpt z.S. ASSMANN?] to wait for coming trucks, to be transported to Berlin. The trucks didn‘t come, so the battalion marched to Wustershausen, as Döberitz had just been occupied by the Red Army. On the next day in Wustershausen, they were stopped by a General and military police. STEFFEN was – this times in very harsh words – ordered back again to Berlin. He refused to lead his almost unarmed battalion to Berlin, as well armed Russian forces were on the route back to Berlin.
So, in Wustershausen 50 or 60 petty officers of the MarSchB 903, which volunteered to fight in Berlin – mostly coming from Berlin themselves – got properly armed with the help of the military police. With them, a platoon of recruits of the 3.MarInfDiv, were transported in the direction of Berlin. CO of this reduced coy with two platoons was an unknown Olt z.S..
On the way to Berlin they came under heavy Russian artillery fire. They dug in, and held their position for 3 days until the 28 April. Then they got the order to retreat to Strodehne. The CO of the recruit platoon, OFhr z.S. Walter NORTHOFF wrote in his memoirs: "The village was full of a small rest of an Wehrmacht‘s unit. This unit had only sub-altern officers [Lt‘s and Olt‘s] and NCO‘s, CO was Obstlt v.d. BOTTLEMBERG. He was a very impressive man, commanding a Regimental group within the Divisional group "von HAKE". He issued our coy the order to hold a bridgehead on the eastside of the Havel, as a corps and several thousands of refugees were retreating in our rear. He promised we would be rescued by pioneer‘s boats. In the next morning (30th April), we were transported back. After that, our coy became part of the vortex of general dissolving."
On 27 April the other 450 sailors of this battalion got more weapons and closed the road leading from Waren to Güstrow for one day. After this day this battalion vanished in the general retreat.
3. Other sailors in the battle
There were also small boats of the Kriegsmarine on the River/Lake Havel around Berlin. These were captured boats of the former Polish Vistula Flotilla. At least the former Polish patrol vessel KU-30 is mentioned to have been in action on the River/Lake Havel.
Also possible could be, that the navy-soldiers of the Marine-Verbindungs-Kommando [navy liaison command] beim Führer [VAdm Voß] were part Kriegsmarine battle-group in Berlin.
Various German specialists have written articles on the subject of final flights into and out of Berlin during late April 1945, but none are so far-fetched as to detail any multi-engine flight into Berlin after 26 April when Berlin-Gatow effectively ceased to operate. With the loss of Flughafen Gatow the Heinkel He 111s of II./KG 4 were reduced to dropping supply canisters at low level. The crew of Lt. von der Heide flew four resupply sorties in He 111 H-20 coded 5J+IM from Tutow during the night of 26-27 April and again during the night of 28-29 April 1945. Two final sorties were flown from Rerik on the Baltic coast during the night of 29-30 April and 30 April - 1 May 1945, Cargoes on all sorties were five VAB or Versorgungsabwurfbehälter [resupply canister]. Similar sorties are detailed in the Flugbuch of Lt. Hermann Stärke flying He 111 H-20 5J+KP. The sortie flown by this pilot at 01:44 on the morning of 1 May 1945 from Lübeck-Blankensee may have been the last flight ever undertaken by the Luftwaffe over Berlin according to Georg Schlaug in "Jet & Prop" 2/96. Elsewhere KG 4 was flying resupply operations for the 9th Army encircled some 20 km south of Berlin - the last of these was flown on the night of 27/28 April - He 111s of III./KG 4 dropped canisters at low level in the teeth of heavy ground fire.
While the Luftwaffe did attempt to use the East-West Axis as a landing site for container [Behälter] drops any attempts to land large transport aircraft on the Ost-West-Achse after 26 April - if they were made - are almost certain to have failed. Indeed there are pictures depicting a wrecked Ju-52 that apparently crashed on take off from the East West Axis on 26 April 1945.
In his Flugbericht Lt. Hermann Stärke related that his sortie over Berlin was fraught with difficulty due to the concentrated flak, the updraughts from the huge fires, the smoke, a lack of oxygen at low level which caused engines to misfire and fail, and the almost impossible task of navigating over the city. Georg Schlaug in his "Jet & Prop" article on Berlin tranport flights April/May 1945 [“Das Abgeworfene muß blitzartig an die Brennpunkte heran!” "Jet & Prop", 2/1996 1.Teil] reports that following urgent radio messages from the Bunker transmitted during the afternoon of 27 April 1945 - " Luftlandemöglichkeit auf der Ost-West Achse muss mit allen Mitteln versucht werden " - a landing attempt with all available means must be attempted on the East-West Axis - attempts to land gliders on the East-West Axis also met such heavy fire that every such landing attempt was defeated. In part two of his article Schlaug records that a Feldwebel Heinz Schäfer witnessed two DFS 230 gliders departing Tarnewitz on the afternoon of 29 April 1945. These gliders had arrived the previous evening departing Rostock Marinenehe to Tarnewitz towed by a Heinkel He 111 of 3./TGr. 30. Interestingly Schäfer was shown the glider pilots Einsatzbefehl [mission orders]: "Gruppe bereithalten, Führer aus Berlin befreien".
Interestingly, because by this time Hitler had already left Berlin according to Dunstan and Williams. Which begs one question of course; what was the point of these last desperate attempts to reach central Berlin, if not to prolong for a short while longer the lives of those in the Bunker including that of the Machthaber - AH. According to Schlaug the likelihood that such flights took place is slim even so. As it was over the final days of April virtually the only supplies getting into Berlin were being dropped by faster single engine fighters; the Fw 190s of SG 1 had for example flown many re-supply missions to the besieged fortresses of Küstrin on the Oder and Breslau during March 1945, escorted by the Bf 109s of I./JG 52 and were likely to have flown similar sorties over Berlin. One Bunker witness Rittmeister Gerhard Boldt records that an unknown Gruppe of Bf 109s dropped containers [Versorgungsbomben - supply bombs] over the centre of Berlin on the morning of 26 April 1945 but that few of them could be recovered. These may have been in fact the Fw 190s of SG 1 under Maj. Arthur Pipan, which were in Gatow up to 26 April 1945 before moving to Mecklenburg to fly Schlacht missions. One of the last attempts to drop supplies into Berlin was flown by III./ KG 200 during the night of 30 April /01 May 1945 from Lübeck-Blankensee when some 30 Fw 190s were airborne according to pilot Werner Mende. Each 190 was carrying a Versorgungsabwurfbehälter [resupply canister] equipped with a Lastfallschirm [cargo parachute]. It was on this flight that Gruppenkommandeur Maj. Helmut Viedebantt crashed and died when his chute deployed prematurely and wrapped itself around the aircraft's tailplane.
1 May 1945 Berlin-Wannsee Sortie
Oberst Joachim Helbig at the time was acting Kdr. of I./LG 1. He was co-located at the time with Stab/14. Fliegerdivision in billets at Schwerin-Zippendorf and it was the Fl.Div. Kdr., Gen.Maj. Fürst von Reuß, who gave him the order. 10 Fiesler Störche were made ready at Schwerin-Görries airfield and a mission scheduled for dusk on 30 April. Helbig changed the time to after 0100 hours on 1 May because of the masses of Soviet aircraft that were operating over Berlin during daylight hours. The mission was "......to land in Berlin-Wannsee on the Potsdamer Chaussee in the direction of Potsdam-Glienicker Bridge to pick up important documents, orders, papers and probably two VIP 'couriers' and fly them out". The Störche had been fitted with auxiliary fuel tanks and flame dampeners on both sides of the engines. At the final briefing at 1900 hrs., General der Flieger Fiebig showed up to announce the death of the Führer the day before and to inform each of the 10 pilots that they were free to decide once over the landing area whether to complete the mission or not, provided at least two of the Fi 156s did land and pick up the two VIP 'couriers'. Fiebig gave the go-ahead for a take-off time of 2200 hrs.
On arriving over the landing area, the Störche were met with intense light AA fire coming from Russian batteries around the S-Bahnhof Wannsee, smouldering fires and a thick, foggy haze over the Potsdamer Chaussee that only worsened as Helbig and the other pilots circled over Wannsee at 250 – 700 meters for almost two hours. Landing was impossible. One by one, the Störche broke off due to fuel considerations and headed back toward Schwerin. None had landed.
One can speculate who ordered the mission and who the two VIP 'couriers' were. Hitler had ordered Bormann to escape with his Last Will and Testament.
Dönitz did not confirm receipt of Hitler's Last Will and Testament -as he did not get it- and it is known Hitler was waiting on it arriving at its destination before killing himself. Dönitz also did not reply to the first telegram from Berlin informing him he had succeeded Hitler as Führer. Therefore the flight may have been to deliver a second copy of the Last Will and Testament and its couriers.
There is a lot of evidence that Hugh Trevor-Roper's and the Soviets' account of events on the 29 and 30 April are wrong; and there is anecdotal evidence that Hitler was alive as late as the evening of the 1 May.
Source: Taghon, Peter. "Die Geschichte des Lehrgeschwaders 1: Dokumentation über Aufstellung, Ausrüstung, Einsatz und Ende eines Kampfgeschwaders der Luftwaffe, Zusammengestellt aus Kriegstagebüchern, Dokumenten und Berichten". Band 1: 1936 – 1942 [Zweibrücken, 2004]. Band 2: 1942 – 1945 [Zweibrücken, 2004].