Slowly but surely the forces of the Red Army moved through Berlin in the spring of 1945. The German Army did not have the means to halt Marshall Zhukov’s troops and the Red Army’s ability to call on mechanized armour seemed unlimited. Civilian and military casualties in Berlin were appalling. Regardless of this, Adolf Hitler clung to his belief that the German Army would defeat Zhukov’s eight armies in Berlin. Aides watched as he spoke about grandiose German armoured formations that would defeat Zhukov in Berlin. In reality, the Red Army was up against exhausted troops effectively at the end of their fighting ability, Hitler Youth troops armed with the anti-tank weapon, the Panzerfaust, and the male elderly who had been forced into a civilian’s militia which was expected to make a last stand.

The entire youth of Germany, boys of 14 to 17 years, were expected to turn the war around during the last days of Hitler's Third Reich. But reality soon overcame the illusion. The Hitler Youth and the Volksturm, consisting of old men, were Germany's last hope of survival. These troops were all that stood between Germany and Armageddon. Over a thousand of these boy soldiers were sent to defend the city of Breslau. There, they awaited the Russian onslaught. When it came, every house became a strongpoint. Many of there young boys killed themselves out of sheer terror of falling into the hands of the Soviets but their comrades fought on desperately for days more until the the city surrendered on 6 May 1945. These boy soldiers only helped prolong a war which had long been lost. In Hitler's last public appearance he decorated the Hitler Youth member Alfred Zeck from Goldenau with the Iron Cross. Zeck was only twelve years old becoming the youngest recipient of the prestigious medal.

Any signs of surrender were dealt with harshly by the SS. In the Kurfürstendamm Boulevard, SS squads shot any householder who put a white flag outside of their house.

Adolf Hitler was based in his Bunker underneath the Reich Chancellery building. Bomb proof and with its own air recycling plant, the complex had been built without a proper communication system. The only way staff officers could know about the extent of the Red Army’s movement into Berlin was to phone civilians at random [if their phones worked] to ascertain if the Red Army was in their vicinity.

On the night of 29 April 1945, Hitler received news from Field Marshall Keitel that Berlin would receive no more troops and that the city would be lost to the Russians. General Weidling, given the task of defending Berlin, believed that his men would stop fighting that night due to their ammunition running out.

Though there seems little doubt that Adolf Hitler had already decided that suicide was his only option, and also that of Eva Braun’s, it is probable that these two pieces of information moved that nearer. Hitler had also received confirmation that Mussolini had been caught in Italy, shot and his body, along with that of his mistress, Clara Pettachi, had been hung upside down in a square in Milan. Above all else, Adolf Hitler had decided that such humiliation would not happen to him as he ordered that his body should be burned.

On 30 April, Hitler gave very clear instructions to his personal adjunct, Otto Günsche, that both his and his wife’s body should be burned. After lunch, both Hitler and Eva Hitler [as she wanted to be called] met his inner circle in the ante-room chamber of the Bunker. Here Hitler said his farewells.

None of the Bunker’s survivors heard the shot that killed Hitler. At 15.15 on 30 April 1945, Bormann, Göbbels, Heinz Linge, Hitler’s valet, Otto Günsche and Artur Axmann, Head of the Hitler Youth, entered Hitler’s sitting room. Günsche and Linge wrapped the body of Hitler in a blanket and carried it to the Reich Chancellery garden. Eva Braun’s body was also carried up and laid next to Hitler’s. Both bodies were laid near to the Bunker’s exit. The bodies were drenched in petrol and set alight. A small group, including Bormann, Linge, Otto Günsche, Josef Göbels, Erich Kempka, Peter Högl, Ewald Lindloff, and Hans Reisser, raised their arms in salute as they stood just inside the Bunker doorway.

Göbbels later committed suicide. Bormann disappeared and his body was never found, sparking off rumours that he managed somehow to flee to South America.

The last defenders in the area of the Bunker complex were volunteers of the 33rd Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Charlemagne [1st French], who remained until the early morning of 2 May to prevent the Soviets from capturing the Bunker on May Day. With them, in the remnants of the Nordland Division - also Waffen-SS - were young Danes and Norwegians, still with a few heavy tanks.

On 16 April 1945 three Russian Army groups launched  the last offensive of the European war against the Seelow Heights before attacking Berlin, with 193 divisions and 2,500,000 men and women, 6250 tanks, 41,000 artillery guns and mortars, 4,200 rocket launchers, and 7,500 aircraft. Barely 85 German divisions faced them, with 1,000,000 soldiers, 1,500 tanks, and 10,000 guns.

Tired and undersupplied, the Germans fought hard to allow civilians to escape the Russians to the West. Surrender to the English or the Americans was preferable, as the bitter fighting on the Eastern Front meant that neither German or Soviet soldiers were inclined to accept prisoners. Many were simply shot.

On 30 April 1945 momentous events were in the making in the Bunker where the Führer was holed up to conduct the last-ditch defence of Berlin. East of the beleaguered city General Helmuth Weidling’s 56 Panzer Corps had disintegrated without trace and the fiery General had been appointed as the new battle commander of Berlin. To the north of the city SS General Felix Steiner’s 7th Panzer Division and 25th Panzer Grenadier Division were stalled at Eberswalde while the Russians had already swarmed across the River Havel to encircle the besieged city. Hitler ordered Steiner's Army to attack and relieve Berlin. With few working tanks and roughly a division's worth of infantry, Steiner chose the life of his men over the life of the Nazi leadership, and declined to attack.

His failure to attack the Russians advancing on Berlin earned Hitler's contempt.

The Führer was unaware that his trusted Armaments Minister Albert Speer had secretly arranged with Colonel-General Gotthard Heinrici of Army Group Vistula for Berlin to be abandoned to the Russians so as to preserve his architectural landmarks and industrial installations.

During the 1940 Blitzkrieg when the Germans swept through France, Paris had been declared an open city [un-defended] for the same purpose of preservation. Now as the Third Reich was crumbling the wily Albert Speer was looking to his own place in posterity. The Gatow and Tempelhof airfields were now cut off and Russian tanks were amassing south of Potsdamer Platz for the final assault on the Reich Chancellery. General Theodor Busse’s 9th Army was encircled south-west of Berlin and the only encouraging news was that Field-Marshal Schörner’s Army Group operating in Czechoslovakia had inflicted heavy losses on the Russians while trying to fight their way through to relieve the city. General Walther Wenck’s 12th Army now at Potsdam was the Führer’s main hope for relief of the city but Russian spearheads were already reported to be trickling into the Tiergarten.

In collaboration with the treacherous Heinrici, Colonel-General  Hasso von Manteuffel’s 3rd Panzer Army and other elements of the Army Group were heading across Mecklenburg deliberately by-passing Berlin towards the haven of Allied lines so as to avoid Russian captivity. Field-Marshal Wilhelm Keitel [Chief of Defence Staff at the Führer's HQ] lost no time in dismissing both these senior commanders for their disobedience of orders, but such orders were now becoming ineffective.

Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring and Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler were finally expelled from the Party and stripped of all functions for their gross disloyalty, and Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz was designated as successor to the Führer. Field-Marshal Ferdinand Schörner, the only person to shine as a real Warlord on the Russian front, was proclaimed the new C-in-C Army after the Führer‘s death.

As the minutes ticked by, Hitler was constantly enquiring about the progress of General Wenck’s spearheads who were specially earmarked to relieve the city.

Around mid-day the Führer summoned all his female secretarial staff who had volunteered to stay in the Bunker for a farewell lunch and delivered his least oration, unlike all those previous occasions when he had been addressing dozens of his Field-Marshals at war conferences:

"I wish that my Generals could have been as brave as you are, but they betrayed me and they bear responsibility for this destruction of the Fatherland".

Handing out cyanide capsules to each of the staff, he apologized profusely that he was unable to offer them kinder farewell gifts.

Even now at the twelfth hour the Führer was still living in his dream-world that General Wenck’s relief columns would somehow reach the beleaguered city but his spearheads were stalled to the south as the 12th Army was gradually disintegrating.

By now the Russians were fighting in the subway tunnels under Friedrichstrasse and Vossstrasse, they were at Weidendamn bridge and Potsdamer Platz with spearheads already pouring into the famous Tiergarten. Within a matter of hours they would reach the Reich Chancellery.

The loyal General Hans Krebs [Chief of General Staff] informed the Führer that there was now little hope of General Wenck’s relief columns reaching the battered city.

The Russians are now virtually on the doorstep and Berlin has essentially fallen. Outside, Russian artillery splinters the concrete. German sharpshooters, one of the last line of Hitler's crumbling Bunker defence, scan the terr

The business of war limps to an end as those who have served Hitler and the Third Reich come to terms with defeat and Hitler's proposed suicide. Hitler tells them he has considered shooting himself, slitting his wrists and taking poison.

"The war is lost,'' he screams. "I will never leave Berlin ... I would prefer to put a bullet in my head". 

He commands that after his death his body is to be destroyed: nothing is to be left for the Russians. 

There are many others in the Bunker. All are hard men of the Third Reich, architects of the Holocaust and a war machine that killed tens of millions of soldiers and civilians and devastated Europe. They are stunned by the anticipated suicide of one man.

Among them are war criminals and some of them cry for Hitler. There is cognac on the table. Many take a few swigs. Others are so shocked by the imminent loss of their Führer they are too overcome to speak clearly.

They know they are to be part of yet another of the great dramas of the 20th century: the last living moments and death of Adolf Hitler.

Later, about 40 people, including those directly outside the door of Hitler's quarters when he and his wife, Eva Braun, killed themselves, would be questioned about what happened.

The conclusion by a tribunal that exhaustively examined the last days in the Bunker was that Hitler and Braun killed themselves on 30 April 1945: Hitler shot himself in the right temple with his personal pistol, a Walther 7.65. Braun took cyanide. Hitler's other weapon, a Walther 6.35, believed to have been prepared for use by Braun, had not been fired.

The final moments inside the Bunker are disputed by historians and by the witnesses who were there when Hitler died. The truth of Hitler's death has always been laced with political and personal interest; witnesses from the Bunker who gave accounts of the dying days of the Third Reich to Allied interrogators and in biographies could not always agree on what had happened.

German author Ulrich Völklein, author of "Hitler's Death: The Last Days in the Führer Bunker", has perused the Soviet interrogation records of Otto Günsche, Hitler's adjutant, and Heinz Linge, his valet.

Echoing what he had exclusively related to British historian David Irving in 1967 -- who donated copies of the Soviet interrogation records to German archives later -- Günsche said that he, Linge, and Martin Bormann entered the Führer's private rooms in the Berlin Bunker when they smelt gunpowder.

Braun was lying on a sofa. Hitler's body was slumped over the right side of a chair.

Why did everyone in the Bunker hear the shot?

The 'death room' had concrete walls two feet thick, a reinforced concrete ceiling sixteen feet thick, and there were two four inch thick hermetically gas-proofed doors between the bodies and the witnesses. If the shot was fired in Hitler's sitting room it was an absolute impossibility for those in the map room to have heard it. After all, a 7.65 mm Walther makes a sound about equal to bursting a child's party balloon.

Witnesses who were standing by the double doors to Hitler's study, claimed they heard nothing.

Those who did make this claim in 1945 withdrew it, saying  Allied interrogators pressured them into saying it.

Some people who claim to have heard a shot were not even present at the scene.

Those who did make this claim in 1945 withdrew it, saying  Allied interrogators pressured them into saying it.

Some people who claim to have heard a shot were not even present at the scene.

If a shot had been fired in this gas proof room, the smell had no way to escape

The witnesses appear unanimous on the small "German Silver Mark" size bullet hole in "Hitler's right temple" but no one makes mention of an exit wound. According to experts, when a bullet from a 7.65mm Walther PPK is fired into the head, there is an almost 50/50 chance that it will become lodged in the skull. Since no bullet was ever found in the Bunker, either lodged in a wall or the floor, if the members of Hitler's entourage were telling the truth that he had shot himself, the bullet probably became lodged in his skull.

Representatives of the Walther firm which manufactured the pistol concerned are adamant. If the muzzle was placed against the head as it was discharged an exit wound the size of a closed fist should be on the other side of the victim's head. The only way the corpse could be in the condition described by the witnesses was if the shot was fired from a distance of ten or twelve feet.

Irving first described this in his book "Hitler's War" [The Viking Press, 1977]:

"Blood was dripping from his right temple, a pool of blood was already on the carpet," Günsche testified to the Soviets, "It was immediately apparent that he had shot himself from his own pistol, a PPK 7.65mm which eight days previously after an emotional conference [on 22 April 1945] he had taken out of his bedside table and carried with him constantly, loaded".

Linge confirmed that he saw the Walther PPK 7.65 on the floor to the right of Hitler's body, and the 6.35 next to his left foot. Günsche sketched the guns' position also for David Irving in 1967.

After burning the bodies, as he also told the British writer, Günsche picked up the pistols, unloaded them and put both pistols in his pocket and later gave them to a Lieutenant Hamann, the adjutant to Artur Axmann, head of the Hitler youth movement.

Hamann fell into Soviet hands. Stalin is claimed to have kept the 7.65 in his study.

The book "Quest" [Melchior & Brandenberg, 1990] quotes  Axmann as stating that he buried Hitler's death gun under the Sandkrug bridge in Berlin.

Hitler Youth Leader Artur Axmann recalls in "That Can't Be The End" standing in a room in the Bunker with Göbbels and Martin Borman, with Göbbels saying: "Was that a shot?"

"Otto Günsche  came out and said: 'The Führer is dead. It was 15.30. With Göbbels  and Bormann, I followed Günsche  into Hitler's living room ... Later Otto Günsche  told me Hitler had shot himself in the right temple ... Eva Hitler had poisoned herself.

"Otto Günsche  gave me the 7.65mm pistol, with which Hitler had shot himself, and also the 6.35mm pistol which in recent times, he had carried always in his pocket."

Axmann later revealed he hid them on a railway line but could not find the spot when he returned years later. 

Heinz Linge in "Until The End",  recalls smelling gunpowder outside Hitler's room. "I went into the room where a number of people were standing around Martin Bormann. I did not know what they were talking about. In any case, they did not know what had happened. I signalled to Bormann to come with me to Hitler's study. I opened the door and went in,'' writes Linge.

"Bormann followed me. He was chalk-white and stared helplessly and questioningly at me. On the sofa sat Adolf and Eva Hitler. Both were dead. Hitler had shot himself with the 7.65. The 7.65 and his 6.35 pistol, which he had in reserve should the larger weapon fail, lay near his feet on the ground." 

Völklein and others refer to the commander of Reich security and head of Hitler's personal bodyguard, the SS officer Hans Rattenhuber, who told his Russian jailers in May, 1945: "Hitler had poisoned himself with cyanide, and his valet Linge, 10 minutes later, shot him to ensure he was dead."

In "The Last Days with Adolf Hitler", Hitler's driver, Erich Kempka, writes: "Bormann, Linge and me heard the shot and stormed into the room. Dr Stumpfegger came to examine the body. Göbbels and Axmann were called."

However, Lev Besymenski, the Soviet historian, writes Kempka, within a matter of days, changed his version of events: First he said Eva Braun had shot herself, then he spoke of poison: first he spoke of two shots in the room, then of one shot.

Kempka was one of those responsible for burning Hitler's body. He was detailed on the afternoon of 30 April to deliver 200 litres of gasoline to the garden outside the Bunker, but was only able to obtain 180. He left the Bunker on the following day.

Despite claims made to the contrary during his interrogation, Kempka later admitted that when Hitler and Eva Braun locked themselves in a room to commit suicide, he lost his nerve and ran out of the Führerbunker, returning only after Hitler and Braun were dead. By the time he returned to the Bunker, Hitler and Braun's bodies were already being carried upstairs for cremation.

Despite his questionable reliability, many interviewers quote Kempka in their accounts of Hitler's suicide because of his colorful [and raunchy] language. For example, one interviewer, James Preston O'Donnell, recounted the following quips in his book, "The Bunker":


  • He referred to General Hermann Fegelein as having "his brains in his scrotum". [Fegelein was executed by Hitler for trying to desert Berlin with his mistress].
  • He remarked that when Magda Göbbels was around Hitler, you could "hear her ovaries rattling". [Magda Göbbels was said to be quite attached to Hitler psychologically].
  • When Martin Bormann carried Eva Braun's corpse out of the Bunker, Kempka took the body from him and insisted on carrying it up himself, remarking that Bormann was carrying Braun "like a sack of potatoes". [Bormann and Braun had a mutual dislike].

At the Nuremberg trials, Kempka was called to testify because he claimed to have seen Martin Bormann killed by a Soviet anti-tank rocket.

A myth to refute is the myth that Hitler, almost by magic, ceased his functioning. How? By suicide!

That is an example of magical thinking. The Allies wanted him out, so he magically committed suicide. How convenient!

The whole suicide story of Hitler rests solely on the concocted testimony of four fanatical Nazis, Heinz Linge, Hitler's valet, Otto Günsche, Hitler's Adjutant, Hans Baur, his personal pilot and Johann Rattenhuber, the Chief of Bodyguards. They were all vigorously trained to guard Hitler's personal secrets, even under the threat of torture and death.

The fabrications were made up as the "witnesses" went along, even changing their own stories! Incredible!

While he was interned for several years in two Soviet POW camps in Strausberg and Posen, the Wehrmachtsurgeon-general, Major-General Walter Schreiber, had the opportunity to speak with four persons, each of whom had been present in the Bunker until Berlin fell to the Soviets. While he was unable to draw any information on the subject of Hitler's fate out of the "arrogant" Wilhelm Mohnke.

However, in a statement for Soviet authorities dated 18 May 1945, Möhnke wrote:

"I personally did not see the Führer's body and I don't know what was done to it".

Hitler's pilot Hans Baur told him only that he had never seen Hitler dead. Heinz Linge and Otto Günsche were more forthcoming. Linge told him that he "did not see Hitler, but toward the end noticed two bodies wrapped in carpet being carried out of the Bunker". Linge told Schreiber that while at the time he had assumed the bodies to be those of the Hitler couple, only later had he been told that this was the case. This admission is astounding, because Linge is the one person mentioned by all eyewitnesses as having carried Hitler's body up the stairs and into the Chancellery garden.

Heinz Linge firsthand account of what he saw in Hitler's office: 

"When I opened the door of his room, I found a scene I will never forget.. To the left of the couch was Hitler, sitting dead beside her, also dead, Eva Braun. In the right temple of Hitler I could observe a wound the size of a small coin and on his cheek ran two trickles of blood. On the carpet near the sofa,  had formed a pool of blood the size of a plate. The walls and the sofa were also splattered with blood spurts. Hitler's right hand was resting on the knee with the palm facing up. The left hand hung limp. Next to the right foot of Hitler, there was a kind Walther PPK pistol caliber 7.65 mm. At the side of the left foot, one of the same model, but a 6.35mm caliber. Hitler wore his gray military uniform  and wore the gold badge of the Party, the Iron Cross First Class and the Medal of the wounded in the First World War; in addition, he was wearing a white shirt with black tie, black pants, black socks and leather shoes". 

Erich Kuby, published a book in 1965, "The Russians in Berlin", in which he interviews Linge who stated that: "Hitler was always carrying a pistol...He had a special holster sewed into his trouser for the small Walther...."

Günsche, with whom Schreiber spoke only a short time after the regime fell, proved even more informative. Like Linge, Günsche admitted that he had never seen Hitler's dead body. He added the enigmatic comment: "Those things were all done without us." 

-- 'Persons Who Should Know Are Not Certain Hitler Died in Berlin Bunker', "Long Beach Press-Telegram", California, 10 January 1949

Such evidence is corroborated by General Helmuth Weidling, who told the Soviets on 4 January 1946: "After I was taken prisoner, I spoke to SS Gruppenführer Rattenhuber and SS Sturmbannführer Günsche, and both said they knew nothing about the details of Hitler's death."

On the basis of Schreiber's and Weidling's revelations, it can be regarded as certain that neither Günsche nor Linge, the two mainstays of the Hitler suicide legend, nor Mohnke nor Rattenhuber, had anything to do with Hitler's death or knew anything about it. It would seem appropriate to conclude that no one who knew anything for certain about what happened to Hitler has ever spoken about it publicly. Hitler's inner circle in Berlin knew nothing about what had happened to him, and the stories they told publicly after 1945 [in the case of Kempka] and since 1955 [in the cases of Linge and Günsche] have been lies. They were either writing themselves into history or, as seems more likely, under pressure from their captors to make statements to help buttress the Hitler suicide narrative. Indeed, it may well have been a condition of Linge's and Günsche's release from Soviet captivity in 1955 that they agreed to furnish such statements.

When considering the fate of Adolf Hitler, one has to realize that the overwhelming majority of people believe that he committed suicide during the last days of the Second World War. This view is supported by dozens of books written by among others, world-renowned historians. Their views and conclusions are seemingly well supported by circumstances and eye witness accounts.

Indeed, an entire library of books may be filled with eye-witness accounts and so-called proofs of Hitler's suicide. Most of the new printed works are merely rehashed Berlin Bunker testimonies, smoothed out to make a bit more sense, and hopefully convince us by their sheer size of whatever we seriously hope is true.

Just the consideration that there may be another, darker side to the story makes most people, to say it mildly, emotionally uneasy. Just the thought that such a man responsible for the murder of millions, might have escaped unscathed from the rubble of Berlin in 1945 seems hard to swallow. 

Ironically, it was not the evidence provided by Russia that convinced Establishment historians that Adolf Hitler committed suicide in his Berlin bunker, on 30 April 1945, as Allied forces closed in on Berlin, shortly after exchanging marriage vows with Eva Braun, but the testimony of the obsessively devoted Nazis who were also present in the Chancellery Bunker when Hitler allegedly killed himself. Here is where their futile pretence became a matter of imprudence: For they were primarily the very same historians who insisted that the body shown in the annoying Russian photos was a Doppelgänger killed by those Nazis in the Berlin Bunker who wanted to thwart Allied investigators. We are therefore expected to believe that after committing the outright murder of a double for the purpose of obstructing justice, the Nazi Bunker guests were nonetheless quite frank and honest in their eye-witness accounts of what really became of Adolf Hitler. These guests would not stop even at murder to perpetrate their Führer's cover-up. Yet the world was totally convinced of their honest integrity and humble desire to satisfy our secret wish that Hitler should not have escaped justice.

The Soviet authorities, who were the only people in a position to conduct the investigations did far more to confuse the issue than to clarify it, and what their finding actually amounted to has still not been made public. When the Soviets found the partially burned remains of a man and a woman near Hitler's Bunker, their forensic specialists concluded that these were the corpses of Hitler and Braun and that both had died from cyanide poisoning. But the discovery was kept secret – perhaps because Stalin was not completely convinced.

In 1952, Dwight D. Eisenhower said: "We have been unable to unearth one bit of tangible evidence of Hitler's death. Many people believe that Hitler escaped from Berlin".

When President Truman asked Josef Stalin at the Potsdam conference in 1945 whether or not Hitler was dead, Stalin replied bluntly, "No".

Stalin's top army officer, Georgi Konstantinovitch Zukhov, whose troops were the ones to occupy Berlin, flatly stated after a long thorough investigation in 1945: "We have found no corpse that could be Hitler's".

The chief of the U.S. trial counsel at Nuremberg, Thomas J. Dodd, said: "No one can say he is dead

Major General Floyd Parks, who was commanding general of the U.S. sector in Berlin, stated for publication that he had been present when Marshall Zhukov described his entrance to Berlin, and Zhukov stated he believed Hitler might have escaped.

Lt. Gen. Bedell Smith, Chief of Staff to Gen. Eisenhower in the European invasion and later Director of the CIA, stated publicly on 12 October 1945: "No human being can say conclusively that Hitler is dead."

Col. W.J. Heimlich, former Chief, United States Intelligence, at Berlin, stated for publication that he was in charge of determining what had happened to Hitler and after a thorough investigation his report was: "There was no evidence beyond that of HEARSAY to support the THEORY of Hitler's suicide".

He also stated: "On the basis of present evidence, no insurance company in America would pay a claim on Adolf Hitler".

Former Secretary of State Jimmy Byrnes in his book "Frankly Speaking" [as quoted in the April 1948 "The Cross and The Flag"]: "While in Potsdam at the Conference of the Big Four, Stalin left his chair, came over and clinked his liquor glass with mine in a very friendly manner. I said to him: 'Marshal Stalin, what is your theory about the death of Hitler?' Stalin replied: "He is not dead. He escaped either to Spain or Argentina.' 

A recent TV program, called "What Really Happened to Adolf Hitler," after investigating numerous stories, ends by saying that, in spite of Glasnost and the new freedom of access to Russian files, the files on Hitler are still some of the most highly classified items of the Soviets.

In his 1995 book "The Greatest Illusion: The Death [?] of Adolf Hitler," Australian historian Fred C. McKenzie summarizes how Stalin was adamant in his conviction that Adolf Hitler still lived. In August of 1945, Stalin personally accused the British of concealing the real, living Adolf Hitler in their sector of Berlin.

Russian officials even said that they thought Hitler might have escaped from the Bunker, fuelling the doubts of the Americans, who went on to conduct an 11-year investigation into the possibility that Hitler was hiding out in the foothills of the Andes or in a remote part of Argentina.

Despite the historical consensus that Hitler killed himself at the end of World War II there still linger unanswered questions. The biggest question still is: Did he really commit suicide?

Other important questions begging for answers are:

  • If Hitler shot himself in the right temple [as is claimed], why then do the Russians exhibit, what is supposed to be Hitler's cranium, showing a bullet hole in the back of his head, an exit hole from a shot in in the mouth?
  • Why did the Russians refuse to allow the Western Allies to see Hitler's presumed autopsy report?
  • For what reason did two German submarines land off the coast of southern Argentina more than two months after the end of World War II in Europe?
  • What was the reason for the disagreement between the Russian Military Intelligence [SMERSH] and the Russian Secret state Police [NKVD] regarding Hitler?
  • For what reason did Hitler's plane land in Barcelona, Spain on 27 April 1945, three days before the alleged suicide?
  • Why did Stalin tell the Western Leaders that Hitler escaped from Berlin?
  • Why were there no burned wood planks on the spot where Hitler and Eva Braun were supposedly be cremated?

       The fragment of skull that Russian officials
    claim to be from Hitler


The prospect that the officially sanctioned story of Hitler's suicide, based on the hurriedly written report of a former British MI 5 agent named Hugh Trevor-Roper, may not be true, and this official version of history was never accepted by the Russians. It does not hold up to the facts since it was primarily based on the willfully misleading statements of Nazi witnesses in order to mislead the Allies.

There were ten official reports [conducted by NKVD and SMERSH officials, and also by the only permitted Western official] on his suicide, none of them agreed on the same method of suicide; altering in scene, gun placement and even if a gun was even involved.

Hitler had a double. Eye witness reports state that people in the Bunker noticed a significant and immediate change in Hitler's personality several days before he apparently committed suicide. He appeared shorter [Hitler's double was 2 inches shorter and often had to wear special shoes], was despondent [drugged against his will], allowed smoking [Hitler never allowed smoking near him], and his sleep patterns changed entirely: Hitler would always work late into the night and sleep in during the morning.

The Russians first exhibited the corpse of Hitler's double, believing it to be the real thing.

The Russians later admitted they never actually found the whole corpse of Hitler or Eva Braun.

According to Ian Kershaw ["Hitler: A Biography". New York: W. W. Norton & Company] the corpses of Braun and Hitler were fully burned when the Red Army found them, and only a lower jaw with dental work could be identified as Hitler's remains.

Why d
id the Russians not allow the Western allies to see the "autopsy report" of Hitler's supposed corpse?

Hitler's private plane landed in neutral [or loosely German-allied] Barcelona, Spain, on 27 April 1945, three days before the alleged suicide. Two months later, three German submarines surfaced and landed off the cost of South Argentina - a hot spot for hiding Nazi war criminals [Mengele, Eichmann etc.].7 The timeframe all coincide perfectly with that required to travel from Berlin.

Stalin was adamant, and told President Truman and his military Generals and the NKVD and SMERSH, that he believed Hitler had escaped, until the time of his death.

The propaganda machines of WWII would have been in their full swing at this point in the war. The Soviet Army would have been desperate to say that Hitler was dead, and that he took the coward's way out. What country of those times, after such a devastating war, would want to publicly admit he'd slipped through the cracks? That the most despised person in the twentieth century had escaped?

When the Soviets entered the Bunker, Russian leader, Josef Stalin immediately asked for a report on the whereabouts of Adolf Hitler. The first news he received from his generals was definite: the most wanted man had escaped. Stalin informed the United States in the exact same words. This striking piece of first-hand information is even more shocking when the Soviets state that Hitler had fled to Spain or in a submarine bound for  Argentina. Everything stated here has been documented, it was even published by newspapers of that time, and whoever wants to question Hitler’s escape must first of all know the facts about the official history, hidden by official misinformation.

"Shortly after his arrival, on 17 July, Stalin came to call on the President. We had to remember to call him Generalissimo rather than Marshal Stalin, for he had been accorded the new title in recognition of the Red Army's great successes. It was the first time the President and Stalin had met. After a very pleasant conversation, the President quite informally asked Stalin, Molotov, and Pavlov, the capable Soviet interpreter, to stay and have lunch with him. They accepted.

The conversation was general in nature and cordial in spirit. The President was favorably impressed by Stalin, as I had been at Yalta.

In speaking of our visit to Berlin, I asked the Generalissimo his views of how Hitler had died. To my surprise, he said he believed that Hitler was alive and that it was possible he was then either in Spain or Argentina. Some ten days later I asked him if he had changed his views and he said he had not".

Byrnes, James F. "Speaking Frankly". "Harper & Brothers, New York, 1947

There were witnesses to Hitler’s death and the cremation of his body, and these witnesses were interrogated.

How truthful are these witnesses?

The story of Hitler's death is one of a man who knew the end was near and was determined to not be captured alive. Supposedly while he was in his Bunker, on 30 April 1945, realizing the Russians were almost upon him, he put a automatic pistol to his head and pulled the trigger while reclining on a couch. The body was then taken outside, put in a pit and set on fire to destroy the evidence. But is this what really happened ?

One witness reported seeing a gunshot wound in Hitler's mouth, while others claimed it was near the corner of his eye, [some even hinted that Hitler's butler strangled him and forced a cyanide capsule into his mouth]. Pick a card, any card. One witness described finding the body of Hitler perched limp next to a dead Eva Braun on an elongated, upholstered sofa. But another found Hitler's corpse sitting alone near a corner, on a chair by itself. Mix and match.

Hitler's one-day marriage to Eva Braun was another sentimental enticement, orchestrated to win our naive confidence. For only a worm could marry a lovely woman, just to poison her a few hours later. 

Hitler's precipitate decision to marry Eva Braun is unlikely to have been made for a reason not connected with State protocol. The probability is that they married in haste because it was a condition of some agreement. There are a number of possibilities but the most likely case is that the Church of Rome insisted on the marriage as a precondition for its help in arranging sanctuary and later exile.

The fact that a maid admitted seeing a Hitler look-alike confined to the butler's pantry area was not considered to be of great consequence.

The most prevalent opposing opinion is that the true motive was for Hitler to escape. According to the "Washington Post", the US Office of Censorship intercepted a letter in July 1945 written from someone in Washington. Addressed to a Chicago newspaper, the letter claimed that Hitler was living in a German-owned Hacienda 450 miles from Buenos Aires. The US government gave this report enough credibility to act on it, sending a classified telegram to the American embassy in Argentina requesting help in following up the inquiry.

Was Stalin was correct in his statements to his western Allies in 1945, telling them that Hitler [and Eva Braun] were still alive?

Hitler's death, at the end of World War II, assumed to be by his own hand, remains unproven. This assumption was the result of what many conceive as a conspiracy by the Western Powers, bowing to political pressures and to fight Nazism, to come up with Hitler's suicide story. This then would explain Hitler's disappearance from Nazi Germany after Germany's defeat.

By mid-1945, the public was being asked to choose between a proliferating number of escape stories and the suicide theory. All in all, the evidence supporting Hitler's escape to Argentina is pretty flimsy. And yet, so is the evidence that Hitler died in the Bunker. It rests on testimony provided by fellow Nazis who were fanatical devotees of Hitler. As such, its not hard to imagine they might have lied to help their former Leader.

However, the public was given the impression that only the suicide theory had any evidence to support it and deserved to be taken seriously.

Hitler's chauffeur Erich Kempka evidence not only became the basis for Major Hugh-Trevor-Roper's book, "The Last Days of Hitler", it was also endorsed at Nuremberg as the sole source of reliable information concerning Hitler's demise.

The primary reason Kempka's story won such a positive reception from the Anglo–American authorities was that Kempka was the sole source of evidence that appeared to support the suicide theory.

Kempka also contradicted Soviet claims that Hitler could have escaped. In his 4 July 1945 interview record, he declared:

"[With a] statement reported to have been made by the Russian Marshall Chukov [sic] that Hitler and Eva Braun could have escaped from the Berlin area by air, I can't agree. On 30 April 1945 and two or three days previous, no one could possibly have left the inner parts of Berlin by air. There was a heavy artillery fire on all the inner parts of Berlin during those days. Neither did I hear about a plane arriving or leaving after 25 or 26 April 1945".

Unfortunately for Kempka, one of the best-attested events of the last days of the Third Reich is that of a flight piloted by General Robert Ritter von Greim and Hanna Reitsch that arrived in Berlin on the morning of 26 April. The same pair took off from Berlin in the early hours of 29/30 April. Reitsch herself not only spoke about the two flights on numerous occasions between 1945 and her death in 1979 but also devoted a chapter to them in her autobiography "Flying Is My Life". [See Hanna Reitsch, 'The Last Journey to Berlin', in "Flying Is My Life", Putnam's Sons, New York, 1954. The Greim–Reitsch flights were not even the only flights in and out of central Berlin in this period. In her book, Reitsch refers to at least two others].

Not 36 hours before Hitler committed suicide, his favorite test pilot Hanna Reitsch  was able to land a Storch light recon airplane on the Wilhelmstrasse only a few blocks from the Reichstag. She actually managed to reach the Fuhrer bunker and begged and pleading with him that he must get away. He didn't want to leave and he said his final goodbyes to her.

Here is the fascinating part.

Upon landing the plane, it was so badly damaged from ground fire and a hard landing that it couldn't be used. But, there was a similar light aircraft parked under the Brandenburg gate....not underground  but literally on the street. She gave it full throttle down the street and didn't take any fire from an enemy that was on both sides of the street because they were so stunned that an aircraft would try something so insane. By the time they opened fire she had made it over the tree line and was gone. This was verified by German and Soviet military officials.

Given that the evidence from other sources is abundant enough to establish that they actually took place, there is something extremely suspicious about Kempka's assertion that no such flights would have been possible.

There is no reason to jump to the conclusion, however tempting, that Kempka must have lied about being in the Chancellery during the regime's final days. He could have been temporarily absent from the Bunker on a mission. If so, he had returned by the afternoon of 30 April. Several eyewitnesses have provided evidence establishing Kempka's presence at a cremation held in the Chancellery garden at around 3.00 pm that afternoon. SS Hauptsturmführer Karl Schneider acknowledged speaking to Kempka at the Chancellery garage on the evening of 1 May. He told the Soviets on 19 May 1945 that on this occasion Kempka had told him that Hitler was "allegedly dead".

The explanation that best accounts for events, therefore, is that Kempka sought to suppress his knowledge of the two flights. When Kempka first gave his story to the Americans in June 1945, he had no reason to believe that they knew anything at all about them. There is a very good reason why Kempka would not have wanted to mention these flights: the cover story—that Greim flew to Berlin to receive instructions from Hitler, who had just made him the new head of the Luftwaffe—is preposterous. Why would Hitler, who was anxious for everyone else to leave Berlin, want someone to come to him? Why would he have been so keen to talk to the head of an almost nonexistent entity? The official story fails to justify Greim and Reitsch's extremely dangerous flight. It also does not explain why the pair's flight from the Luftwaffe air base at Rechlin near Berlin to Gatow airport on Berlin's periphery was accompanied by an escort of 30–40 fighter jets—in other words, the extant Luftwaffe virtually in its entirety. Clearly, the flight had a more serious purpose than we have been led to believe.

Carter P. Hydrick, "Critical Mass: The Real Story of the Birth of the Atomic Bomb and the Nuclear Age", 1998, believes that Greim and Reitsch ferried Martin Bormann out of Berlin. 

However, in a striking passage in his memoirs, former Volkssturm member Dieter H. B. Protsch relates an incident that took place in Berlin on 29 April 1945. That day, which happened to be his thirteenth birthday, in the course of searching for food for his family he stumbled upon a basement occupied by several Waffen-SS men operating radio equipment who gave him bread and chocolate:

"After some small talk about the family, they suddenly stopped talking when the radio operator raised his hand to demand quiet. The 'Funker' [Radio Operator], wearing a head set, started smiling and stated that "der Führer" got his belated birthday present. He explained further that he [Hitler] made it safely out of Berlin, flown out by his personal pilot Hanna Reitsch, Germany's best female test pilot. The report stated that she was flying a small one engine, two or three seater plane, a so-called 'Fiseler [sic] Storch'.

--  Dieter H. B. Protsch, "Be All You Can Be: From a Hitler Youth in WWII to a US Army Green Beret", Trafford Publishing, 2004 

Thus the truth seems to be that, exactly as the Soviets subsequently alleged, Hitler did indeed make it out of Berlin — more or less around the time that the official story tells us that he was still in the Bunker dictating his Political Testament—and that Erich Kempka knew precisely when and how this had taken place, but withheld the information from the Americans.

According to Reitsch, the flight reached Rechlin at about 3.00 am. Here, she states, Greim attended a conference. Then she and Greim flew—apparently using a different aircraft—to Plön, a distance of some 400 miles. Their next destinations were Dobbin, where Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel was [Keitel confirms in his memoirs, that he was at Dobbin this day, thus confirming Reitsch's reliability. He adds the striking information, which Reitsch does not mention, that Himmler was at Dobbin, too. ["In The Service Of The Reich: The Memoirs of Field Marshal Keitel", ed. Walter Goerlitz, Focal Point Publications, London, 2003] Lübeck, Plön again ["to see Dönitz"], and finally Königgrätz (in Bohemia, now Hradec Králové in the Czech Republic].

--  Hanna Reitsch, "Flying Is My Life" 

If we assume,  that Hitler was present during at least the first of these several stages, we can say that at Rechlin the trail goes cold. If Hitler left Berlin with Greim and Reitsch, then that would account for the series of bizarre events—the marriage to Eva Braun, the writing of the Political Testament, the recurring rages—that have been enshrined in official history as "the Last Days of the Third Reich".

Obviously, Hitler's last days in the Bunker needed to be accounted for, and so a lurid series of episodes had to be invented to fill in the yawning gap.

Hitler, Stalin, and "Operation Myth"
Source: CIA Article

An exhibit titled "The Agony of the Third Reich: Retribution," which opened last April at the Russian State Archives in Moscow, celebrates the 55th anniversary of the Red Army's capture of Berlin and victory over Nazi Germany. On display are such trophies as Adolf Hitler's and Josef Göbbels' personal papers, Martin Bormann's diary, the surrender agreement ending the Soviet-German war, several of the Führer's uniforms, and a blood-stained section of the sofa where Hitler shot himself after swallowing a cyanide ampoule. The artifacts are from the State Archives as well as the holdings of the Foreign Ministry and the Russian Federal Security Service [FSB].

Hitler's Skull?

The centerpiece of the exhibit is a fragment of a human skull measuring about 3 x 4 inches, approximately the size of a hand. The fragment has jagged edges and a bullet hole on one side. It is one of four such fragments that a Red Army soldier found in a bomb crater turned into a makeshift grave in the garden of Hitler's Reichskanzelei (Imperial Chancellery) in Berlin. Russia's chief archivist says he is "99.9 percent" certain the fragment was once part of Adolf Hitler's cranium.

The Russian curators apparently do not lack a sense of irony. One of the displays is an interrogation report from an SS officer who served as Hitler's adjutant. In it, the SS man claims that Hitler ordered him to burn his mortal remains because he did not want to end up on display in the Soviet Union. So in a way the Russians had the last laugh, thwarting what may have been the Führer's final order.

Lord Dacre, better known as former Oxford professor Hugh Trevor-Roper and the author of "Hitler's Last Days", called the exhibit "sordid." Macabre might be a better word. Ostensibly, it celebrates Russia's VE Day, which falls on 9 May, the official opening date. But the actual opening date, 30 April, was--not by coincidence--the anniversary of Hitler's suicide in the Führerbunker located beneath the garden of the bombed-out Reichskanzelei, once the seat of the Nazi government. By exhibiting the skull fragments and other Hitler memorabilia, the Russians are in effect finally exorcising the Führer's ghost and closing the books on one of the most bizarre Soviet intelligence operations of the Cold War--Operatsiya Mif [Operation Myth].

The Hitler Myth

The Soviet government kept the Hitler file completely secret until 1968, when it revealed some of the truth--along with some deliberate distortions--in the West but not in the USSR. That was the year in which a journalist named Lev Bezymensky published the results of the official Soviet investigation into Hitler's death and two autopsies performed on the Nazi leader's remains. The book appeared in English in the United States and Britain, but not in Russian and not in the USSR. In 1993, the Yeltsin government granted access to the KGB's Mif files and released photographs of the skull fragments to a Russian and a British journalist. But their book also was published only in English and only in the United States and Britain. Now, thanks to the Moscow exhibit, foreigners will be able to examine artifacts that they may have heard about but were never allowed to see, while Russians will see for the first time objects and documents that they never knew existed.

By late March 1945, the Red Army had encircled Berlin and begun its final assault with a massive artillery shelling. The Germans' strong resistance, however, forced the Soviets to fight block by block and house by house before they raised the hammer-and-sickle ensign over the Reichstag. Stalin dispatched special "Trophy Brigades," organized by Smersh [military counterintelligence], to search for art and other valuables, official records and archives, and anything else of exceptional material and intelligence value. But the most prized trophy was Hitler himself, and selected Smershisti received extensive briefings on how to locate and identify the Führer. On 4 May, a unit attached to the 79th Rifle Corps of the Third Shock Army and under the command of Lt. Col. Ivan Klimenko discovered the badly charred remains of 11 humans and two animals [Hitler's dogs] in shallow graves--actually bomb craters--a few meters away from the entrance to the bunker, where Hitler and his entourage had taken refuge since March.

The badly burned bodies were taken to a clinic commandeered as a makeshift morgue in the north Berlin suburb of Buch, where a four-man military medical team headed by a physician with the improbable name of Dr. Faust Shkravaski concluded that Hitler's remains were among those found near the bunker. Shkravaski did not have much to work with, but there was enough left of Hitler's teeth, lower jaw, and dental work to make a positive identification. Odontological evidence collected from the office of Hitler's dentist, the dentist's assistant, and a dental technician who had made bridgework for the Führer formed the basis of the evidence. By 9 May, when the autopsies were completed, the Soviets knew that Hitler was dead.

Stalin and Operation Myth

But the one man whose opinion mattered the most--Josef Stalin--refused to accept the findings recorded in Shkravaski's forensic report. He dispatched his secret police chief, Lavrenty Beria, to Berlin to review the autopsy results and associated evidence and bring everything back to Moscow. [For reasons that remain unclear, however, Smersh had already removed and reburied the human and canine corpses that Shkravaski's team had examined, and refused to dig them up and turn them over to the secret police]. Stalin rejected the autopsy's conclusions out of hand.

Then, on 26 May, during a Kremlin meeting with President Roosevelt's chief adviser Harry Hopkins, and diplomats Averell Harriman and Charles [Chip] Bohlen, Stalin said that he believed Hitler had escaped from Berlin and was hiding in the West.

   Although the artist depicted Hitler's eyes as brown, they were blue

Stalin was not making diplomatic small talk; he was launching a disinformation campaign that he had personally devised and directed.

The next version of this myth appeared in the 7 May 1945 edition of "Time", which featured Hitler's portrait on its cover with a large cross through it.

According to a certain "Pvt. Ivan Nikitin," a German SS officer had revealed under interrogation that he had heard Hitler ranting and raving about a coming conflict between the USSR and its western Allies once the war had concluded. [Hitler, in fact, anticipated the Cold War in a document known as "My Political Testament"].

But, "Nikitin" claimed, Hitler said that as long as he was still alive the wartime alliance would remain intact. The world would have to be convinced that he was dead. Once the former allies found themselves in conflict, he would reappear and lead the German people to their final victory over Bolshevism.

The same "Nikitin" claimed that behind an armoire in the Bunker was a moveable concrete wall with a man-size hole in it. On the other side of the wall was a passageway leading to a tunnel where an army troop train was waiting to take Hitler and his entourage to safety.

During the month of May 1945 after Germany had surrendered, Russian criminologists, guided by Major Ivan Nikitine, chief of Stalin´s security police, reconstructed Hitler's last days in Berlin.

In the 28 May 1945 edition of "Time", which featured Hitler's portrait on its cover with a large cross through it, Nikitine stated:

"A removable concrete plaque was found next to a bookshelf in Hitler´s personal quarters. Behind it there was a man size tunnel which led to a super secret cement refuge 500 metres away. Another tunnel connected it with a tunnel belonging to a line of the underground/tube. Remains of food indicated that there had been between 6 and 12 people there until 9 May 1945".

The "Goulburn Evening Post" [NSW] on 19 June 1951 stated:

"Three weeks after the collapse of Nazi Germany, Major Ivan Nikitine, deputy chief of the Soviet Security Police, reported in Berlin that the Führer had neither shot himself nor been cremated, as generally believed, if indeed, he had perished at all".

Nikitine had interrogated many of the captured Bunker survivors. Under cross-examination, Germans who had told of Hitler's death “twisted their stories, clashed in detail", and finally admitted that no one had seen the Führer die.

Next, Stalin dispatched Andrei Vyshinsky, the notorious prosecutor in the Moscow show trials of the late 1930s, to Berlin to brief Marshal Georgy Zhukov on the new line on Hitler. [Zhukov said on record that he believed Hitler was dead]. The Soviet marshal was at the height of his fame and popularity, and had been called the greatest Russian commander since Suvorov. For Stalin, who feared and usually eliminated potential rivals, it was time to cut him down to size.

At a 9 June press conference--the first since the Western press had been allowed into the Soviet-controlled city--Zhukov, with Vyshinsky at his side, offered a new version of Hitler's fate. The Führer's "present whereabouts are unknown," he said. Zhukov denied reports circulating in Berlin that the Soviets had found a corpse that "could be Hitler's." He added that: "Based on personal and official information, we can only say that Hitler had a chance to get away with his bride [Eva Braun, who married the Führer hours before they committed suicide]. Hitler could have flown out at the very last minute". Zhukov's "personal view" was that Hitler had taken refuge in Spain.

The new Soviet version went out over the press wires the next day, providing grist for hundreds if not thousands of Hitler sightings for many years to come. Vyshinsky then accompanied Zhukov to Frankfurt, where the marshal briefed Gen. Eisenhower on the new Soviet line. Eisenhower later told the press that he had changed his mind about Hitler and believed the Nazi dictator might still be alive.

In July Stalin acted again. At the Big Three summit in Potsdam, Germany, Stalin told US Secretary of State James F. Byrnes that he believed Hitler was living in Spain or Argentina. He repeated this in the presence of Adm. William D. Leahy, President Truman's military adviser. On other occasions, Stalin speculated that Hitler had made his way to Hamburg and left Germany for Japan on board a U-boat; or that he was hiding in Germany in the British occupation zone.

Operation Myth was officially launched in December 1945. Its mission was threefold: To (1) gather and review all records and forensic evidence collected during May-June 1945; (2) check and recheck interrogation reports from Hitler's Bunker entourage; and (3) reconcile or explain inconsistencies and contradictions in the evidence. A commission chaired by the USSR's preeminent criminologist, Dr. Pytor Semenovsky, and controlled from behind the scenes by Beria, began by tearing up Shkravaski's autopsy and rejecting the evidence on which it was based. This gives some idea of what the commission's unstated purpose was: to produce a report that confirmed or at least was compatible with Stalin's belief that Hitler was--or at least might be--still alive. After reexamining all the evidence, the Semenovsky commission concluded it was "not...possible to arrive at a final conclusion" regarding Hitler. That may have been less decisive than Stalin wanted, but apparently it was as far as the scientists believed they could go in stretching the truth to please Stalin.

Above all, the brutal interrogation of witnesses demonstrated how obsessed Stalin was with finding proof that Hitler might be alive. Smersh detained some 800 [!] persons, and 21 of 35 key witnesses were arrested and interrogated in Berlin and Moscow--often repeatedly and brutally. Some of the witnesses were imprisoned for 10 years or more on trumped up war crimes charges. The Soviets went to great lengths to locate Hitler's relatives. They even arrested his half-sister, a simple Austrian peasant woman whom Hitler had last seen in 1907, as well as her husband and a half-brother Hitler had never even laid eyes on. The focus of the endless interrogations, which filled tens of thousands of pages, was to prove that Hitler could have survived and that the people he spent his last days with had engaged in a systematic deception to convince the world otherwise.

  Otto Günsche
Hitler’s SS Adjutant

  Heinz Linge
Hitler's SS Valet

The Smershisti tried to beat confessions out of their prisoners. Heinz Linge, Hitler's valet, was stripped, tied down, and then beaten with whips as his German-speaking interrogators shouted: "Hitler is alive! Hitler is alive!" Two other key witnesses, Hitler's SS adjutant Otto Günsche, and the Führer's personal pilot, Hans Baur, reported similar experiences after returning home in 1956. In Baur's case, interrogators spent hours trying to force him to admit that it had been possible for Hitler to fly out of the Berlin inferno. Witnesses were forced to write and rewrite their accounts of the final days in the Bunker. The Soviets even partially reconstructed the Bunker and, using mannequins, had witnesses reenact Hitler's and Eva Braun's suicides. Tables and charts were used to plot testimonies against one another in an effort to identify inconsistencies as well as corroborating information.

Imprisoning Hitler's entourage was not aimed so much at uncovering the truth as concealing it. Other steps were taken in the same direction. Stalin ordered that the human and animal remains found in Berlin be hidden. [Strangely, he did not demand their return to Moscow, where they presumably would have been of value to Semenovsky's team]. The Smershisti buried the remains first in Rathenow, then in Stendal. In February 1946, in Magdeburg, the remains were finally buried in the courtyard of an apartment house commandeered by the Red Army. There they remained until April 1970, when KGB chief Yuri Andropov, with Politburo approval, ordered Meropriyatiya Arkhiv [Measure or Operation Archive]. Under the guise of searching for long-lost Nazi records, a KGB team excavated what was by then a garage on a Soviet military base and removed the remains of nine persons, including Hitler and Eva Braun. [The base was about to be turned over to the East German government]. The remains, now a "jellied mass" according to a KGB report, were pulverized, soaked in gasoline, and then completely burned up. The ashes were mixed with coal particles and then taken 11 kilometers north of Magdeburg, where they were dumped into the Bideriz, a tributary of the Elbe river.

Why did Stalin go to such lengths to deceive the West while trying to convince himself that Hitler could still be alive? The short answer is: no one knows. Some historians believe that the Soviet dictator wanted to send Western intelligence services on a never-ending wild-goose chase. Whether that was his purpose or not, that in fact is what happened. For 30 years the FBI investigated every report it received regarding Hitler sightings or claims that the Führer was still alive. [A 734-page file of such reports is available on the Internet]. The Bureau conducted its own 11-year probe into the possibility that Hitler had escaped and was still alive. Other historians maintain that Stalin manipulated the Hitler myth to put the onus on the West for "hiding" the German dictator and protecting Nazi war criminals or that he wanted to use rumors that Hitler was in Spain to settle an old score with Franco and avenge the communist defeat in the Spanish Civil War.

Some historians have focused on the Hitler myth to question whether Stalin was rational. A clever, cunning, and malicious Stalin might have misled and lied to his top aides and wartime allies for some inexplicable political or psychological purpose and still have been rational. But the fantastic effort carried out under the rubric of Myth suggests something else--that Stalin was trying to bend the evidence to conform to his own distorted version of reality. Here Stalin was not attempting to mislead someone else but was trying to prove his own delusion--or at least destroy the evidence that contradicted it.

None of this would have occurred if there had been a corpus delecti. Or would it have? Even with a corpse in better condition at hand, would Stalin have buried and reburied the body, as he did the remains, to cover up the evidence of Hitler's death?

What about the skull fragments? The first autopsy noted that a piece of the cranium was missing. In early 1946, a SMERSH unit sent to search the area where Hitler's remains had been found discovered the fragments, and apparently they fit the skull that had been examined in Buch. We do not know when or how the skull fragments reached Moscow. We do know that they were stored in the NKVD/KGB/FBS archives and that their existence was not revealed until 1995--and then only in the West, and not in Russia until this past April! Today, just as in 1945, the skull fragments may hold the final answer. Genetic testing should be able to determine once and for all whether they are the missing pieces of Hitler's cranium. Some of Hitler's closest relatives disappeared into Stalin's Gulag, but others, including several of his closest relatives living in the United States, survived. The Russian government, however, cannot afford expensive test procedures; although it is willing to let someone else pick up the tab. So far, no one has offered to do so. In the final analysis, this lack of interest in Hitler and the end of the Third Reich, while disappointing to historians, may not be a bad thing.

Benjamin Fischer,
CIA History Staff

The Day of Hitler's Death: Even Now, New Glimpses
Stephen Kinzer
New York Times 
4 May 1995

BERLIN, May 3—  Fifty years ago this week, with his "thousand-year Reich" in ruins, Hitler committed suicide, ending a life that may have brought more suffering to more people than any other in history.

Because no clearly identifiable corpse was known to have been found, uncertainty about Hitler's fate persisted for years. But in recent weeks, new information has emerged that not only proves conclusively that the Nazi dictator killed himself in his underground Bunker, but also illuminates details of the hours immediately before and after his death as well as the way the Soviets disposed of his remains a quarter-century later.

On 28 April 1945 Hitler received news that Mussolini had been captured by Partisans, shot and hanged upside-down in a Milan plaza. Determined to cheat his enemies, Hitler resolved to commit suicide, and ordered aides to burn his body beyond recognition afterward.

"My Führer, why don't you go to the troops as a soldier?" his secretary, Traudl Junge, asked him.

"I can't do that," Hitler replied. "None of my people are prepared to shoot me, and I won't fall into the Russians' hands alive."

Hitler awoke early on the morning of 30 April and spoke with his private pilot, Hans Baur, who reported that he had prepared a plane capable of making a long-distance flight. He suggested that Hitler flee to Argentina, Japan, Greenland, Manchuria or Jerusalem, where admirers were supposedly ready to spirit him to a hideout in the Sahara.

Hitler declined the offer, and a few hours later dictated his final testament to Miss Junge.

"During these last three decades, all my thoughts and actions, and my entire life, have been moved solely by the love and fidelity I feel for my people," he said. "This has given me the strength to make the most difficult of decisions, the like of which no mortal has ever made before."

After finishing his dictation, Hitler and his wife of two days, Eva Braun, retired to their sitting room. At 3:30, a shot rang out. Artur Axmann, a Hitler Youth leader, entered the room moments later.

"Adolf Hitler sat on the right side of the sofa," Mr. Axmann recalled in one of several interviews he has given in recent weeks. "His upper body was leaning slightly to the side, with the head slumping down. His forehead and face were very white, and a trickle of blood was flowing down.

"I saw Eva Braun next to Hitler on the sofa. Her eyes were closed. There was no movement. She had poisoned herself, and appeared to be sleeping".

Aides took the two bodies outside, doused them with gasoline and burned them, continuing until they had used about 50 gallons.

In recent interviews, retired Soviet Intelligence officers have confirmed what they refused to confirm for years: that they found and identified Hitler's remains. One officer, Gen. Leonid Siomonchuk, who later rose to the rank of general in the K.G.B., told German interviewers that he was present when Hitler's dentist was ordered to examine the corpse.

"At the beginning he was a bit shocked, unable to speak," General Siomonchuk recalled. "Then he said, 'Hitler is dead.'

A document newly obtained from long-closed archives in Moscow includes an order that Hitler's remains be burned and that the ashes be dumped in the Elbe River.

A part of what may be Hitler's skull, with bullet hole, was removed before the cremation and shipped to Moscow. Before German television cameras, a Russian archivist, Alzha Borkovich, recently unwrapped it and held it in her hand.

"To tell you the truth," she said, "my hand is shaking".


Adolf Hitler "did not shoot himself"
      Russia's top KGB archivist has claimed Adolf Hitler poisoned himself rather than committing suicide with a gun in the manner of a "soldier"

By Andrew Osborn in Moscow
Telegraph, UK
7 May 2010

If accurate, Lt-General Khristoforov's account casts doubt on the widely accepted version of how Hitler died

He said the "myth" that Hitler died an honourable death by simultaneously shooting himself in the head as he took a cyanide capsule appeared wide of the mark.        

"The presence of the remains of crushed glass capsules in the mouth and the sharp odour of bitter almonds from the corpses, and the results of an internal post-mortem led the [Soviet] commission to conclude that it was death by cyanide poisoning," he said.

"Thus the myth put about by those Nazis left in Berlin that 'the Führer died like a soldier having shot himself in his Bunker' was shattered".

Soviet medics found no serious wounds on Hitler's heavily burned body either, he added.

If accurate, Lt-General Khristoforov's account casts doubt on the widely accepted version of how Hitler died. It also raises questions over the authenticity of a skull fragment kept in Russia's state archive that purportedly belonged to Hitler.

The fragment has a bullet hole in it yet American researchers claim that DNA testing of the skull has shown it belonged to a woman aged from 20 to 40 and could not be Hitler's.

The Russians have defended the skull's authenticity but have not offered their own DNA proof and this latest pronouncement appears to reinforce the idea that the skull is not Hitler's.

The lastest research indicates Hitler didn't kill himself at all. Even Stalin and Eisenhower knew this. The historical picture of a "dead" Hitler surrounded by Russian soldiers has been proven to be a Hitler double. The so-call Hitler skull the Russians held was discovered to be that of a woman. A recent study also shows that not only did no one witness his suicide, but no one could hear it inside a fortified Bunker with an air circulator running. It's likely that Hitler was flown out of Berlin to parts unknown.


This article is very curious. The KGB claims don't make sense... If they tested Hitlers badly burned corpse then why do they only have a skull fragment left? And a woman's skull fragment at that.  

The tyranical KGB's police state records, lied for decades about the Katyn Massacre of 22,000 Polish Officers - they blamed it on the Nazis!

Hitler’s Jaws of Death
By Antony Beevor
The Opinion Pages | Op-Ed Contributor
10 October 2009 

The assertion by American researchers that Hitler might have escaped from Berlin because a skull fragment in a Moscow archive was not his but a young woman’s is rich in paradox. Stalin went to great lengths in 1945 to conceal the fact that Hitler’s body had been identified by pathologists working for Smersh, the Soviet military counterintelligence agency. Stalin even misled his own commander in chief, Marshal Georgi Zhukov, demanding to know why he had failed to find Hitler’s corpse. And "Pravda" declared that rumors of the discovery of Hitler’s body were a fascist provocation.

Stalin ruled by creating fear and uncertainty among both subordinates at home and among his Western allies abroad, who were of course seen as potential enemies. Even after Hitler’s jaws, with their distinctive bridgework, had been identified by the assistant to the Führer’s personal dentist, the Soviet authorities nurtured rumors that Hitler was hiding in Bavaria. As Bavaria was part of the American zone of occupation, the implication was that the Americans had concealed him and were somehow in league with the Nazis. Now, 64 years later, an episode of the History Channel series “MysteryQuest” — with the outrageous title of 'Hitler’s Escape' — has distorted the revelation of the skull to scare up a similar fugitive ghost, to the furious exasperation of the Russian authorities.

On 2 May 1945, members of the SMERSH detachment of the Soviet Third Shock Army, having heard of Hitler’s suicide two days earlier, sealed off the Reich Chancellery garden and Hitler’s Bunker there as they searched for the body. All those on the SMERSH team were sworn to secrecy and warned that any mention of their work would be treated as treason. Even Marshal Zhukov was refused entry to the Bunker during the search on the ground that “it wasn’t safe down there".

All members of Hitler’s household who had been identified were held in the Reich Institute for the Blind, on the Oranienstrasse. One after another they were interrogated by a Major known to history only as Bystrov. Stalin was so desperate for news that a general from the N.K.V.D., the K.G.B.’s predecessor, was sent to supervise the interrogations. He was given a secure line with a scrambler so that he could report back to Moscow after each interview.

On 5 May Smersh operatives finally discovered Hitler’s body along with that of Eva Braun in the chancellery garden; the two corpses had been doused in gasoline and set on fire by SS aides, in accordance with Hitler’s orders, and then buried in a shell crater. The Soviets smuggled the remains to an improvised morgue in Buch, a suburb of Berlin. Hitler’s body was too badly burned to be recognizable, so the jaws were removed since they offered the best means of identification. The assistant to Hitler’s dentist was tracked down and brought to examine them.

Yelena Rzhevskaya, the interpreter with the SMERSH group, later recounted how on the evening of 8 May, when Soviet troops prepared to celebrate the German surrender, she was given a box covered in red satin and told to guard it with her life. She described it as “the sort used for cheap jewelry". The box held Hitler’s jaws. Rzhevskaya was given it because, as a woman, she was considered less likely to get drunk that night and lose it.

The skull and the jaws are still separate because Smersh hung on to its precious evidence. The cranium, recovered later, allegedly at the same site, was taken by the N.K.V.D., and that is why it has been in the State Archive of the Russian Federation since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The jaws are almost certainly still held in the Lubyanka, the Moscow headquarters of the Russian secret police, along with other prizes retrieved by Smersh from the garden, like Hitler’s Nazi party badge, which was taken from the body of Magda Göbbels.

Although we have been subjected over the last few months to a barrage of disinformation from the Russians about the start of World War II — including attempts to blame the Poles and the British for its outbreak — I would tend to believe their version in the case of its ending. Even if the cranium is not Hitler’s but some unknown woman’s, the jaws are almost certainly genuine. The Russians could end speculation and ridiculous conspiracy theories by allowing an international team to carry out DNA tests on them.

In any case, Stalin was obsessed with every detail about his archenemy Hitler, whom he both feared and admired in a distorted way. The investigations of his death were meticulous, as the Smersh reports show. Witnesses to the suicide and the burning of the bodies were interviewed again and again by Smersh and the N.K.V.D., and some by the British — in fact, by the historian Hugh Trevor-Roper, who wrote "The Last Days of Hitler".

There were no major discrepancies in any of the accounts, so suggestions that Hitler did not commit suicide and had escaped from Berlin represent nothing but gratuitous sensationalism. It is just another attempt to exploit the nightmare conspiracy theory that the source of unparalleled evil lived on somewhere, in secret?

Antony Beevor is the author of "D-Day: The Battle for Normandy" and "The Fall of Berlin 1945"
A version of this op-ed appears in print on 11 October 11, 2009, on page WK11 of the "New York Times" edition with the headline: 'Hitler’s Jaws of Death'

Beevor's official anti-"conspiracy theory" version is convoluted and hysterical. Indeed, it is itself a "conspiracy theory" to explain away a very simple fact: the supposed skull of Hitler is actually a woman's.

As for the "jaw bone" it is unclear as to if it is an actual bone or not. Bridgework has been shown in photos, but no jaw bone as such. If it is bridgework then that could be anyones whereas a bone can be tested for DNA through Hitler's relatives.

It is entirely possible that Hitler did die in Nazi Germany. However, it is then not unreasonable to ask those who claim that he did perish in Berlin to provide proper forensic evidence to support their argument.

A woman's skull just doesn't cut it.....





Death of Hitler
By: Alexandre Bilodeau 

The Hitler Conspiracy....

During the spring of 1945, the German army was retreating from the European battlefield. The Allies, aided by British general Montgomery and American general George S. Patton, were pushing the German army back from the western occupied zones. The Russian Red Army was pushing the Germans back from the eastern occupied zone. It was now clear that Germany had lost the war and many of its soldiers were surrendering to the Allies.

Although the Allied forces' chief general Dwight D. Eisenhower was American, the Russians were given the affirmation to proceed and secure Berlin. 30 April 1945, Berlin is under heavy fire. Russian troops are blocks away from the Führer's Chancellery Bunker, an underground fortress. As fleeing German officials and Generals made their way through the ruins that was once a proud city, Russian infantrymen penetrated the city. After they secured the Chancellery Bunker, their goal was to bring the ultimate war trophy home to their leaders, Adolf Hitler. But nothing is found. Only remains that brought uncertainty and uneasiness to an otherwise successful Allied victory are suspected to be Hitler. The truth about Hitler's death intrigued the world since no official verdict or explanation can be offered.

What actually became of Hitler's body? Several theories were spread throughout 1945, after Germany's surrender, that he Soviets' found Hitler and Eva Braun's body remains after what would be thought of  as a suicide and burning. Other theories indicated that Hitler escaped Berlin. Hitler's body was not found since it was semi-cremated, falsely identified and it presented no physical evidence that could be analysed.

It was discovered not to long ago that the Soviets conducted, a year after the war, one of the most profound and thorough investigation of Hitler's death. "Operation Myth" was conducted secretly and all the findings were hidden. In the investigation, four key characters such as Hitler's valet, bodyguard, pilot and telephonist were interrogated due to their presence during the last days of Hitler's life. One of them was Otto Günsche. "Anyway, the Russians were never in a position to display the remains of Hitler's corpse, as they certainly would have done if they had taken it away as they claimed" says Otto Günsche, Hitler's personal adjutant who set his body on fire. The information the four men gave led the Russians to discover a skull with a bullet hole in it. The skull fragment was preserved but it was judged to be a long shot and never really took off. Therefore, it is most unlikely that the Russians ever found Hitler's body, as they claimed for several weeks after his death.

The Red Army initially found the body that looked like Hitler but was in fact the corpse of Gustav Weler, Hitler's "Doppelgänger" or body look alike. This corpse had a gun shot wound to the forehead. This discovery was a confusing step in the investigation as it drew a lot of controversy. But instead of celebrating prematurely, the Russians kept this discovery quiet and pursued with more interrogating. After having interrogated and tortured more captured German staff, the Soviet counter intelligence unit found the buried remains of two corpses outside the Chancellery Bunker in the garden. The corpses were taken to a pathology lab for an autopsy. There five Soviet forensic scientists examined both corpses. They found that the male body had died of cyanide poisoning - which contradicts the theory that the captured German officers told them that Hitler shot himself through the right temple. Following these discoveries, Stalin announced that Hitler had not been found and had possibly escaped Berlin. The fact that Hitler's body had not been found created a series of beliefs that the Führer had actually escaped and fled the ruined city.

Stalin had announced to Truman during lunch in Potsdam on 17 July 1945, 78 days after his death, that Hitler had escaped. From this announcement began the phenomenon of Hitler spotting across the world. Most notably in South America. Again nothing emerged from this and no substantial evidence was delivered, thus rendering this phenomenon a wild ghost chase. Many post war magazines featured articles on Hitler still alive and hiding. Magazines such as "The Plain Truth" proposed that Hitler might be in the South Pole. CBC's "As it Happens" broadcasted that Hitler ordered a special plane to convey all X-rays and dental records of top brass Nazis for an unknown destination. South American newspapers that have claimed to have seen him 10 years after the war ended. More and more of these articles appeared in all sorts of publications, radio and TV broadcasts around the world. But none of these allocations were built with solid evidence. They were rather wild testimonies of post war fanatics who say and hear all sorts of things to stir suspicion. No follow-ups of these were ever conducted. The only people interrogated were the men and women who were with Hitler in his last days and they gave their testimonies. Almost all captured German officers that were with Hitler during his last hour told their Russian captors that he shot himself in the right temple with a pistol and was subsequently taken outside to the garden and cremated with gasoline in the open air then buried in a shelling crater.

During a cremation in a crematorium, the heat that is reflected off the walls is so intense, that all organic matter is destroyed. But in an open air fire, much of this heat is lost therefore rendering the destruction less powerful in a crematorium. "People have said that human bodies can't be entirely consumed by fire in the open air - Baur himself, who had seen corpses burning in an aeroplane, thought not - and that a proper cremation installation is needed if there are to be no remains." Baur was Hitler's pilot. When all bodily tissues and fluids are burned away, the only thing that remains is fragile calcified bones. As a result, it is very unlikely that anything resembling a human corpse remained following Hitler's burning. Nothing that the scientific knowledge in that period could identify and prove it to be Hitler's.

Now investigators had to rely on information sources such as Harry Mengerhausen. The only person who claimed to have seen Hitler's corpse is Harry Mengershausen, a captured German who was released some time after the war. He recalled the place where the remains were buried in the garden of the Chancellory Bunker. But the garden was an immense field of craters. Mr. Mengershausen spoke of a specific crater among all of the craters. Indication of a lie is obvious here. Later on, Mr. Mengerhausen said he was brought from his prison to an open pit in the woods to identify three corpses. The corpses had been identified as those of Hitler and Herr and Frau Göbbels. Mr Mengerhausen claims to have clearly recognized Hitler by the shape of the head, the distinctive shape of the nose and the missing feet. It is impossible that Mengershausen was able to detect the distinctive shape of the nose since it has burned like all the soft tissues of the body.

Once again, Mengershausen is telling a story in great detail as usual that simply does not fit the circumstances . Also it is now known fact that the Göbbels was partially burnt outside the Bunker. Their bodies were identifiable and were displayed by the Soviets and photos are available. This recognizing of the bodies was a totally unscientific procedure. Therefore, Mr. Mengerhausen's testimony to the Russians is an obvious misleading statement and unreliable source.

Following the interrogation of the captured officers, a line of doctors and physicians that worked on Hitler was brought in to answer questions. The questions were relating to Hitler's physical traits and distinctive features. However, none of them actually examined any physical evidence. None were given any corpses or bone fragments to examine. For example, a dentist that worked on Hitler's teeth was brought in to draw by memory a diagram of Hitler's teeth. Apparently the drawing matched that of the sample they found. It would have seemed unlikely that a dentist could have remembered the structure of a man's teeth without consulting some form of documentation or evidence. Memory itself is a crude method of fact gathering and completely unscientific. This would lead to the conclusion that the Russians never found his remains. Or it could also have meant that the Russians kept a series of remains and depended on the testimonies of those physicians in order to identify a possible match. But again, no concrete or solid evidence was shown. To this day, no trace or whereabouts of Adolf Hitler is known, or will it ever be. It is a true mystery. Hitler's body is unaccountable due to weakness in scientific, misleading and unreliable sources and the destruction of what little physical evidence that existed. We can therefore draw the conclusion that Hitler's remains were destroyed shortly after his death. All rumors or theories of him being still alive are also eliminated. As for the Russians having his remains, there is much doubt that at anytime during the investigation they had Hitler's remains at all or were even close to them. But are we ever going to find out what happened in that Bunker?


In many ways Adolf Hitler succeeded in his plan to destroy his body so it may not be displayed like a war trophy. And like the man himself, his death is a true mystery of horrendous and gruesome events.


Galante, Pierre, Voices from the Bunker, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New-York, 1989.

Joachimsthaler, Anton, The Last Days of Hitler, Arms and Armour, London ,1996.

Payne, Robert, The Life and Death of Adolf Hitler, Praeger Publisher, Washington, 1973

While most people believe the official version of Hitler's suicide, others are unconvinced. Perhaps the most diligent and respected researcher in this area is Argentina-based journalist and historian Abel Basti. In 2010, Basti published "El exilio de Hitler" / Hitler's Exile, in which he claimed that the official story was a fabrication.

According to Basti Hitler escaped the Allies and fled across the ocean, ultimately taking up residence in Argentina.

"Hitler escaped via air from Austria to Barcelona. The last stage of his escape was in a submarine, from Vigo, heading straight to the coast of Patagonia. Finally, Hitler and Eva Braun, in a car with a chauffeur and bodyguard—a motorcade of at least three cars—drove to Bariloche [Argentina]. He took refuge in a place called San Ramon, about 15 miles east of that town. It is a property of about 250,000 acres with a lake-front view of Lake Nahuel Huapi, which had been German property since the early twentieth century, when it belonged to a German firm by the name of Schamburg-Lippe".

Here is some of the evidence Basti uses to back up his various claims.

Hitler escaped to Spain?

Several eyewitnesses, including a still-living Jesuit priest "whose family members were friends of the Nazi leader," spotted him in Spain after his supposed death. FBI documents indicate they were looking for Hitler in Spain after the end of World War II. And an "authenticated secret German document...lists Hitler as one of the passengers evacuated by plane from Austria to Barcelona on 26 April 1945".

The Secret Submarine?

A British secret services document indicates that a Nazi submarine convoy left Spain around that time. It stopped in the Canary Islands before finally reaching Argentina.

The Canaries are Spanish islands, seized in the years just before Columbus' voyage. Nazi scientists from the Ahnenerbe, a research institute set up by SS Reichführer Heinrich Himmler and funded by the SS, planned to work in the Canary Islands, but were forced to postpone the project when war broke out [September 1939]. The Ahnenerbe funded Spanish excavations, provided photographic equipment, and lent aircraft to conduct aerial surveys of archaeological sites. [Garcia Alonso] Franco at first declared Spain a non-belligerent. German Führer Adolf Hitler conceived of seizing the Azores and Canaries early in the war, but was dissuaded from this adventure by his naval staff who realized that Germany might be able to seize the islands, but did not have the naval strength that would be needed to supply the island and hold them. Spain began constructing large military complex at Las Palmas [1940]. President Roosevelt saw it as a potential "German springboard" for "aggression upon the Western Hemisphere". Unlike the Portuguese controlled Azores, the Canaries did not play a major role in the War. The British were concerned at first because it was not clear if Franco would enter the War on the side of the Axis. In Axis hands, the Islands could have disrupted sea commerce with the Dominions which provided critical supplies to the Britain. Even if the Germans did not seize the Canaries, allowing U-Boats to refuel and resupply there would provide an important support for U-Boat operations. The Canaries had, however, a serious weakness as a U-Boat base. Fuel and equipment would have to be brought in by ship. And such shipping would be vulnerable to Royal Navy interdiction. The British prepared Operation Puma to seize the Canary Islands [June 1941]. This was one of several contingency plans prepared to deal with any German plans to move against Spain and Portugal. Of course the German invasion of the Soviet Union in the same month made this much less likely. Spanish authorities denied the Canary Islands to the Kriegsmarine for refueling and rearming U-Boats [July 1941]. The British were prepared to seize the Canaries if the Spanish attacked Gibraltar. Denying U-Boast access to the Canaries, however, went a long way toward ending British concern with the Canaries. Franco decided to change Spain's status from non-belligerency to neutral. The Allies decided to treat Spain as a neutral nation [1942].   

According to the "La Provincia" daily, the Spanish dictator ordered a large network of military tunnels to be built in Gran Canaria to store torpedoes and other supplies for submarines in anticipation of Spain entering World War II on Germany’s side. 

Life in Argentina?

Hitler's post-war life appears to be a bit of a mystery. Basti has met numerous South American eyewitnesses who say they had known Hitler. They state that the former Nazi leader shaved his head and mustache and had several meetings with other Nazi officials. Also, FBI documents show that there were claims of Hitler living in Argentina after the war.

As for physical evidence, the Soviet Union has long been in possession of skull fragments taken from the Bunker. These have always been considered definitive proof that Hitler committed suicide via gunshot. In 2009, forensic investigators examined these fragments and determined that they came from a woman instead. And just like that, all physical evidence pointing to suicide vaporized into smoke. If there is other physical evidence pointing to suicide [or to his escape], its either lost to time or locked away somewhere [the U.S. government continues to keep many of its Hitler-related files classified, supposedly for National Security purposes - this same obsession with secrecy led to the nearly century long classification of World War I documents showing how to create invisible ink].

So, did Hitler fake his death and escape to Argentina? While it's impossible to say for sure, it certainly seems reasonable. Lesser Nazi officials successfully fled Germany and took up residence in South America. And the testimony supporting the suicide theory seems questionable at best.

Basti is presently searching for Hitler's grave in Argentina, hoping to prove his case once and for all. If Hitler escaped, the world deserves to know the truth about how he got away...and why his escape remained a secret for so long.

Nazi America – Hitler’s American Bunker?
by Daily Mail Reporter
19 March 2012 

It sounds like the bizzare script of a Hollywood B-movie.

In a parallel universe the Nazis have won the war, Adolf Hitler moves to LA where he mingles with the stars of the silver screen while running his evil empire from a luxurious ranch deep in the LA hills

But during the 1930s, American sympathisers were so confident this exact scenario was actually going happen they spent millions building a deluxe compound ready for their Führer's imminent  arrival.

Equipped with a Diesel power plant, 375,000 gallon concrete water tank, giant meat locker, 22 bedrooms and even a bomb shelter, the heavily guarded estate was home to a community of Hollywood fascists who hoped to ride out the war there.

There were further plans to build five libraries, a swimming pool, several dining rooms and a gymnasium with money from Germany.

It was built by the "Silver Shirts", a sinister group of 1930s fascists who took their name from Hitler's Brown Shirts grass roots organization.

Fascism had been on the rise in the wake of the Great Depression and the Silver Shirts were one of the most fanatical organizations.

The 55-acre ranch, was sold to mining fortune heiress Jessie Murphy in 1933 by screen cowboy Will Rogers.

In the next few years, Murphy struck up a relationship with a German man known only as Herr Schmidt. Unbeknown to her Schmidt was Hitler's agent in America.

He persuaded her to invest $4million [$66 million today] to transform the property into a Nazi stronghold fit for Hitler.

Historian Randy Young told the "Sunday Express":

"This was supposed to be the seat of American fascism from where Hitler would one day run the United States.

"The neighbours were a little freaked out by the construction and weird happenings, but until war broke out, they thought they were just eccentric people".

But on the day after Pearl Harbour, as America entered World War Two, police raided the premises and rounded up the the 50 or so American fascists who were living there

Today the eerie landmark lies in ruins, daubed with graffitti, and awaiting the bulldozers so it can be turned into a picnic area for hikers - a soon-to-be forgotten slice of American history.

Close to the homes of actors and directors such as Stephen Spielberg, the site has been a magnet for historians, curiosity-seekers and modern-day Nazis.

At one point after the war it became an artists colony and was home to the novelist Henry Miller.

Hitler’s skull: did the Führer really commit Suicide and die in the Bunker in Berlin?
by Kathryn Hadley
30 September 2009

Hitler's skull is that of a woman. Maybe Hitler and his wife Eva Braun did not commit suicide. Maybe they did not die in the Bunker in Berlin where they retreated to at the end of April 1945 as Soviet troops closed in on the German capital. Maybe they instead hid in Germany, or fled to South America alongside many other Nazi officials. These are just some of the questions that have recently resurfaced following the latest research by experts from the University of Connecticut.

As part of the filming of a new series on "The History Channel", Nicholas Bellantoni, Linda Strausbaugh and Dawn Pettinelli from the University of Connecticut investigated what happened to Hitler’s remains in the aftermath of the Second World War. They concluded that the fragment of a skull with a bullet wound discovered by Russian scientists in 1946 and believed to have belonged to Hitler in reality belonged to an unknown woman. The skull has been on display in Moscow since 2000.

The general consensus is that Hitler shot himself after taking a cyanide pill on 30 April 1945, to avoid capture. Witnesses in the Bunker at the time claimed that his body was thereafter burnt and buried. In May 1945, after the Soviet army took control over Berlin, a Russian forensic team dug up what was presumed to be Hitler’s body and post-mortem examinations and dental records revealed that the body was that of the Führer.

However, part of the skull was missing, allegedly as a result of the gun shot, and Stalin sent out a second team of scientists to investigate further. It was during this second mission that the skull fragment was discovered. Stalin thereafter imposed a secrecy order on all matters relating to Hitler’s death and the body was secretly buried in Magdeburg in East Germany. It was not until 1970 that the body was dug up and cremated. All that remained was the jawbone, the skull fragment and bloodstained remnants from the sofa where Hitler and Eva Braun were believed to have died, which were preserved in the archives of the Soviet intelligence.

Nicholas Bellantoni recently inspected the remains at the Russian State Archive. He collected DNA samples which were thereafter examined by geneticist Linda Strausbaugh. The results revealed that the skull fragment belonged to a woman under the age of 40; Hitler had just turned 56 at the time of his death. Bellantoni explained in an article published on the webiste of the "Daily Express": "The bone seemed very thin and male bone tends to be more robust. And the sutures where the skull plates come together seem to correspond to someone under 40."

Could the skull instead belong to Eva Braun who was 33 when she died? Bellantoni claimed in an article published on MailOnline that it was unlikely: "There is no report of Eva Braun having shot herself or having been shot afterwards. Many people died near the Bunker."

Since the end of the Second World War there have been several claims that Hitler did not die. Stalin was convinced that Hitler did not die and instead escaped to Spain or Argentina. In 1947, Eisenhower was also allegedly handed a secret dossier compiled by CIA agents, which claimed that Hitler was in hiding Heidelberg. Soldiers thereafter raided the area; however, nothing was found.

The recent research has paved the way for similar theories to be suggested once again.

Two weeks after the couple’s death, and when the Battle for Berlin had ended, William Vandivert, a 33-year-old LIFE photographer, was the first Western photographer to gain access to Hitler’s Führerbunker. Vandivert photographed the almost eerie scenes inside the unlit Bunker and the room where Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun killed themselves.

  With only candles to light their way, war correspondents examine a couch stained with blood  
[see dark patch on the arm of the sofa] located inside Hitler’s Bunker.
- Photograph: William Vandivert—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images -

In his typewritten notes to his editors in New York, Vandivert described in detail what he saw. For the above photograph published in LIFE magazine in July 1945, he wrote:

“Pix of [correspondents] looking at sofa where Hitler and Eva shot themselves. Note bloodstains on arm of sofa [sic] where Eva bled. She was seated at the far end, Hitler sat in the middle and fell forward, did not bleed on sofa. This is in Hitler’s sitting room.”

The above narration by Vandivert indicates that Eva Braun was also shot.

"Even if one takes the years later submitted Russian report on Hitler's autopsy at face value, there still remains the fact that there was no trace of the corpse of Eva Braun, Hitler's mistress and later wife. This alone disproves the double-suicide theory now part of German history."

 -- H. D. Baumann and Ron T. Hansig, "Hitler's Escape"

Evidence on Eva Braun doubted
The Canberra Times
12 November 1981

LONDON, Wednesday [AAP] The woman's body found with that of Adolf Hitler in a Berlin Bunker in May, 1945, may not have been Eva Braun, according to new medical evidence.

A group of scientists has traced her dental records and is now challenging a Soviet claim to have recovered her remains, according to findings published in the British Medical Association's "News Review".

Official accounts said Hitler shot himself, and Eva Braun poisoned herself in the Bunker on April 30, 1945.  The bodies were than carried up to the Chancellery garden under shellfire and burnt with petrol.

The Soviets, who carried out an autopsy on what was assumed to be her body — it was burnt beyond recognition — found six teeth and a gold bridge of four artificial teeth.

A team of forensic experts led by Norwegian-born Professor Sognnaes, emeritus professor of oral biology and anatomy at the University of California, has spent the past 10 years unearthing. Eva Braun's dental records. They found that she did not have a gold bridge, but did have two false porcelain teeth, which would almost certainly have survived a fire.

Professor Sognnaes says the plastic parts of the bridge would in any case have exploded in. the fire. He has produced evidence from a Mrs Heusermann, now in her 50s, who said the bridge, had been made for Eva Braun in the dental laboratory where she worked in 1945, but was never fitted. She says the Soviets, found it in the basement dental office in the Reich Chancellery, not in Eva Braun's body.

Professor Sognnaes said, "It is possible that Eva Braun escaped. After all, there were a number of men in the Bunker unaccounted for who could have helped her. No one actually witnessed her death.

There was no suggestion that Hitler might have escaped with her.

In Search of Eva Braun
29 April 2010

On this date in 1945, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler married his long-time mistress Eva Braun in the 'Führerbunker' in Berlin, with the Red Army just a few hundred yards away and shells exploding around them.  The two committed suicide together the next day.  She was 33 years old. He was 56. The German public was totally unaware of Braun until after her death, despite the fact that she and Hitler were together for almost 15 years.

As it turns out there is more of a genuine "mystery" about this than many may have realized, one riddled with more uncertainty and contradictory scientific evidence than is commonly assumed. It has been generally accepted for decades that Eva Braun committed suicide just before Hitler by biting on a cyanide capsule, and that Hitler then followed suit shortly thereafter by shooting himself in the head with a pistol, perhaps while also biting down simultaneously on another cyanide capsule.  But the forensic evidence for this scenario is limited.

The Germans hastily burned and then buried Hitler's and Braun's bodies in a shallow grave just outside the 'Führerbunker' immediately afterward, as instructed. The invading Red Army found the remains shortly thereafter, however, and returned them to Moscow. Nonetheless, Hitler's and Braun's deaths remained shrouded in mystery for decades afterward, even after Stalin's death in 1953. The Soviets never made public any photographs or other proof [other than copies of their own autopsy reports] that they had found these charred remains, instead interring them in a secret East German facility until 1970, at which time they were secretly dug up by the KGB, cremated, and the ashes scattered in a local river. Even this was only confirmed conclusively last year. [Why was this done only in 1970?] Only a jawbone, a skull fragment and a bloodstained sofa survived, and they languished in Soviet archives until after the fall of the Berlin Wall. This was further complicated by the fact that at the end of the War, after first claiming Hitler was dead, Stalin suggested cryptically to the Allies that Hitler may have survived and fled to Argentina.

The jawbone fragment has been confirmed to be Hitler's based on his dental records.  But it has never been put on public display or DNA tested.  It is kept today in the archives of the FSB [a successor to the KGB].  The skull fragment was also assumed to be Hitler's, in particular because it had a bullet hole in it, which was consistent with the story of his death.  But last September this skull fragment was DNA tested as part of a "History Channel" show called 'Mystery Quest' To everyone's surprise, the DNA testing revealed that it was actually from a woman aged between 20 and 40.

The Hitler Book
he Secret Dossier Prepared for Stalin from the Interrogations of Otto Günsche and Heinz Linge, Hitler's Closest Personal Aides

Stalin had never been able to shake off the nightmare of Adolf Hitler. Just as in 1941 he refused to understand that Hitler had broken their non-aggression pact, he was in 1945 unwilling to believe that the dictator had committed suicide in the debris of the Berlin bunker. In his paranoia, Stalin ordered his secret police, the NKVD, precursor to the KGB, to explore in detail every last vestige of the private life of the only man he considered a worthy opponent, and to clarify beyond doubt the circumstances of his death.

For months two captives of the Soviet Army - Otto Günsche, Hitler's adjutant, and Heinz Linge, his personal valet - were interrogated daily, their stories crosschecked, until the NKVD were convinced that they had the fullest possible account of the life of the Führer. In 1949 they presented their work, in a single copy, to Stalin. It is as remarkable for the depth of its insight into Adolf Hitler--from his specific directions to Linge as to how his body was to be burned, to his sense of humor--as for what it does not say, reflecting the prejudices of the intended reader: Josef Stalin. Nowhere, for instance, does the dossier criticize Hitler's treatment of the Jews.

Today, the 413-page original of Stalin's personal biography of Hitler is a Kremlin treasure and it is said to be held in President Putin's safe. The only other copy, made by order of Stalin's successor, Nikita Khrushchev, in 1959, was deposited in Moscow Party archives under the code number 462A.

An Excerpt:

"So that's it then, the end--pour Petrol over the Führer's body and set fire to it," thought Günsche with a shudder. It was not as if Bormann's order came as a surprise to him, however. It had been bound to end like that. Hitler had neither the strength nor the courage to die the soldier's death to which, right up until the end, he had condemned German soldiers and officers, even women and children....

Hitler's eyes, which once had exuded fire, seemed extinguished; his face was the colour of earth. There were black rings beneath his eyes. The shaking in his left hand seemed to have spread to his head and whole body. The words came almost silently from his mouth: "I have ordered that my body be burnt after my death. Make sure that you carry out the order exactly. I do not wish my corpse to be taken to Moscow and put on display like a waxwork."

With some effort Hitler raised his right hand in a gesture of farewell and turned about. Baur and Rattenhuber called out. Rattenhuber made to grab Hitler's hand but the Führer retreated and vanished behind the door of his office. Mechanically but hurriedly Günsche began to make preparations for carrying out Bormann's order to burn the bodies of Hitler and Eva Braun. He called Hitler's chauffeur, Kempka, who was staying in the Bunker in Hermann-Göring Strasse next to the Reich Chancellery garage, and ordered him to bring 10 canisters of petrol round to the "Führerbunker" straight away and leave them by the emergency exit to the garden.

When that was done, Günsche told Kempka of Hitler's intention to take his own life. Then Günsche ordered the men from the security service and the bodyguards who were using the little room next to the emergency exit to leave. He also ordered the guards posted at the armour-plated door by the stair leading to the emergency exit to go back into the bunker. Only one man, SS-Sturmbannführer Hock was left by the emergency exit with strict orders to let no one past. Then Günsche went back into the entrance hall of the bunker and took up his position by the door in the antechamber to wait for the sound of the decisive shot. The clock showed 10 minutes past three.

Shortly afterwards Eva Braun came out of Hitler's office and sadly took Linge's hand: "Farewell Linge," she said. "I hope you get out of Berlin. If you come across my sister Gretl, don't tell her how her husband died".

Then she went to see Frau Göbbels who was in her husband's room. A few minutes later Eva Braun came out of Göbbels's room to the switchboard, where she found Günsche. "Please tell the Führer Frau Göbbels would like him to come and see her one more time". Günsche went to Hitler's office and as there was no sign of Linge, knocked on the door himself and went in. Hitler was standing by the table and started when Günsche appeared unannounced.

"What is it?" he mumbled irritably.

"Mein Führer, your wife asked me to tell you that Frau Göbbels would like to see you one more time. She is with your wife in her room".

Hitler hesitated for a moment and then went over to Göbbels's room. At 4:20 p.m. Linge came to the switchboard where Hitler's servant Krüger was standing with a guard. In the nearby sitting room next to Göbbels's bedroom Hitler was standing with Göbbels who was making one last attempt to get him to leave Berlin.

But Hitler was arguing with him hysterically: "No, Doctor. You know my decision; it is unchangeable".

Hitler went into Göbbels's bedroom where Frau Göbbels and Eva Braun were talking and said farewell to Frau Göbbels. Then he went back to his own rooms, followed by Linge and Krüger. At the door to his office Linge asked for permission to say his own farewell. Exhausted and distracted, Hitler told him: "I have given the order for a breakout. Take a small group and try to break through to the West".

Linge replied: "Mein Führer, who are we supposed to break through for?" Hitler turned to Linge and looked at him for a while in silence, then said to him pitifully: "For the next man".

The project that grew into the compilation of "The Hitler Book" began shortly after the end of the Second World War in Europe. Josef Stalin had doubted the official story that Adolf Hitler had indeed committed suicide, and personally believed that Hitler had fled and that the Western Allies had granted him political asylum.

At the end of 1945, Stalin ordered the NKVD [The People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs—a precursor to the KGB] to investigate the circumstances of Hitler's supposed death and to reconstruct the last days of April 1945 inside Hitler's Bunker. The NKVD codenamed this project "Operation Myth". People's Commissar Sergei Kruglov was in charge of this investigation, while the actual writing of the final report was done by the security service officers Fyodor Parparov and Igor Saleyev.

In the immediate aftermath of the suicide of Adolf Hitler on 30 April 1945 and the end of World War II in Europe, the forces of the Soviet Union had immediate access to the German Reich Chancellery and Hitler's Bunker in Berlin. Their investigation went on for almost four years and by the time it was completed, its scope had widened from simply researching the circumstances of Hitler's death into a detailed report on Hitler's life from 1933 to 1945. The NKVD researchers had access to large numbers of documents confiscated from Hitler's headquarters and living quarters, and also were able to question many Nazis who had known Hitler personally. These included Heinz Linge, who was Hitler's personal assistant and valet, and Otto Günsche, Hitler's SS adjutant. Both men were imprisoned in Soviet Gulags during the writing of the report and were subjected to "extensive, often grueling interrogation". To "interview" Heinz Linge for the book, for instance, the NKVD held Hitler's valet in a solitary cell, crawling with bugs, and subjected him to repeated whippings and other humiliating tortures.

Heinz Linge:

My real identity and what I had actually been doing since 1933 I kept secret, but it did not help me much, for one day I was brought back for interrogation and confronted with my past. Hans Baur, who had been in the military hospital and had stated truthfully that although a Luffwaffe general he had been Hitler's personal pilot, which the Russians refused to believe, had named me as a witness, and said I was in the camp. My disguise was blown. I had to write down the answers to all their questions which I had answered falsely before, but this time honestly.

One day two Russian officers appeared and escorted me by train to Moscow where I was thrown into the notorious Lubljanka Prison. There in a filthy bug-infested cell I waited, expecting the worst. It came in the form of a large GPU Lieutenant-Colonel who spoke good, cultivated German. He interrogated me with a monotonous patience which brought me to a state of sheer despair. Over and over he asked the same questions, trying to extract from me an admission that Hitler had survived. My unemotional assertion that I had carried Hitler's corpse from his room, had poured Petrol over it and set it alight in front of the Bunker was considered a cover story. In order to lull me into a false sense of security, he occasionally told me that before the war he had been in Germany, and he chatted with me as though he were an old war comrade. I remained as alert as I could, no easy task for the bed-bugs gave me no respite and only rarely did I sleep.

Now came the carrot-and-stick treatment. Since I would not confirm what the commissar wanted to hear I had to strip naked and bend over a trestle after being warned that I would be thrashed if - I did not finally "cough up". Naked and humiliated I persisted with my account... I kept to the facts. He changed the procedure only inasmuch as he had me brought to a sound-proofed room - dressed again - where seven or eight commissars were waiting. The ceremony began once more. While somebody roared monotonously: "Hitler is alive, Hitler is alive, tell the truth!" I was whipped until I bled. Near madness I yelled until my voice failed. Still bellowing the torturers in officers' uniform stopped for a rest. I was allowed to dress and returned to my cell where I collapsed. That was the beginning of an intensive interrogation strategy which even today gives me nightmares.

About a year after the end of the war I was thrust into a barred railway wagon and transported like some wild animal back to Berlin. My daily rations were a salted herring, 450 grams of damp bread and two cubes of sugar. In Berlin I was put into a jail. What the Russians wanted was to be shown was where - according to me - Hitler had shot himself I was taken to the ruins of the New Reich Chancellery where a number of commissars and Marshal Sokolovski awaited. I showed them the sofa on which Hitler had shot himself, still where we had left it, but meanwhile ripped by "souvenir hunters". After this local visit, for which the Russians seemed to have little enthusiasm, I was returned to the prison for more interrogations.

These Berlin interrogations were carried out in a different way to those in Moscow. A female interpreter asked politely, I responded in like manner. The only thing certain was that the Russians did not believe me. In 1950 they were still doubtful that Hitler was dead. Accordingly the question-and-answer game in Berlin went round in monotonous circles. "How much blood sprayed on the carpet" "How far from Hitler's foot did the pool of blood extend," "Where was his pistol exactly?" "Which pistol did he use?" and "How and where was he sitting exactly". These were some of the stereotype, endlessly repeated questions I was obliged to answer. The interpreter was hearing these details for the first time and they interested her, but even so it was not hard to see that she would have preferred to be doing something else. The questioning usually went on without interruption until the bread trolley was heard.

- Spartacus Educational 

BBC 4 was screening clips of vintage interviews recently among them one with Hitler's longtime Valet, Heinz Linge,  [who has since appeared in numerous documentaries about the Führer's last days]. This was his first visit to Britian after his release from custody of the USSR who held him for a decade pumping him for information about Hitler and the Nazis. He spoke in a strange robotic monotone way and claimed Hitler's partially burned corpse was buried on the site of the Bunker where it still resided [he said he took part in this process]. The remains are also said to have been taken to the Kremlin and disposed of in a river sometime in the 1970's.

The Valet spoke very warmly of his former boss which seemed not to offend the rather posh host or audience who listened attentively. One question asked was if Hitler was interested in astrology  - "no" was the firm reply. "Well thats one rumour put to rest" added the host. Of course the Nazi hierarchy were steeped in such beliefs so maybe this was an attempt to cover up their occult leanings from the public as was done at the Nuremburg trials. Asked if he was enjoying his stay in England the Valet replied in the affirmative - especially standing on the White Cliffs of Dover. Doing so, he explained, as it was the fervent dream of of his master who would never have the opportunity himself.

It's also worth noting that the Soviet authorities kept both the Western powers and their own citizens in the dark about Hitlers fate. After the war the general public inside the USSR widely believed that he was living in a castle in West Germany under the protection of the US and Britain authorities. Alternatively it wasn't until the release of the ex-employee that those in the West had any firm idea on Hitler's death.

The final report, amounting to 413 typed pages, was presented to Stalin on 29 December 1949.

During the reign of Nikita Krushchev, the report was classified as "Document No. 462a," with no annotation or description of its unique contents. Therefore, even though Western historians were allowed access into the archives of the former Soviet Union starting in 1991, this "document no. 462a" lay undiscovered, due to its bland and innocuous title, for many years. Researchers from the Institute for Contemporary History in Münich "discovered" the report that became "The Hitler Book" in 2005. The volume was first translated and widely published in German, then immediately thereafter in English.

This work provides not only insight into the inner workings of the Third Reich, but also into the biases of the political system that prepared the volume. Readers also should know that this work was written not for a general audience, but indeed for the eyes of only one man: Josef Stalin. Subsequent historians have pointed out, for instance, that "The Hitler Book" prepared for Stalin omits the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, events later known as The Holocaust, or any mention of German anti-Jewish policies. Furthermore, the work is based heavily upon firsthand interviews with Heinz Linge and Otto Günsche that were conducted under torture and inhumane conditions, thereby undermining the reliability of much of the information.

The book, "Hitler's Death: Russia's Last Great Secret from the Files of the KGB",  [V. K. Vinogradov et al. [eds] Chaucer Press, London, 2005]  gives Serov's letter to Beria, 31 May 1945, which states flatly that the burned corpses found in the Chancelley garden were Hitler and Braun, based on dental evidence....

As for the dental work - the situation is very iffy. In fact they story is VERY iffy about the entire corpse recovered by the Russians. According to the Soviet autopsy report, the corpse was missing its right-side ribs and its left foot. While this doesn't prove that the corpse wasn't Hitler's, it does establish that the familiar story of Hitler committing suicide in the Bunker and his corpse being carried up to ground level to be cremated and buried immediately afterwards is either wrong - or it's not Hitler's. After all, Hitler's right ribs and left foot can hardly have fallen off on the way up the stairs!

Second, the corpses discovered by the Soviets can not have been cremated in the open air, as eyewitnesses maintained. According to an anonymous British intelligence officer who stated that he had been shown the remains shortly after they had been found: "There were not two complete skeletons and none of the main bones was intact." According to W. F. Heimlich, a former intelligence officer who in 1947 was a high official in the American administration of Berlin, the corpses would probably have had to be burned in a closed crematory to achieve the condition of almost total disintegration in which they were found. Forensic scientist Hugh Thomas provided support for this conclusion. Thomas pointed out that "the damage described on the skull [in the Soviet autopsy report, parts of which were not published until 1968] could have been produced only in temperatures over 1000°C—far greater than any that could have been produced in the open garden of the Reichskanzelei".

Meanwhile, back at the teeth - on 8 May 1945, the Soviets set out to identify the corpses they suspected to be those of Adolf and Eva Hitler. That day, two Russians—chief forensic pathologist Dr Faust Sherovsky and anatomical pathologist Major Anna Marantz—autopsied the remains at SMERSH [Soviet military counter-intelligence] headquarters in the Berlin suburb of Buch. According to their report: "The most important anatomical finding for identification of the person are the teeth, with much bridgework, artificial teeth, crowns and fillings." Indeed, in the pre-DNA-testing era, the only means of obtaining a secure identification of a heavily damaged corpse was by examining the teeth and comparing them with available dental records. Unfortunately, no documents are available that describe the teeth of the two corpses as they were found on 5 May. The earliest information we have concerning their teeth derives from the autopsy report, which was written three days later. If the report can be believed, the mouth of the presumptive Hitler corpse was completely intact: "There are many small cracks in...the upper jawbones. The tongue is charred, its tip firmly locked between the teeth of the upper and lower jaws." The problem was therefore locating Hitler's dental charts. The Soviets' attempt to find them led them into a mire of intrigue and as far as it can be reconstructed from extant sources, the investigation proceeded along the following lines...

On 9 May, a Soviet military officer, a female Intelligence officer and a male translator went looking for Hitler's dentist, Generalmajor der Waffen-SS Professor Dr. Johann Hugo Blaschke, at his surgery at Kurfürstendamm 213. When they arrived, they found that Prof. Blaschke was not there and that his practice had been taken over by Dr. Fedor Bruck, a Jewish dentist who, in order to evade deportation to the east, had spent two and a half years living underground in Berlin. According to a record Dr Bruck made in 1948, some of Prof. Blaschke's files were still present at the time. But while the visitors were able to take away records for Himmler, Dr Ley, Göring and Dr. Göbbels, all of Hitler's had already been removed. However, the search was not a complete failure, for Dr. Bruck told the Soviet officers where they could find Prof. Blaschke's assistant, Käthe Heusemann, and his dental technician, Fritz Echtmann. Dr. Bruck accompanied the officers to Heusemann's apartment a short distance away in the Pariserstrasse. Heusemann was then taken to the Reich Chancellery, where a fruitless search for Hitler's dental records was conducted. The next day, 10 May, she was taken to SMERSH headquarters and ordered to examine the remains there. By this stage, the jawbones had been removed from the alleged Hitler corpse, for Heusemann was shown them in a cigar box. This would presumably have been done in order to make them easier to study; however, this raises the problem of the chain of evidence, for we have no means of knowing whether the jawbones Heusemann was shown really came from the corpse autopsied on 8 May.

Nonetheless, Heusemann affirmed that the teeth were Hitler's. A few days later, she told Dr. Bruck that she had been able to identify them immediately. A year later, Dr Bruck told a foreign reporter that Heusemann had recognised " upper crown which was an anchor for a bridge on Hitler's upper jaw. The bridge had been cut because the other anchor had been extracted. The operation left surgical traces which Frau Heusemann recognized at once." According to the record of her 19 May interrogation, Heusemann recognised drill marks left behind by Prof. Blaschke in the autumn of 1944 on the fourth tooth in Hitler's left upper jaw when he had extracted two adjacent teeth. "I was holding a mirror in the mouth and watching the whole procedure with great attention," she declared. But there's a difficulty in evaluating her evidence in regard to the teeth of the alleged corpse of Eva Hitler. Her evidence for Braun was rather problematic and casts some doubt on her additional claims to have worked on Eva Braun's teeth.

Dr Bruck also told the foreign reporter that on the same occasion Heusemann had told him that she had been shown "a female bridge from the lower jaw which contained four teeth". She identified it as Eva Braun's and said, 'We made it for her only six weeks ago,' he related. She told the Russians the bridge was made by a man named Eichmann [sic], who was a dental mechanic for Dr Blaschke". However, the very information that initially seemed to confirm the identity of the female corpse only ended up disconfirming it. On 11 May, the Soviets questioned Prof. Blaschke's dental technician, Fritz Echtmann. He was interrogated about Eva Hitler's teeth on an unspecified number of other occasions in May 1945, and again on 24 July 1947. On the latter occasion, Echtmann admitted to his interrogator, a Major Vaindorf, that "At the beginning of April 1945" Prof. Blaschke had asked him "to make a small bridge for Eva Braun's right upper jaw". Echtmann seems to have been talking about the bridge which Heusemann told Dr. Bruck that the Soviets had shown her the day before. Dr Bruck told the foreign reporter about this in May 1946. He can probably be believed: there is no obvious reason that he could have known about the existence of the bridge requested by Prof. Blaschke in early April - "the 1945 bridge" - if Heusemann had not told him about it.

There are two problems with this information, however. First, the bridge Heusemann described sounds more like the bridge that had been fitted in Eva's mouth by Prof. Blaschke—Heusemann says with her assistance—in the autumn of 1944 [for simplicity's sake, "the 1944 bridge"]. The 1945 bridge was for only one tooth. The question, therefore, is why Heusemann told the Soviets—and Dr Bruck—that the 1944 bridge was the one that Prof. Blaschke had asked Echtmann to make only six weeks earlier...

Second, why did Heusemann say this if she knew that the 1945 bridge had never been inserted in Eva's mouth? At some stage—exactly when is not clear—Echtmann told his Soviet interrogators that Heusemann had told him it had never been fitted: "On 19 April, 1945, I called Professor Blaschke and told him that the small bridge was ready. He told me it would be sent to Berchtesgaden if Eva Braun was there. On the same day, 19 April, I sent the small denture to Professor Blaschke at the Reich Chancellery. Later, in a talk with his assistant Heusemann I learnt that Professor Blaschke had flown to Berchtesgaden on 20 April and had not fitted the small denture in Berlin."

The problems identified here do not damn Heusemann's evidence, but they do undermine her credibility. If she knew that Prof. Blaschke had not fitted the 1945 bridge, why did she lead the Soviets to believe that it had been fitted? The problem is compounded by the information that on 19 April, Prof. Blaschke apparently had not known whether Eva was in Berlin or not. On 19 May 1945, Heusemann told the Soviets that "a month ago we extracted one tooth [from Eva] in the upper jaw, the 6th one on the left". Since Eva apparently arrived in Berlin in mid-April—the precise date does not appear to be known—and Prof. Blaschke left the city on 20 April, the extraction must have been performed during the period 15–20 April. In these circumstances, Prof. Blaschke must surely have known that Evawas in Berlin. What's more, since the bridge contained the false tooth to be inserted in the place of the extracted tooth, it made little sense not to have established in advance when and where the bridge was to be fitted. There is something rather slipshod and unlikely about all this.

Then there is the problem that Prof. Blaschke already knew in early April that Eva would need a tooth extracted. It is not clear why he therefore did not remove the tooth then, rather than wait until the denture was ready. Perhaps he wanted to replace the tooth with the denture almost immediately. But if he waited a few weeks until the denture was ready, why was it not fitted the day Echtmann sent it over to the Reich Chancellery surgery on 19 April? Since Eva was in Berlin, Prof. Blaschke had ample opportunity to insert the fitting, either the same day or the following day [20 April]. After all, Blaschke's flight to Berchtesgaden did not take place until the early hours of 21 April. We therefore do not know what really happened to the 1945 bridge—whether Blaschke fitted it in Berlin and Heusemann had lied to [or simply misinformed] Echtmann, whether Blaschke took it on the plane with him to Berchtesgaden or whether he left it behind in Berlin, perhaps for his replacement, Dr Helmut Kunz, to insert in Eva's mouth.

The striking fact however is that "Hitler's Death"—the published collection of documents from Soviet archives allegedly proving that the human remains which the Soviets found on 5 May had been those of Adolf and Eva Hitler—contains neither Heusemann's 10 May interrogation report nor Echtmann's 11 May interrogation report. What's more, although Dr Kunz took Prof. Blaschke's place on 23 April, his interrogation record yields no information as to whether he worked on Eva Hitler's teeth after that date. Without any more information to go on, it is not possible to say what the real significance of the 1945 bridge was. What can be said is that if, during his first interrogation on 11 May 1945, Echtmann revealed to the Soviets that the small bridge had never been fitted, this would explain why, on or about 15 May, apparently without any advance warning, the Soviets took Heusemann into custody. The fact that Heusemann was repeatedly interrogated by Soviet intelligence agents suggests that information was continually coming to light that rendered her evidence problematic. On 19 May, Lt-General Vadis interrogated her for nearly five hours. A partial record of this interrogation does appear in "Hitler's Death".

According to this document, Heusemann said that she had been able to verify that the teeth were Eva's because she recognised a "gold and resin bridge" that, with her assistance, Prof. Blaschke had inserted in the right part of Eva's lower jaw in the "summer of 1944 " . At a later date—no earlier than 23 July 1947— Heusemann was still being pressed for a full description of Eva Hitler's teeth. In this statement, she implied that Eva had a false tooth in her upper right jaw—which she can only have done if the 1945 bridge had been fitted after all!

Such prolonged and intensive questioning is inconsistent with the idea that the information Heusemann provided had been sufficient to establish that the teeth were Eva's. If so, why ask her to go over the subject again and again? There are therefore plenty of hints of intrigue, but thanks to the fact that only very brief selections from her interrogations are included in 'Hitler's Death', it is not possible to chronicle the development of her story. The same goes for Echtmann's evidence: 'Hitler's Death' only contains statements he gave on 24 July 1947, not those he gave in May 1945 during what appear to have been at least four or five interrogations.

Heusemann's and Echtmann's fate supports the conclusion that the Soviets found something fishy about their evidence. Within two days of each other in August 1951, Heusemann and Echtmann were arrested by Soviet MGB [Ministry of State Security] officials. Heusemann was charged with "having treated Hitler, Himmler and other Nazi leaders until April 1945", while Echtmann was charged with "assisting Hitler and his circle". Each was sentenced to 10 years in a Soviet labour camp. Neither person appears ever to have been repatriated and it is a fair guess that both vanished in the Gulag. It seems hard to credit the idea that their crimes really consisted of having provided Hitler and other top Nazis with dental treatment; more likely, both paid the ultimate price for trying to deceive Stalin.

But the story doesn't end there...

It's obvious that Heusemann's evidence was problematic to say the least. She told the Soviets and Dr Bruck that the bridge that was shown to her had been made recently, yet it more closely resembles the bridge she claimed to have helped Prof. Blaschke insert in the summer of 1944 than the 1945 bridge. In view of the issues raised in relation to Eva's teeth that undermine her credibility, it is important to ask whether Heusemann was actually competent to assess the evidence concerning the teeth of the presumptive Hitler corpse discovered on 5 May. By 10 May, the jawbones had been removed from the "Hitler" corpse and placed in a cigar box and shown to Heusemann. ..

The problem is - that all of Heusemann's claims to have worked on Hitler's teeth—claims which are iterated on several occasions in 'Hitler's Death'—appear to be false. In early 1948, while still in American captivity, Prof. Blaschke gave an interview in which he stated that Heusemann "cannot give a positive identification because she knows only some X-rays of Hitler's teeth". Thus, Heusemann's knowledge of Hitler's teeth derived solely from the X-rays and not from personal experience. She can therefore never have helped Prof. Blaschke work on Hitler's teeth six times between 1944 and 1945, as she told her Soviet interrogators, and can only have recognised the "drill marks" she told Dr Bruck about from the X-rays she had studied. She therefore had no means of knowing whether the X-rays accurately represented the condition of Hitler's mouth or that of someone else!

If you accept that Heusemann had lied about having worked on Hitler's teeth, you also have to doubt Heusemann's claim to have worked also on the teeth of Eva Hitler and many leading Nazis. According to the testimony she gave the Soviets, she had worked at the Reich Chancellery dental surgery from December 1944 until 20 April 1945. She specifically claimed to have helped Prof. Blaschke extract a tooth from Eva Hitler in April 1945. However, despite the relatively long period involved—around four months—there is no account that corroborates her presence in the Reich Chancellery surgery, aside from the aforementioned contact between Heusemann and Echtmann that does not prove that she really worked there. 

During the period from 20 April to 2 May 1945, Heusemann is also supposed to have remained in the Chancellery. Dr Bruck told reporters that for safety reasons she had remained in the Chancellery "in the last days of Berlin". It is odd, then, that she was not mentioned by Dr Kunz, who took over from Prof. Blaschke at the Chancellery surgery on 23 April. (Dr Kunz apparently had no assistant at all.) The conclusion has to be that Heusemann was probably nothing more than an opportunist, someone who sought to profit from knowledge of the dental charts she had gained in 1944(–45?) while working for Prof. Blaschke and to ingratiate herelf with the occupying Russians. To this end, Heusemann appears to have involved Dr Bruck. According to Dr Bruck himself, he renewed his acquaintanceship with Heusemann on 4 May, when he located her in the Pariserstrasse. Possibly on this day she drew him into her confidence and explained how she had enjoyed access to Hitler's "dental records".

Although he had been living underground in Berlin since October 1942—and was reportedly destitute by the time the Soviets entered Steglitz (the quarter of the city in which he had been hiding) on 26 April 1945—Dr Bruck was placed in a position by Heusemann to take over Prof. Blashke's surgery less than a week after they had renewed their association. This was quite a coup, for the surgery was located in Berlin's most fashionable street. Dr Bruck's prior relationship with Heusemann offers the only plausible explanation for this cosy arrangement. Heusemann had worked for Dr Bruck when he was a school dentist in her home town of Liegnitz (Silesia) in the mid-1930s. She moved to Berlin in April 1937 to work for Prof. Blaschke. It is possible that, knowing he would probably never return, Prof. Blaschke gave Heusemann the rights to the surgery after he left Berlin on 20 April; if so, she might have considered it a good idea to secure her right to the practice in the new post-Nazi era by placing it in the care of a Jewish dentist she knew and trusted.

Remember - it was Dr Bruck who told Soviet investigators about Heusemann and Echtmann. Having established on 4 May where she lived, he was in a position to lead them straight to her when they arrived at the Kurfürstendamm surgery on 9 May. By that date, Dr Bruck had already taken over the surgery and moved into its apartment. It was obviously extremely convenient for them that Dr Bruck was on hand to meet them when they arrived. If the surgery had been abandoned altogether, the Soviets would have had to go to a good deal more trouble to track down anyone who apparently possessed the necessary competence to evaluate the alleged Hitler dental evidence. Things couldn't have been made any easier for them!

Second, there is the puzzling instance of foreknowledge. When the Soviet investigators arrived at the surgery, Dr Bruck seemed to know why they had come. He asked them if they were seeking to identify some "fragments" they had found. While it would not have taken much by way of brains to guess they were seeking to identify a corpse, Bruck's use of the word fragments—which has the exact same meaning in German as it does in English [i.e. fragments]—seems quite a slip. What is sometimes referred to as Hitler's jawbone [i.e., in the singular] is actually a collection of four fragments! Dr Bruck must have known in advance that it was not a question of identifying an intact set of teeth. It was a slip that implies intention to deceive the Soviets. Third is the striking fact that Dr Bruck was the first person to reveal to Western reporters that the Soviets had called on Heusemann to identify teeth they presumed to be Hitler's. After Heusemann and Echtmann vanished into Soviet prisons in mid-May 1945, Dr Bruck never gave up trying to pass on information to the West that confirmed Western suspicions that the Soviets had found Hitler's body. On 5 July 1945, two days after the Western Allies were allowed to enter Berlin, Dr Bruck began scouting out foreign reporters to ask if they knew anything about Heusemann's fate. Although there is no reason to doubt that he felt genuine concern for her safety, Dr Bruck had the opportunity from such contacts with foreign reporters to ensure that the information which the Soviets had gleaned from Heusemann, but had been withholding, reached the West at last. On 9 July, an article by William Forrest was published in the "British News Chronicle" that incorporated information Dr Bruck had given Forrest on 7 July. Dr Bruck obviously wanted to ensure that Heusemann's information entered circulation, whether the Soviets liked it or not. Fourth, in 1947 Dr Bruck was very nearly arrested by the Soviets. At that time, the Americans warned him that the Soviets had decided to arrest him. Had he not been warned in time, they would surely have succeeded and Dr Bruck would have joined Heusemann and Echtmann in Soviet captivity. Instead, Dr Bruck emigrated to the United States and in 1952 acquired American citizenship. [He spent the last 30 years of his life living in New York under the Anglicised name of Theodor Brooke].

The thesis that best accounts for events, therefore, is that on 4 May Dr Bruck struck a deal with Heusemann to ensure that the Soviets would believe that they had found the remains of Adolf and Eva Hitler. In return for services such as ensuring that the Soviets were able to locate Heusemann and Echtmann without difficulty, Dr Bruck appears to have been rewarded with Prof. Blaschke's Kurfürstendamm surgery. And once all paper records or x-rays were destroyed or got out of the way - the only person to survive the war who genuinely possessed the expertise to identify Hitler's teeth was Prof. Blaschke himself....

...who the Russians did NOT have

The Soviets must have been overjoyed when in July 1945 Prof.Blaschke turned up in an American camp for prominent POWs. They promptly sent him a bag containing all the necessary equipment and ordered him to reconstruct, as perfectly as his memory enabled him, the appearance of Hitler's jawbone. The result, we are told, perfectly matched the jawbone Heusemann had identified as Hitler's...BUT if Blaschke's evidence corroborated Heusemann's identification, the proof itself has never been published. Although the Americans had Prof. Blaschke in their hands from May 1945, when he was captured, until late 1948, they never made public any of the information he shared with them about Hitler's teeth. On 5 February 1946, for example, he was interrogated by US military intelligence on precisely this subject. However, the report based on the 1946 interview was never released and remains classified by the US Department of Defense even today. Given that by 1946 the Americans were extremely keen to publicise any information which suggested that the Soviets really had discovered Hitler's corpse, it must be the case that, wittingly or otherwise, Prof. Blaschke had given them information that contradicted this position. Or else we WOULD have heard about it...

It is also hard to draw any firm conclusions from an interview Prof. Blaschke gave on the subject of Hitler's teeth while still in American captivity in early 1948. Although on this occasion Prof. Blaschke expressed confidence that the Soviets really did have Hitler's jawbone, he made two remarks that only undermined this view. First, as we saw above, he stated that Heusemann had not been qualified to give a "positive identification". Second, Prof. Blaschke challenged the Soviets to show him the jaw in question: "Why don't the Russians show this jaw to me? I only need one look and can definitely state this is or is not Hitler's jaw ." Is the answer that the Soviets knew that it was not really Hitler's??? 

Prof. Blaschke may even have been punished for these indiscretions. Towards the end of 1948, just as the Americans were about to release him, Prof. Blaschke was tried by a German "denazification" court and sentenced to a further three years in prison. Was he being punished for more than just having been Hitler's dentist? Prof. Blaschke was released from prison and practised dentistry in Nuremberg until he died in 1959. He never said anything further about Hitler's teeth. His silence on the subject seems almost inexplicable. Information derived from Prof. Blaschke is also conspicuously absent from "Hitler's Death". If it was Prof. Blaschke's reconstruction of Hitler's jawbone that helped clinch the identification of the alleged Hitler remains for the Soviets, there can be no reason for omitting it from the "Hitler's Death" volume. In these circumstances it seems highly likely that Prof. Blaschke's evidence had only confirmed what the Soviets had already suspected—that they had been led or led themselves down the garden path.....

On 29 April 1945 SS Gruppenführer Heinrich Müller, Head of the Gestapo, and Hermann Fegelein Himmler's iiaison with Hitler, married to Gretl, Eva Braun's sister, are taken up to the Chancellery's Gardens. The myth has it that they were both executed immediately, and with no trace of evidence or corpses left, in fact they both disappeared in thin air.

From January to April, 1945, Hermann Fegelein,  and Martin Bormann controlled access to Hitler's office. After Himmler tried to negotiate a surrender to the western Allies via Count Bernadotte in April 1945  [Himmler falsely claimed leadership of the Reich in his failed attempt to negotiate a peace deal with Eisenhower], Fegelein,  left the Reich Chancellery Bunker complex and was caught by SS-Obersturmbannführer Peter Högl in his Berlin apartment on 27 April, wearing civilian clothes and preparing to flee to Sweden or Switzerland with a mistress and forged passports. He was carrying cash—German and foreign—and jewellery, some of which belonged to Eva Braun. Högl also uncovered a briefcase containing documents with evidence of Himmler's attempted peace negotiations with the western Allies. According to most accounts he was also highly intoxicated when arrested and brought back to the Führerbunker.

At this point, historical accounts begin to differ radically. In "The Last Days of Hitler", historian Hugh Trevor-Roper remarked: "The real causes and circumstances of the execution of Fegelein provide one of the few subjects in this book upon which final certainty seems unattainable".

Journalist James O'Donnell discovered in his interviews numerous claims and theories as to what happened next to Fegelein, many of which disagreed with each other, and some of which seemed preposterous [i.e., a claim that Hitler himself gunned Fegelein down]. Many claimed he had been shot following a court-martial, and this theory predominated for many years.

General Wilhelm Mohnke, who presided over the court-martial, told O'Donnell the following:

"Hitler ordered me to set up a tribunal forthwith. I was to preside over it myself...I myself decided the accused man [Fegelein] deserved trial by high-ranking officers. The panel consisted of four general officers - Generals Burgdorf, Krebs, Rattenhuber, and me...We did, at that moment, have every intention of holding a trial.

"What really happened was that we set up the court-martial in a room next to my command post...We military judges took our seats at the table with the standard German Army Manual of Courts-Martial before us. No sooner were we seated than defendant Fegelein began acting up in such an outrageous manner that the trial could not even commence.

"Roaring drunk, with wild, rolling eyes, Fegelein first brazenly challenged the competence of the court. He kept blubbering that he was responsible to Himmler and Himmler alone, not Hitler...He refused to defend himself. The man was in wretched shape - bawling, whining, vomiting, shaking like an aspen leaf. He took out his penis and began urinating on the floor...

"I was now faced with an impossible situation. On the one hand, based on all available evidence, including his own earlier statements, this miserable excuse for an officer was guilty of flagrant desertion...Yet the German Army Manual states clearly that no German soldier can be tried unless he is clearly of sound mind and body, in a condition to hear the evidence against him. I looked up the passage again, to make sure, and consulted with my fellow judges...In my opinion and that of my fellow officers, Hermann Fegelein was in no condition to stand trial, or for that matter to even stand. I closed the proceedings...So I turned Fegelein over to [SS] General Rattenhuber and his security squad. I never saw the man again".

-- O'Donnell, "The Bunker", 1978.

Fegelein's wife was heavily pregnant when he was arrested (the baby was born in early May) and Hitler considered releasing him without punishment or assigning him to Mohnke's troops. Hitler's secretary, Traudl Junge—an eye-witness to Bunker events—stated that Braun pleaded with Hitler to spare her brother-in-law and tried to justify Fegelein's behaviour. However, he was taken to the garden of the Reich Chancellery on 28 April, and was "shot like a dog". Rochus Misch, who was the last surviving individual from the Führerbunker, disputed aspects of this account in a 2007 interview with "Der Spiegel". According to Misch, Hitler did not order Fegelein's execution, only his demotion. Misch claimed to know the identity of Fegelein's killer, but refused to reveal his name.

Many other people in the Bunker argued that Mohnke was lying, that he had in fact had Fegelein killed, and only made the above statement to try and explicate himself from any guilt. However, as O'Donnell noted, nobody actually saw Fegelein's execution [or, if they did, they weren't talking]. Nonetheless, O'Donnell and many historians, with the evidence at hand, agreed with Mohnke, and have concluded that Fegelein was doomed because of a combination of Himmler's betrayal and suspicions that his mistress was a spy. Fegelein, then, was killed without a proper trial on Hitler's orders, probably hanged by members of the SS in a nearby cellar. Furthermore, O'Donnell noted that Hitler held off on his marriage to Eva Braun until after he was satisfied Fegelein was dead - a means of ensuring that he would not have a "traitor" as a brother-in-law.

Hans Fegelein, Hermann's father stated several times after the war that he received packages containing Bundesmarks with notes stating that Hermann was alive and otherwise fine, but had to remain underground. However, the money could have been sent to his father by Fegelein's long time comrade, Albert Faßbender who resumed his lucrative business with his step-father after the war as a chocolatier. The alternative is that Fegelein did in fact, survive the Bunker. In order for this to have happened, he would have made a deal with Gestapo chief Müller. Müller and Fegelein also would have had to convince Johann [Hans] Rattenhuber, who Hitler sent to confirm the death of Fegelein, that he was in fact dead so the Hitler nuptials could take place without the possibility of Fegelein becoming a relative of Hitler by marriage. Fooling Rattenhuber by dressing up a battle death corpse in Fegelein's uniform was possible as there were so many corpses around the general area from the make-shift hospital on the upper floors of the Chancellory.

Next is the possibility that Fegelein was hanged in the Gestapo cellar as theorized by James P O'Donnell. In that case, his corpse would have remained in the Gestapo cellar until the Red Army investigated it in May, 1945. If he was hanged, his tunic would have been removed as was the custom, so there would be nothing distinguishing him as Fegelein. Möhnke states that in the abortive courts martial hearing, Fegelein tore off his collar and/or shoulder pieces from his tunic anyway.

Finally, there is the possibility that as reported by Hanna Reitsch, Fegelein was shot in the Ehrenhof. His body would have been hastily buried and removed to a mass grave later. A Soviet Newsreel identifed some of the corpses that they recovered, but Fegelein was not among them. A red army enlisted man claimed to have buried him in a makeshift grave around the Chancellery. After Berlin capitulated, there were a lot of bodies in the area of the chancellery. Some were stored in a damaged water tower that fell to the ground, some were left as they fell, and a number of suicides if not murders were left in the lower Bunker. If James O'Donnell's account is correct and Fegelein was killed in the Gestapo cellar and not the Ehrenhof as in Hanna Reich's statement, there would have been no great hurry to recover his body. Most accounts of Fegelein's execution also state that at some point before he was killed his medals and/or other insignia was removed from his tunic, possibly by Fegelein, and it is doubtful that anyone from the initial Red Army internment squads would have recognized the significance of a Florian Geyer cuff tab, had Fegelein been wearing a tunic at all when killed. Something similar may have happened to Gestapo Chief Heinrich Müller.

Erich Kempka claimed that on 27 April 1945 Hermann Fegelein contacted him with a strange request:

"Hermann Fegelein, phoned me to ask if I would put at his disposal two vehicles for a reconnaissance. Moreover he would be grateful if I would do him a personal favour. He wanted me to take care of a briefcase with important files belonging to the Reichsfuhrer-SS and himself. He would hand it to me personally towards ten that evening in the Führerbunker. It was essential to keep it safe and in the event that the enemy entered the Bunker, the briefcase was to be hidden where it could never be found, or should be destroyed. Under no circumstances must it fall into enemy hands. As I had been on familiar terms with Fegelein for years and he enjoyed Hitler's fullest confidence as Eva Braun's brother-in-law, I had no hesitation in agreeing to his request. I had really no idea at that moment that my willingness to be of assistance to him was putting my own life in danger. A short while afterwards Fegelein left the Reich Chancellery with two vehicles I had had repaired. They were the last survivors to remain serviceable from my once great vehicle fleet. To my great surprise the two automobiles were returned thirty minutes later, although without Fegelein. The drivers told me that he had got out in the Kurfürstendamm district to proceed on foot."

When it was discovered that Hermann Fegelein had gone missing the Gestapo was sent out to find him. Heinz Linge recalled that "Fegelein's adjutant reported back to the Bunker, he stated that Fegelein had gone to his private flat and dressed in civilian clothing. The adjutant had been ordered to do the same." He told Hitler that the purpose of this being "to allow the Russians to roll over us and then we will make our way through to Himmler". Hitler came to the conclusion that Fegelein was involved in some sort conspiracy against him.

On 27 April 1945, Fegelein was arrested with his mistress in his apartment. SS-Obersturmbannführer Peter Högl discovered him with a great deal of money and discovered that he was just about to leave the country. Högl also found a briefcase containing documents with evidence of an attempted peace negotiation with the Allies. The following day the negotiations that were taking place between Himmler and Count Folke Bernadotte were leaked to the press. Hanna Reitsch was with Hitler when he heard the news: "His colour rose to a heated red and his face was unrecognizable... After the lengthy outburst, Hitler sank into a stupor, and for a time the entire Bunker was silent".

According to Heinz Linge: "Fegelein was returned under armed guard he made a poor impression: wearing gloves, a leather coat and a sporty hat he looked like a Kurfürstendamm dandy. On Hitler's order he was arraigned immediately before a court-martial and sentenced to death for treason. Eva Braun, though clearly fighting an internal struggle, would not enter a plea for mercy for her brother-in-law even though Hitler indicated that he would commute the sentence on the highly decorated SS-0bergruppenführer to 'atonement at the front'. Towards midnight an SS squad awaited Fegelein in the Reich Chancellery Ehrenhof. He remained impassive as the sentence of the court martial was read out".

U.S. Army Intelligence records indicate that Heinrich Müller --  known as "Gestapo Müller" to distinguish him from another SS general named Heinrich Müller -- was captured by Americans in 1945, says historian George Chalou, who worked at the National Archives for 28 years.

But what happened after that "is the $64 question," he said.

According to sometimes contradictory intelligence documents and media reports, over the years Müller was "sighted" in East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Switzerland, Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Cairo, Damascus, Moscow, Washington, D.C., and Portsmouth, N.H.

A German television network aired a program -- based in part on documents from the U.S. National Archives in Maryland -- claiming that Müller was captured by the U.S. Army, but released for unknown reasons. The program speculated that Müller may have been employed by a U.S. intelligence agency, but offered no substantiation for that assertion.

Müller  played a key role in investigating a plot by a group of German army officers to kill Hitler in 1944 and remained loyal to Hitler until the end, according to Holocaust historians. Whether Müller lived past 29 April 1945, has been the subject of intense speculation for years. He was last seen in the Bunker on the evening of 29 April 1945, the day before Hitler's suicide. From that day onwards, no trace of him has ever been found. He is the most senior member of the Nazi regime whose fate remains a mystery.

In the last months of the war Müller remained at his post, apparently still confident of a German victory — he told one of his top counterespionage case officers in December 1944 that the Ardennes offensive [known in the U.S. as the Battle of the Bulge] would result in the recapture of Paris. 

Not everyone was convinced of his sincerity. There were rumors among German intelligence officers that Müller had himself been turned by the Soviets. Walter Schellenberg, chief of the RSHA's Foreign Intelligence Branch [Amt VI] and a bitter rival of Müller, was the source of some of this speculation. When interrogated by OSS in 1945, Schellenberg claimed that Müller had been in friendly radio contact with the Soviets, and Schellenberg's postwar memoirs contain verbatim exhortations from 1943 by Müller on Stalin's superiority to Hitler as a leader. Gestapo-men close to Müller considered such rumors unfounded and illogical. Müller's immediate superior Ernst Kaltenbrunner (Chief of the RSHA), later insisted under Allied interrogation that Müller could never have embraced the Soviets. Similarly, Heinz Pannwitz, Müller's Gestapo subordinate categorized the notion that Müller had turned as "absolutely absurd" in a 1959 CIA interrogation.

In April 1945 he was among the last group of Nazi loyalists assembled in the Führerbunker in central Berlin as the Red Army fought its way into the city. One of his last tasks was the sharp interrogation of Hermann Fegelein in the cellar of the Church of the Trinity. Fegelein was Himmler's liaison officer to Hitler and was shot after Hitler had Himmler expelled from his posts for negotiating with the western allies behind Hitler's back

Hans Baur, Hitler's pilot and an old friend of Müller's, recounts Müller as saying, "We know the Russian methods exactly. I haven't the faintest intention of … being taken prisoner by the Russians." Another witnee claimed that Müller refused to leave with the rest of Hitler's entourage, and was overheard saying "the regime has fallen and…I fall also". He was last seen in the company of his radio specialist Christian A. Scholz. No one witnessed the death of Müller or Scholz.

Possible explanations for his disappearance include:

• That he was killed or committed suicide, during the chaos of the fall of Berlin, and his body was not found.
• That he escaped from Berlin and made his way to a safe location, possibly in South America, where he lived the rest of his life undetected, and that his identity was not disclosed even after his death.
• That he was recruited and given a new identity by either the United States or the Soviet Union, and employed by one of them during the Cold War, and that this has never been disclosed.

There have been unconfirmed reports that he served as an "enforcer" for former Nazis living in South America and that he was kidnapped from Argentina in 1956 by Czech agents

In December 1999, the National Archives issued a one-paragraph news release stating that it was opening 135 pages of files on Müller, primarily covering the period from 1945 to 1963, but also including some earlier Nazi government documents.

The files contain tantalizing material, including many items that contradict one another. Despite the fact that the files were opened more than 50 years after the end of World War II, numerous portions have been redacted.

Among the materials the National Archives made public are the following:

• A December 1945 interview with a former Nazi stating that Müller escaped from Berlin through a secret underground passage that only he and Eichmann knew about.
• A July 1946 Army Counter-Intelligence Corps document saying "reports from the Russian zone of Berlin seem to indicate" that Müller shot and killed his wife and three children and then himself, two days before Hitler died.
• Index cards stating that Müller was in custody first in the town of Ilmenau and then in December 1945 in a "civilian internment" camp in Altenstadt in Upper Bavaria. The card does not state what happened to Müller at Altenstadt. It ends with the cryptic and provocative sentence, "case closed 29 Jan 46." It is unclear who placed the information on the card, which states that a Müller dossier was to be sent to Frankfurt.
• Another U.S. Army document dated 11 July 1946, states that British officials requested an investigation of Müller in the Würzburg area, saying that it was believed he was dead. But the document ends with: "results negative."
• A 1951 document, saying an informant had said Müller was in Czechoslovakia where he "is supposedly directing intelligence activities for the Soviets against the U.S. zone of Germany."
• An August 1960 document saying Müller was believed to be corresponding with relatives.
• Numerous other documents from the 1950s and early 1960s indicating the belief that Müller was alive and that U.S. officials were interested in finding him.

There are no new reports after 1963.

The Central Intelligence Agency's file on Müller was released under the Freedom of Information Act in 2001, and documents several unsuccessful attempts by U.S. agencies to find Müller. The U.S. National Archives commentary on the file concludes: "Though inconclusive on Müller's ultimate fate, the file is very clear on one point. The Central Intelligence Agency and its predecessors did not know Müller's whereabouts at any point after the war. In other words, the CIA was never in contact with Müller."

The CIA file shows that an extensive search was made for Müller in the months after the German surrender. The search was led by the counterespionage branch of the U.S. Office of Strategic Services (forerunner of the CIA).

The seizure in 1960 and subsequent trial in Israel of Adolf Eichmann sparked new interest in Müller's whereabouts. Although Eichmann revealed no specific information, he told his Israeli interrogators that he believed that Müller was still alive. The West German office in charge of the prosecution of war criminals charged the police to investigate. The possibility that Müller was working for the Soviet Union was considered, but no definite information was gained. Müller's family and his former secretary were placed under surveillance in case he was corresponding with them.

The West Germans investigated several reports of Müller's body being found and buried in the days after the fall of Berlin. The reports were contradictory, not wholly reliable and it was not possible to confirm any of them. One such report came from Walter Lüders, a former member of the Volkssturm, who said that he had been part of a burial unit which had found the body of an SS general in the garden of the Reich Chancellery, with the identity papers of Heinrich Müller. The body had been buried in a mass grave at the old Jewish Cemetery on Grosse Hamburger Strasse in the Soviet Sector. Since this location was in East Berlin in 1961, this gravesite could not be investigated, nor has there been any attempt to excavate this gravesite since the reunification of Germany.

The CIA investigation concluded: "There is little room for doubt that the Soviet and Czechoslovak [intelligence] services circulated rumors to the effect that Müller had escaped to the West ... to offset the charges that the Soviets had sheltered the criminal ... There are strong indications but no proof that Müller collaborated with [the Soviets]. There are also strong indications but no proof that Müller died [in Berlin]." The CIA apparently remained convinced at that time that if Müller had survived the war, he was being harboured within the Soviet Union. But when the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 and the Soviet archives were opened, no evidence to support this contention emerged.

The U.S. National Archives commentary concludes: "The CIA file, by itself, does not permit definitive conclusions. Taking into account the currently available records, the authors of this report conclude that Müller most likely died in Berlin in early May 1945."

In 2008, historian Peter Longerich published a biography of Heinrich Himmler, which appeared in English translation in 2012. Longerich asserts that Müller was with Himmler at Flensburg on 11 May, and accompanied Himmler and other SS officers in their unsuccessful attempt to escape capture by the Allies and reach Bavaria on foot. Longerich states that Himmler and Müller parted company at Meinstadt, after which Müller was not seen again. Longerich provides no source for this claim, which contradicts previous accounts of Müller's disappearance. The source for Longerich's account appears to be the interrogation of one of Himmler's adjutants, Werner Grothmann, the transcript of which contains references to "Müller".

Hitler’s closest henchman Martin Bormann and the Auschwitz Doctor of Death, Josef Mengele, were widely thought to be living in South America long after their actual deaths. Bormann was reported dead by the Hitler Youth leader Artur Axmann, who escaped with him from Hitler’s Bunker and saw Bormann dead. Yet nobody believed it. The Americans claimed he was in the hands of the Russians; the Russians accused Britain and the US of holding him. The corpse of the Gestapo chief Heinrich Müller, a bullet in his back, was found with his identity papers near the Reich Chancellery and buried in a mass grave in Berlin, yet my "Penguin Dictionary of the Third Reich" [2002] still claims that "the mystery of his disappearance remains". It took Bormann’s skeleton and teeth, and Mengele’s reconstituted skull, to bury the conviction that they were still alive.

- Guy Walters, "Hunting Evil: the Nazi War Criminals Who Escaped and the Hunt to Bring Them to Justice"

Hitler sought sanctuary in Japan?
By Ryann Connell

Aware that his Third Reich was on the verge of collapse just 12 years into the 1,000-year reign he had promised, German Führer Adolf Hitler tried to flee the rampaging Russians battering his Berlin Bunker and sought sanctuary in Japan, according to "Shukan Shincho".

As the Soviets relentlessly pounded the German dictator and his cronies holed up in the subterranean fortress in the German capital, moves were apparently afoot to whisk away top Nazis on long-range Condor airplanes to Japan, journalist Eiichiro Tokumoto writes in the prestigious weekly.

Tokumoto cites a top secret letter dated 24 April 1945, that Toshikazu Kase, then Japan's Ambassador to Switzerland, wrote to Shigemitsu Togo, Japan's Foreign Minister at the time.

Kase, a career diplomat whose CV would later include stints as Japan's first ambassador to the United Nations, was then involved with top secret peace negotiations with Allen Dulles, an operative with the U.S.' Office of Strategic Services, the forerunner of today's Central Intelligence Agency.

"It has recently been rumored here that in the event of Germany's defeat the German leaders will flee to Japan," Shukan Shincho quotes Kase's letter to Togo as saying, before going on to add that several Germans who equipped long-range Condor airplanes said they believed preparations were being made for an escape. Kase said the Germans believed "that in the closing stages of the war, Hitler or the party chiefs will attempt to escape to Japan by this means whether Japan likes it or not."

The letter went on to express fears of having the Nazis roll up in Japan, even though Japan was then still an ally.

Kase wrote that there was considerable condemnation of the Nazis' racial policy as the Third Reich neared collapse. He said some people "are troubled on Japan's account by rumors of this kind, holding that Japan should do her utmost to avoid creating the impression that she follows the same policy as the Nazis. The Japanese Government has of course been long aware of this and I merely mention the atmosphere which prevails in some quarters here as a matter of record," Shukan Shincho quotes his letter as saying.

The weekly notes that it is not aware of whether Kase had ever received concrete information about Hitler fleeing to Japan as the war in Europe neared its end. However, considering Kase was based in neutral Switzerland and engaged in secret negotiations with Dulles of the OSS, says the prospect cannot be ruled out.

Some reports say that at around the same time Kase was penning his letter, Hitler had demanded help to escape to Japan.

On 9 October 1945, just after the war ended, the "Pacific Stars and Stripes" ran a story by correspondent Jack Smith claiming that the Imperial Japanese Navy had a secret plan to spirit Der Führer out of Germany and into Japan.

Quoting a former Imperial Navy officer, Smith said that a top secret meeting had been held in Tokyo on 3 March 1945, during which the final decision was made to send a submarine to Germany to bring Hitler to Japan.

Hitler had apparently promised Japan a new weapon that would allow it to win the Pacific War if Japan agreed to provide him sanctuary. By that time, Hitler no longer trusted his fellow countrymen and had requested his Japanese allies send a submarine to pick him up, the weekly says.

Packed with 90 days of the supplies, the sub left Japan early on 5 March 1945. Given the codename Kyodo, the submarine also contained luxurious quarters for the Führer and his wife, Eva Braun.

But, two weeks later, just after refueling in the Indian Ocean, the submarine sank. When the submarine hadn't arrived to rescue him, Hitler contacted Japan on 14 April, asking about its whereabouts and alerting authorities here of its loss, the weekly says. Whether the Allies sunk the sub remains unknown.

Having learned about the failure of his plan to escape from under the sea, the timing at least would give credence to rumors of Hitler's proposed flight to Japan that Kase talked about in his letter.

Few have doubts that Hitler was trying to get away from the Soviets, though he would eventually end up dying in his Bunker by shooting himself in the head.

"I've heard from several different sources that Hitler was trying to escape, but this is the first time I've heard he was trying to flee to Japan," a former OSS agent tells Shukan Shincho.

"Most people thought he'd head for his villa on the border of Austria and Germany. Mind you, by that time, he was already under incredible mental strain".

A Soviet Intelligence Colonel Lev Brymenski revealed during the Cold War that SS General Wilhelm Mohnke attempted to negotiate with Zuhkov under a flag of truce for Hitler to escape to Japan. Hitler offered to capitulate all of northern Germany and Denmark to the Soviets in return for his escape. The Soviets turned down that request.

The Soviets were offered the capitulation of all German forces in northern Germany and Denmark, but they rejected this. [source: "The Bormann Brotherhood", by William Stevenson]

His suicide was by no means Hitler's plan until the last couple of days.

The day after that, 30 April, Hitler's personal pilot, Hans Baur, begged him to escape by plane either to Argentina or Japan. There was a Junkers Ju390 V2 ready, with six 1700hp BMW engines, with a cruising speed of 500km/h and a flying autonomy of 9700 km. This plane had been designed to bomb New York and in fact its prototype flew to the United States and came back. in a book called "The Berlin Bunker" by James P O'Donnell, published 1979, compiled by interviewing 250 survivors from Hitler's Bunker in the last days of the Reich.  O'Donnell cites Reichs Minister Albert Speer talking about Hitler's pilot Hans Baur. Baur it seems was obsessed in the last days with using the Ju-390 to fly Hitler to Japan.

Speer said Baur had serious plans to fly Hitler out on 23, 28 and 29 April 1945. Speer quoted Baur saying to him after the war, "right up to the last days I could have flown the Führer anywhere in the world."

Baur however was denied use of the Ju-390 for Hitler by Hans Kammler.

Lieutenant Baur was the Lieutenant of the 'Grenzmark', Hitler's private plane, a Focke Wulf Condor Fw200-V, Four BMW 850 hp engines, in 1938 it flew from Berlin to Tokyo for the first time, it had a cruising speed of 335 km/h and a flying autonomy of 3560 km. It was also the first heavier-than-air craft to fly nonstop between Berlin and New York City, making the journey on 10 August 1938 in 24 hours and 56 minutes. The return trip on 13 August 1938 took 19 hours and 47 minutes.

At the suggestion of his personal pilot Hans Baur, Adolf Hitler specified a modified prototype Condor, the Fw 200 V3, as his personal transport, as a replacement for his Junkers Ju 52. Originally configured as a 26-passenger Lufthansa transport, it was reconfigured as a plush two-cabin airliner. Hitler's seat in the cabin was equipped with a wooden table, seat-back armour plating, and an automatic parachute with downward throws. According to Baur, it was never armed, in line with Hitler's aircraft preferences, It was destroyed at Berlin Tempelhof Airport in an Allied bombing raid on 18 July 1944.

According to the known story Hitler, together with his wife, would commit suicide at 3:30 p.m. on 30 April. The direct witnesses being, one way or the other, Erich Kempka, Otto Günsche and Heinz Linge and some members of the Leibstandarte who saw some bulks being taken out through the emergency exit of the Führerbunker into the garden and afterwards a bonfire.

The great avenue, the East-West axis which cut the Tiergarten in two, from the Brandenburg Gate to the Victory Column, with its 900m of length constituted a great landing strip. In March 1945, by Hitler's express order, the lights were taken out to allow big planes, like the Ju52 with its 19m wingspan, to land there. It was almost intact and the pictures of that time show that the nearby trees only had their branches damaged by shrapnel.The planes, generally, arrived from the Brandenburg Gate and took off from the Victory Column.

On the last day of April the battle for the Reichstag had virtually ended in the Königsplatz and the nearby avenue was less dangerous, a landing and a take-off was then possible. The probabilities of success during the afternoon were high, but during the night, between the 30th and the 1st, they were excellent.

On 30 April 1945, at 4:15 p.m., a Ju52 landed at Berlin Downtown, two of that plane's crew saw Adolf Hitler in front of a turbojet plane, probably an Arado 234 B, or Type C, a great tactical bomber of two/four jets. Unlike the other German jet planes of that time, it could land on difficult landing strips or on natural fields due to its oversized landing gear, its take-off was also very short if it carried no bombs, which according to the standard version was around 500 kg to 1000 kg. It had a big pilot cabin and a comfortable space behind the cargo compartment. A perfect plane to escape in from an extreme situation, this tactical bomber both B and C model had an autonomy of 1650/1400 km and flew at 10,000/11,000 Mts. which made it invulnerable together with its cruising speed of 700/800 km/h, these features were superior to the ones the Allied planes of that time had and similar to the ones of modern executive jets.

The new Chancellery made by the architect Speer is part of the myth surrounding Hitler's suicide. The Chancellery's blueprint shows a 220m long building, which extended its front throughout the totality of the Voss Strasse and had Italian style gardens under which the Führerbunker was located.

The structural integrity of the architectonic set is evidenced by a picture taken during an Allied strike in April 1945 and another airshot taken days after Berlin's defeat. Indeed, it is not destroyed, though it is clear that only one 500 kg bomb hit near the secondary entrance of the Voss Strasse without doing any damage to the inside of the construction.

There was wall damage in the central hall, more than one hundred meters long, and in Hitler's study, where the Bohemian chandeliers were still intact.

The area that covers the Führerbunker was photographed from the roof of the Honor Court in June 1945, and it is of great importance, the amount of construction material and scaffolds present at the field which covers the area, specially near the emergency exit cube, where an L-shaped pit was found, destined to build the foundations of a protective wall.

War correspondents in 1945 are shown the grave where Adolf Hitler's charred body is alleged to have been buried, behind the Chancellery in Berlin

As late as May 1945 the hand removed gravel piled a few feet away from the Bunker's exit was still evident. The piled gravel could still be seen two months later, in July 1945, and there had been very little crumbling in the pit, not deeper than 3 feet. Four 20 lt. cans of oil were still on the premises, abandoned by the Soviets as trophies, and a concrete mixer at the corner of the pit.

The Diplomat's Hall, behind the emergency exit door and the nearby looking outpost to the left of it showed very little shrapnel damage in their plastering. The lamps and blinds were left untouched, so was the smooth surface of the concrete cube of the emergency exit. The disorder of the interrupted work is evidenced by the pictures taken in May and July 1945.

   Russian photo of "Hitler's Corpse"
2 May 1945
[note bullet hole in forehead)]

As a consequence of the area not being declared off-limit for the Allied Forces many visits were made by militaries, politicians and journalists. Everybody visited the miserable 3m by 4m L-shaped pit, measured by a white tape exiting the emergency door that was put when Churchill visited the site on 16 July 1945, site and sat on Hitler's sofa that had been brought from the Führerbunker. To everyone's eyes it was a simple ditch that showed no trace of a bonfire, let alone of a bomb cone as it has always been told. There were no impact holes or other characteristics to justify that myth or the one of the Wagnerian bonfire where Hitler was supposedly burned to ashes.  

It is true indeed that the Soviets wanted to show off with the Allies that visited the Soviet sector, they showed pictures of them around a body, in a trophy like manner. They also published a close-up of what they claimed was Hitler's lifeless body in "Pravda", the Official Bulletin of the Party, that was actually nothing more than a grossly tricked picture of a man twenty years younger than Hitler that but for the little mustaches bore no resemblance with him.

One servant from the Bunker declared that the dead man was one of Hitler's cooks. He also believed this man "had been assassinated because of his startling likeness to Hitler, while the latter had escaped from the ruins of Berlin". ["The New York Times", 9 May 1945]

His picture, however,  kept appearing in history books illustrating Hitler's last days for at least fifty years afterwards.

The body is not that of Adolf Hitler, but rather of a Hitler double, he has a bullet hole in the center of his forehead, rather than the right temple as we are led to believe from numerous re-enactments seen in documentaries and moves when Hitler "shot himself." The body is unburned, which is at complete odds with the account of high ranking German aides burning the bodies of both Hitler and Eva Braun in a shallow grave in the Chancellery garden using gasoline.

No one WITNESSED the supposed drug suicide by "Eva Braun" or the supposed shooting-suicide of Hitler. They were in a soundproof room, yet a few witnesses claimed that they heard a shot, while others who were present in the corridor right outside the door say that they heard nothing.

The body of Eva Braun was never found in the Chancellery garden by the Russians, unlike the Hitler double who was dug up, unburned, from a shallow grave.

A blurred portrait is visible in the controversial photos of Adolf Hitler's "Doppelgänger suicide". The out-of-focus portrait was thought to be a photograph of Eva Braun inspiring pity for the Führer's parting gesture to the only woman he loved……

.....but it is of Hitler himself. Its size, contours, shadows, and range of luminance all bear marked similarities to a now-famous series of photos taken by Heinrich Hoffmann, who was Hitler's personal photographer and "corporate" image maker. Whoever included that portrait in the morbid Bunker death scene as a means of identifying the corpse may have done so to lend authenticity to Hitler's suicide deception. Instead it casts a spotlight directly on Heinrich Hoffmann's delight for photographic trickery and the likelihood of fraud. The ridiculous presence of a Hoffmann picture exactly on Hitler's dead body was almost an outright confession of photographic hocus-pocus.

A body that looked like Hitler's was included in a Soviet archive film shown on Russian television in September, 1992.
It appeared to contradict the generally accepted account that the body had been burned by aides of the
Nazi leader after his suicide in April 1945.  
Russian historian Lev A. Bezymensky said that the film had been made in a case of mistaken identity, that the charred corpse of Hitler had been found by Soviet troops, and that a portion of the remains were in archives in Moscow.


German historians like Anton Joachimsthaler looked at thousands of pages of data made public after inquiries into Hitler’s death.

Joachimsthaler wrote:

"On 25 May 1952 the former US Chief of Intelligence, who had allegedly conducted an official investigation into Hitler’s disappearance, stated that he found no proof, only rumors of Hitler’s death".

Colonel William F. Heimlich was an infantry officer in Europe during World War II, participating in the Battle of the Bulge, and was in the company of the first U.S. troops to go into Berlin. William Heimlich served as assistant chief of staff for U.S. intelligence in Berlin.

After the war, Colonel Heimlich was quoted in a 1952 issue of "Police Gazette":

"The investigation of the stains on the couch, where Hitler allegedly killed himself according to the reports, showed that the stains were human blood, but not of the blood groups of either Hitler or Eva Braun.

"That critical forensic indicator was consistent with clues that a look-alike cook –– and not Adolf Hitler himself –– was shot in the Führer’s Berlin Bunker quarters on 30 April 1945.

"Perhaps the real tyrant had been able to get away, and Trevor-Roper’s suicide report was in some way mistaken".

When "Newsweek" magazine published a commentary named “Adolf Hitler’s Double,” in its 13 March 1939 issue, the editors were only restating a view that was already jointly acknowledged by the Allies. The German dictator was known to have used at least one political decoy and it was alleged that he deployed more.

At the end of World War II the official Soviet news agency, "Tass", passed on the word of a Russian general that the body of a man identified as Adolf Hitler had been found in the ruins of Berlin. The corpse was photographed and filmed by the Soviets. In fact, Hitler's corpse had already been cremated by that time. It soon became known, however, that the problematical corpse was a double mistakenly believed to be Hitler because of his identical moustache and haircut.

Various Western sources soon reported that the dead body in the photo was Hitler's double [or Doppelgänger], a man called Gustav Weler or Weber, who was executed with a gunshot to the forehead, in an attempt to confuse the Allied troops when Berlin was taken.

Weler's body was brought to Moscow for investigations and buried in the yard at Lefortovo prison. No further attempts were made to identify him. ["The Times". London (UK): 20 September 1992] 

However, the British surgeon and historical writer W. Hugh Thomas reported in his 1996 book "Doppelgängers" that Gustav Weler was found alive after the war and that Allied troops interviewed Weler following Hitler’s death.

Who was Gustav Weler?

99% of Google hits will just contain a single sentence "Gustav Weler was employed as Hitler's body-double, a political decoy who was shot in the forehead after Hitler's suicide, and his corpse put in a water cistern where it was discovered and photographed by Soviets who mistook him for Hitler"

In line with the limited details that have surfaced, Gustav Weler lived in Munich in the 1930s until the Nazis, who thought he was making fun of Adolf Hitler,detained him because of his physical similarity and the way he dressed.

It looked like Weler was a familiar showman in Berlin for his charismatic resemblance to the Führer. In prewar Berlin he was frequently stopped by the Gestapo for impersonatingHitler and was told at one point to get rid of his moustache. A war history forum quoted:

"Martin Bormann introduced Weler to Hitler at the Berghof, but the Führer was enraged and ordered that he never wanted to see theDoppelgänger again and that he was to be imprisoned in aconcentration camp. Bormann, sensing that Weler could prove to be useful, disobeyed Hitler’s order and hid Weler away in Munich".

- Axis History Forum

So who was he anyways?
Why do we know nothing of him, in the millions of pages of captured German records we have no record of his being arrested, or where he was from? That seems odd, for a guy who was famously mistaken for proof of Hitler's death. How was the corpse identified as "Gustav Weler" anyhow? [Erich Kempka declared that the dead man was one of Hitler's cooks. He also believed this man "had been assassinated because of his startling likeness to Hitler, while the latter had escaped from the ruins of Berlin"] Who identified it? Did members of the RSD who supposedly executed him ever mention it? [A sensationalist 2006 book by Eric Orion entitled "The Bush Connection", claimed that Otto Skorzeny himself shot Weler].

Reports now circulate in Russia that an actor, Andreas Kronstädt, was the impersonator who had volunteered to die in Hitler’s place. This was the theme of the 1996 film, "Conversation with the Beast", directed by one of Rainer Werner Fassbinder’s followers, Armin Müller-Stahl. Meanwhile, in Germany some suspicion still points to Julius Schreck, who was Hitler’s favorite driver and party member from 1921. He occasionally acted as Hitler’s double because of their close resemblance.

According to some reports, Schreck died in a traffic accident in 1936. Other reports say that he died from an abscessed tooth fever. To confuse matters more, "Time" magazine once wrote that Hitler’s alleged double was Heinrich Bergner who was killed  on 20 July 1944, when Colonel Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg planted a bomb under Hitler’s table, at his headquarters in East Prussia; other publications said that a stenographer named Berger died. Some sources have oddly suggested that the burnt corpse found in the Chancellery garden was that of SS-Gruppenführer Hermann Fegelein, husband of Eva Braun’s sister, Gretl, who was stripped of his rank for committing treason and shot outside the Berlin bunker two days before Hitler’s suicide.

Some sources have oddly suggested that the burnt corpse found in the Chancellery garden was that of SS-Gruppenführer Hermann Fegelein, husband of Eva Braun's sister, Gretl, who was stripped of his rank for committing treason and shot outside the Berlin Bunker two days before Hitler's suicide.

After 50 years, Russian officials said the photos of Hitler's corpse were part of authentic military film footage from the Moscow Central Archive. But the glasnost photos created more problems than they solved. The main question is: whose body is really in the pictures? Was it Adolf Hitler or his double? If it actually was Hitler, then the photos (or film footage) must have been taken by someone inside the Bunker before Hitler's corpse was burned with gasoline in the Chancellery garden. It is assumed that Red Army soldiers took the photos just after they captured Berlin.

Were these photos confiscated from Third Reich leaders or printed from a camera deliberately left in the Bunker? To confuse us, the released photos were sometimes published in reverse, from left to right, in a mirror image, to misrepresent details. Were they retouched or manipulated? Props were applied to the background, including a blurred female portrait which in one photo appears on the dead man's chest. Reports also mention a "group photo" of soldiers standing around the corpse, which may have been moved between photos. The man in the pictures has not been positively identified.

No other photos of Hitler's body were ever released by the Russians, who insist they discovered his corpse and performed several autopsies to  positively identify him. How and why such an extremely important forensic investigation could have been conducted in the 20th century, without extensive photographic evidence, remains one of the great mysteries of modern history. When the bodies of Josef and Magda Göbbels were found, they were put on display and photographed from every angle, even on the autopsy table.

"Rumors started to circulate about a double for Hitler. He was supposed to be a total look-alike, and he was trained to "be" Hitler and was supposedly going to die a martyr’s death on the battlefield so that Hitler could be glorified without dying"

-  "New York Times" 19 April 1945.

The erratic rumors about Hitler's doubles were soon to be accepted by many as facts.

According to one report: "The doubles were given voice and movement instruction, and they mastered Hitler's soft conversational voice and distinctive walk. Their faces and dental work were altered, and even their spines were broken in the same place where Hitler had been injured in the First World War. German efficiency left nothing to chance".

"But the one thing that none of these Doppelgängers could ever hope to duplicate, was Hitler's hypnotic, charismatic public speaking style. His ability to sway a crowd had never been matched or equaled. The doubles would be good for public appearances, parties, or maybe meetings or briefings where Hitler was not expected to have that much interaction with his underlings".

According to a recent Russian story: "Göbbels had engaged six doubles to impersonate Hitler for purposes of security and public appearances. After the capitulation of the Third Reich, Hitler had to die for the sake of vindication. There could be no doubt of his death".


Despite the Intelligence reports, many Western historians continued to maintain that Adolf Hitler committed suicide in his Berlin underground Bunker on 30 April 1945. Ironically, it was not the evidence provided by Russia that convinced them, but the testimony of the obsessively devoted Nazis who were also present in the Chancellery Bunker when Hitler allegedly killed himself. Here is where their futile pretence became a matter of imprudence: For they were primarily the very same historians who insisted that the body shown in the annoying Russian photos was a Doppelgänger killed by those Nazis in the Berlin Bunker who wanted to thwart Allied investigators. We were therefore expected to believe that after committing the outright murder of a double for the purpose of obstructing  justice, our Nazi Bunker guests were nonetheless quite frank and honest in their eye-witness accounts of what really became of Adolf Hitler. 

In 1943, the body of a Royal Marines captain washed ashore on the coast of Spain. A briefcase handcuffed to his wrist contained the Allied invasion plans for Europe. The Germans believed what they found. But little did they know that the body was really that of Glyndwr Michael, a homeless alcoholic Welsh suicide who had been packed in dry ice and dropped from a submarine as part of one of the most detailed hoaxes of the war.

"After three months on ice in Hackney Morgue, his body was shipped off to the coast of southern Spain for an elaborate plot to fool the Nazis. Intelligence officers Charles Cholmondeley and Ewen Montagu had painstakingly transformed the corpse into a soldier –– the fictitious Major William Martin –– for whom they had spent monthscreating a plausible backstory".

-- Megan Lane, 'Operation Mincemeat: How a dead tramp fooled Hitler', "BBC News Magazine", 3 December 2010

A factual account of the fictional officer was turned into a Hollywood film, “The Man Who Never Was,” in the 1950s, after Montagu wrote a book about the stratagem. The war hoax also became the subject of a 1998 BBC documentary called “The Corpse that Fooled the Axis.” Based on the discovery of the captain’s body, the Germans mistakenly concluded that the Allies planned to attack Greece, rather than Sicily. They misguidedly moved an entire Panzer division – 90,000 soldiers – to Greece. The fake soldier marked a major turning point in the war and signaled the final demise of Axis power and control over Fortress Europe.

Since the Allied forces used a dead body to dupe and trounce Germany, it may have been a tit for tat retaliation, to repay in kind, for a Gestapo team to do just the same thing with the real Adolf Hitler’s  corpse.

The cadaver of the look-alike cook lying on scattered debris in the Berlin ruins was an illusory focal point. Of course, the Führer’s well-known portrait would also be placed noticeably among the rubble, as a deceptive "clincher"  for Russians to discover.

Some historians were convinced that the Berlin decoy chef’s corpse was "spruced up" by photo stylists and craftily laid down among the Chancellery ruins. 

Anton Joachimsthaler ["The Last Days of Hitler: The Legends, the Evidence, the Truth," 1996] wrote:

"One wonders just who it was who made that poor unfortunate up to look like Hitler, laid him out in the Chancellery, surrounded him with finger-pointing Russian soldiers and allowed him to be filmed and photographed".

Hence, one witness reported seeing a gunshot wound in Hitler's mouth, while others claimed it was near the corner of his eye, [some even hinted that Hitler's butler strangled him and forced a cyanide capsule into his mouth]. Pick a card, any card. One witness described finding the body of Hitler perched limp next to a dead Eva Braun on an elongated, upholstered sofa. But another found Hitler's corpse sitting alone near a corner, on a chair by itself. Mix and match.

The fact that a maid admitted seeing a Hitler look-alike confined to the butler's pantry area was not considered to be of great consequence.  And the murder of the Doppelgãnger was just another war technicality.

Washington was apparently worried about a “Hitler double” escapee and paid cautious attention to the analysis of William Heimlich, the ex-Chief of U.S. Intelligence in Berlin. In the book “Who Killed Hitler?” [1947], edited by Herbert Moore and James W. Barrett, an explicit episode ["The Double in the Führer’s Kitchen"] cited Heimlich declaring, “I found neither Hitler nor his physical remains.” The former U.S. officer said that Hugh Trevor-Roper’s story did not contain a single fact of Russian Intelligence finding.


Who did it? No doubt it was one - or all - of our Bunker guests. They would not stop even at murder to perpetrate their Führer's cover-up. But by now, the world was totally convinced of their honest integrity and humble desire to satisfy our secret wish that Hitler should not have escaped justice. Establishment historians assured us that Adolf Hitler committed suicide in his Berlin Bunker, shortly after exchanging marriage vows with Eva Braun.

No bullet was ever found. But that does not matter.  A skull fragment originally thought to be from Hitler has had its DNA tested, by American researchers. The skull fragment has turned out to be that of a woman under 40. The blood stains on the sofa were reportedly of the wrong blood-type. But such details need not concern us. Hitler's entire body apparently vanished into thin air. But at least we found his teeth, in the garden.

Dental assistants apparently identified them from X-rays made public in 1968.

And what was the actual point of murdering the Doppelgãnger on the floor? What was that cover-up about if Hitler had already left a legally written will; a historical document, stating that his body was to be "immediately destroyed" by fire? We never thought of that. But since we must believe in something, our Chancellery Bunker guests were ingenious enough to embellish us with such an entwined mass of information and confused additions that we could now produce our own personal interpretations of history; our own special views of faith.

Indeed, an entire library of books may be filled with eye-witness accounts and so-called proofs of Hitler's suicide. Most of the new printed works were merely rehashed Berlin Bunker testimonies, smoothed out to make a bit more sense, and hopefully convince us by their sheer size of whatever we seriously hope is true. But as one American military officer commented: "Upon reviewing the actual facts, not a single insurance company would ever pay out a cent to similar claims based on such scant, non-conclusive evidence". 

What sort of cover-up was the actual purpose behind the murder of Hitler's double? The most prevalent opinion is that the true motive was for Hitler to escape: According to the "Washington Post", the US Office of Censorship intercepted a letter in July 1945 written from someone in Washington. Addressed to a Chicago newspaper, the letter claimed that Hitler was living in a German-owned hacienda 450 miles from Buenos Aires. The US government gave this report enough credibility to act on it, sending a classified telegram to the American embassy in Argentina requesting help in following up the inquiry.


That Hitler underwent some sort of cosmetic surgery was confirmed in a well-known 1942 "Time" magazine article about  the Nazi leader.  His plastic surgery was also referred to by United Press Central European manager Frederick C. Oechsner, and in the "Office of Strategic Services' Hitler Source Book".

The story broke when some journalists began to notice a strange alteration in Adolf Hitler's physical appearance, especially his nose. The SS immediately released an official press dispatch stating that Hitler had his fat nose streamlined by a plastic surgeon. That did not, however, explain why the originally thin, straight nose of Corporal Hitler gave way to the large, exaggerated nostrils of the Führer.

Other minor details of identification no doubt had to be handled with care when dealing with a double. Exact body height was very important: Eva Braun's statement regarding Hitler's Munich-based double, that he "wears built-up shoes to overcome a height difference," possibly explains the 5 cm height discrepancy of the body autopsied. Duplicating eye color accurately also presented a perceptible Doppelgãnger obstacle: Changing eye color was part of the infamous research conducted by Josef Mengele, the Nazi doctor of Auschwitz. Mengele had dye injected into the eyes of several subjects.

Surprisingly, the tell-tale fingerprint issue was not such a serious problem in the early days of Nazism. Although various anthropologists and novelists had toyed with the idea of fingerprints as a form of identification, it was not until 1924 that an act of congress established the Identification Division of the FBI. But by then, Hitler already led the Nazi party. and later of course, the Reich maintained full control over all fingerprints kept in Germany's files. Hitler's burnt corpse had no surface skin to yield fingerprints

In the end, only Hitler's false teeth, found with the Chancellery garden corpse fragments, provided some evidence to satisfy the strict terms imposed by most modern insurance companies. And that was still highly questionable, because a patient's bridgework could easily be reproduced by an experienced dentist and deliberately placed almost anywhere.

The key suspects of a possible cover-up in the Berlin Bunker were Heinz Linge, Hitler's valet, Otto Günsche, Hitler's Adjutant, Hans Baur, his personal pilot and Johann Rattenhuber, the Chief of Bodyguards. They were all vigorously trained to guard Hitler's personal secrets, even under the threat of torture and death. And they would not hesitate to kill a Doppelgãnger to complete their Chancellery cover-up. However there was still one entity they could not easily deceive or trick: the polygraph or lie-detector test. An instrument capable of continuously recording blood pressure, respiration, and pulse rate was devised by John Larson in 1921, followed by the polygraph (1926) of Leonarde Keeler, and the psychogalvanometer (1936) of Walter Summers, which measured electrical changes on the skin. Because instruments were able to record bodily changes resulting from the telling of a lie, it is likely that certain testimonies, as witnessed by those in the Bunker, were absolutely true.

Perhaps for this reason, no one actually saw Adolf Hitler shoot himself. They could only be called upon to describe what they did to dispose of the dead body. Whose corpse they actually burned in the garden was a matter of recognition, especially if Hitler's double was an exact look-alike. In this way, even a lie-detector test could be beaten. Certainly, some of the Bunker guests presumably could not establish the difference between Hitler and his Doppelgãnger.

Official World War Two intelligence reports from some nations disclosed formal references to "a war prisoner named Hitler". According to Reich leaders, the mysterious hostage was Adolf Hitler's favorite nephew, Heinz, who they said was captured by Soviet troops. 

An exchange of prisoners was supposedly set in motion with Stalin to free the obscure Hitler-Hostage. But his fate remains unknown. He is presumed to have died in a death camp in 1942.

A few days before Hitler's alleged 1945 suicide, some Bunker guests began to suspect that he was an impostor. According to reports, "all his movements were those of a senile man" who appeared to be older than his actual age.

Modern historians maintain that the Americans would probably have reached Berlin before the Russians if Eisenhower had not tried to find Hitler's Alpine mountain retreat. The Nazi National Redoubt was assumed to have been somewhere near Hitler's "Eagle's Nest" mountain villa, the Berghof in Berchtesgaden It was rumored to have been stocked with Nazi jets, rockets, and possibly nuclear weapons. Eisenhower's chief of staff, General Bedell Smith, warned "of a prolonged campaign in the Alpine area". But a Nazi Redoubt fortress was never found in the Alpine mountains.

To the Allies, Hitler's final war actions seemed absurd and contradictory. While Berlin was being attacked by Russian troops from the north, Hitler ordered an all-out counterattack in the southern suburbs of Berlin, led by S.S. General Felix Steiner. Perhaps the actual reason for that Nazi build-up was to form a column for the "final switch-over" to be carried out. The death scene setting would then be carefully reconstructed on the Berlin Bunker floor, with a murdered Doppelgänger. If such a final switch-over mission occurred it might answer a critical question of the last days of the war: General Steiner did indeed assemble a massive German arrangement of troops south of Berlin. But he never launched a counterattack. What were the German troops really there for? 


The withdrawal of troops from the north of Berlin to support Steiner had so weakened the front there that the Russians had broken through and their tanks were now within the city limits. 

Hitler's double or Doppelgänger was in the Berlin Bunker at that time. On 30 April  at about 2:30 in the morning, it was probably a Doppelgänger who emerged from Hitler's private quarters and appeared in the general dining passage where some 20 persons were assembled. He walked speechlessly down the line shaking their hands with tears in his eyes. Then, an uncanny "party" began in the canteen which went on through the night. Hitler's so-called suicide finally took place at about 3:15 in the afternoon. Shortly after 3:30 Heinz Linge and an unidentified S.S. orderly carried out a male body to the Chancellery garden, wrapped in a blanket.

Martin Bormann immediately sent messages to Hitler's successor, Admiral Karl Dönitz, notifying him that he was now the new leader of Germany. Yet Bormann did not even once mention to Dönitz that the Führer was dead. Was he? Meanwhile, the Göbbels family, also temporarily living in the Berlin Bunker, decided to poison their six children. An unidentified S.S. orderly then supposedly killed Göbbels and his wife with two shots in the garden, at their request. The rest of the guests made efforts to escape along the subway.

Ironically, Dick White, the Intelligence officer who allegedly persuaded Trevor-Roper to examine Hitler’s death, had a prominent look-alike as well. The head of the British Secret Intelligence Service during the 1950s and 60s resembled the famed actor David Niven, as described by ex-agent Peter Wright [“Spycatcher,” 1985]. David Niven was a Colonel in the Army Kinematograph Section in 1944, when he purportedly helped put together a “Doppelgänger mission” to impersonate British General Bernard Montgomery.

There was not much accord to the aforesaid official suicide story. Yet there were possible strategic witnesses to a different version, which Trevor-Roper and various British Intelligence envoys wanted to write off. For instance, author Gregory Douglas, reporting in “The Military Advisor” in the 1990s, made known that the former Chief of the Gestapo, Heinrich Müller, had apparently passed through to Switzerland and later worked for the CIA. Müller evidently knew that a “Hitler double” was put to death in the Berlin Bunker, and he allegedly stated:

"I strongly assume that Otto Günsche had his doubts, in other words that he suspected that he was not dealing with the real Hitler in the final days".

New Book Claims Hitler Fled to South America
by Bob Flanagan
July 1, 2014
Moscow| A new book by Russian author Dimitri Boryslev claims Adolf Hitler did not commit suicide in his Berlin Bunker, but instead fled in a submarine with many high ranking Nazi officials to different parts of South America.

The news comes at a crucial time, as recently declassified FBI files in 2014 claimed J. Edgar Hoover had information concerning leads about Hitler's possible escape to Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina.

Dimitri Boryslev, who was an operative for the KGB under Nikita Khrushchev and later governments, claims it was a well known fact in Russian Intelligentsia that Hitler's body had never been found and was even tought in Russian schools until the 70's. "Until his death in 1953, Stalin always believed that Hitler had escaped. In 1945, Stalin told the Allies this same information but was met with great skepticism. Since then, Stalin never trusted the West again. He believed the West had made a secret pact with Hitler, who would have given them information on weapon technology and stolen treasure locations," explains the 93 year old man.

The proclaimed skull of Hitler was tested in 2006 by an independent forensic pathologist and declared to possibly be the remains of Hermann Lündeft, a well known Hitler look alike. Analysis of the teeth of the skull revealed discrepancies of age but also did not show traces of syphilis, a disease Hitler contracted in his youth, possibly from a prostitute in 1908 Vienna, but those sources are questionable. People suffering from syphilis have teeth that are smaller and more widely spaced than normal and which have notches on their biting surfaces, a trait easily recognizable to experts. Adolf Hitler received treatment for syphilis before and during World War II.

Another fascinating claim advanced by the author is that Otto Günshe, who was a Sturmbannführer in the Waffen-SS and later became Hitler's personal assistant and was eventually given orders by Hitler to burn his body after he had died, revealed in his diary several days before his death that he was ready to tell the world the truth about Hitler never committing suicide.  He was found dead days later, having sweat to his death in his sauna where his house-keeper found him at temperatures over 80 degrees celsius. A death the author claims, is very suspicious.

"This crucial eye witness of Hitler's last moments suddenly dies after he writes in his diary that he his going to spill his guts about the whole affair. It is possible there are still people or governments that are not interested in these facts being revealed to the world. How would the U.S.A. look if people learned they let Hitler live in exchange of war secrets and stolen treasure, possibly worth billions in today's money?" he concludes.

The comedown of Trevor-Roper’s influence began in 1983, when as a director of "Times Newspapers" he endorsed the so-called “Hitler Diaries.”


"Stern" magazine claimed to have received the Führer’s diaries smuggled out from East Germany. The diaries were alleged to be part of a shipment of documents recovered from an aircraft crash near Dresden in April 1945.

Hugh Trevor-Roper inspected the dictator’s diaries and declared: “I am now satisfied that the documents are authentic.” But within a few weeks, the West German Bundesarchiv revealed that forensic scientist Julius Grant had demonstrated beyond a doubt that the Hitler diaries were fakes –– made on modern paper using modern ink and crammed with chronological errors.

The Hitler diaries humiliation was portrayed in the 1991 British comedy TV miniseries "Selling Hitler." The news media around the world laid blame on what seemed to be the most expensive fraud in the annals of publishing. Some critics straightforwardly inferred that Trevor-Roper’s crowd was trying to fabricate modern history.

A considered review acknowledged: "Trevor-Roper’s initial endorsement of the alleged diaries raised questions in the public mind not only about his wisdom as a historian but also about his integrity, because "The Sunday Times", a newspaper to which he regularly contributed book reviews and of which he was an independent director, had already paid a considerable sum for the right to serialize the diaries."

At length, the hottest vexation to Trevor-Roper’s better judgment transpired in 2009. Researchers from the University of Connecticut released the results of a DNA test on “Hitler’s skull” that they said proved it did not belong to the Nazi leader. “The remains were that of a female aged between 20 and 40 years old,” according to DNA analysis.

In 1968, Soviet journalist Lev Bezymenski wrote that Hitler’s skull had been destroyed beforehand. When a fragment of Adolf Hitler’s skull went on display at Russia’s Federal Archives Service in 2000, an official at Russia’s Forensic Medicine Institute archives department stated with reservation that he had “not seen documents providing evidence that this is the skull of Hitler.” As presently avowed by Connecticut archaeologist and bone specialist Nick Bellantoni, the skull bone with a bullet hole shown in Russia came from an unknown woman, not the German leader.

The Trevor-Roper household version no longer presents much credible proof. It cannot establish a single certainty to the Berlin Bunker suicide. Former Soviet agents later said Hitler’s remains, buried in Magdeburg, except parts of his skull and jaw, were burnt in 1970 and thrown into the Biederitz River, in what was then East Germany. The orders to destroy the remains of Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun came from Yury Andropov, at that time head of Russia’s KGB security agency.

Jim Williams is the given name of the British lawyer, commercial consultant and writer, who has also written under the pen names Richard Hugo [not to be confused with an American author of the same name] and Alexander Mollin.

His work as an author falls under four categories:

- Crime stories as Jim Williams
- Non-fiction as Jim Williams
- A single historical romance as Alexander Mollin
- Thrillers as Richard Hugo

Williams came to public attention when his first novel, "The Hitler Diaries", was published nine months before the famous Hitler Diaries forgery scandal, and he seemed again prophetic when "Farewell to Russia", a novel about a nuclear accident in the USSR, was completed four months before the Chernobyl Disaster.

"Lara's Child" was the subject of an international literary scandal in 1994 because its subject was a sequel to "Doctor Zhivago".

"Scherzo" was nominated for the Booker Prize. Frances Fyfield called it "Sparkling and utterly charming". "How to be a Charlatan" is winner of the IAC Prize and was commended by Nick Webb [author of "A Dictionary of Bullshit"] as "Appalling and immoral. How wonderful!"

Jim Williams' books have received positive reviews in "The Times Literary Supplement", "The Guardian" and "The Evening Standard".

Jim Williams has been translated into six languages.  

Hitler's Bunker was another myth. It was depicted as a refuge but it was actually a system of several interconnected shelters. The Führerbunker, only Hitler himself and his closest men had access to it, and the Vorbunker, which had the services and accessories for the Führerbunker [a map was never published in benefit of the official story] thus being a huge shelter of covered and usable 500 sq. m.




 Observation Tower


 Storage Room

 Hitlers Schlafraum

 Hitler's Bedroom



 Hitlers Arbeits- und Wohnraum

 Hitler's Work- and Living-Room

 Eva Brauns Schlafraum

Eva Braun's Bedroom 



 Bad und Toilette

 Bathroom and Toilet

 Aufenthaltsraum RSD

 Lounge RSD

 Gasschleuse und RSD

 Gas Lock and RSD




 Doctor] Room

 Schlafraum Göbbels

 Bedroom Göbbels


A LIFE photographer took this picture inside Hitler's
underground Berlin Bunker in July 1945.
It had the kind of door that Deborah Lipstadt,
Prof. Robert Jan Van Pelt and Mr Justice Gray
all agreed was conclusive evidence of a gas chamber. 
Hitler should have been told....

- David Irving -

In order to increase the mystery, its hard access was also mythified with the excuse that the Soviets prohibited the access, but the pictures show that both Hitler's and Eva Braun's bedrooms and the study-room had been entered by not only Soviet but also by American researchers, identifiable by their uniforms and weaponry.

Allied Journalists were also shown the interior of the Führerbunker and entered it through the 44 step stair which the Hitler couple had used on April 30th for the last time.

It is also true that the rooms of the Führerbunker were full of hundreds of items, furniture and even a huge safe box that had been in his private room, all of which are still missing.


In July 1945 Bill Vandivert, reporter for "Life" Magazine, took a picture of the American CIC researchers who, with nothing besides a candle, were examining the living room, Hitler's suicide site, where a blood stain in the armrest of the sofa constituted the evidence of the myth, [American researchers exclusively took into account the sofa's bloodstains, overlooking the similar stains that could be seen on Eva Braun's bed, even when by its shape and size it had probably been left by one of the hundred wounded that were found by the Soviets at the time of occupying the Bunker].

Percy Knauth also of "Life" Magazine reported that:

"Against one wall stood a sofa with a light wooden frame and thick brocade cushions. This was where Hitler and Eva Braun - his bride of 48 hours after she had been mistress for sixteen years - had shot themselves if the story told by Hitler's driver Ernst Kempka is true. We held our lights close to the sofa. There were blood stains on the light-coloured armrest of the sofa. Blood had dripped down and collected in small coagulated stripes in the corner. Blood was also to be seen on the outer side of the sofa on the brocade cloth".

Even that sofa disappeared together with every historical evidence that could be found on the site, from Hitler's "Brockhaus Encyclopedia" piled up in his room to Eva's clothing, scattered on the bed.

Historians always speak about a Chancellery hit by many bombs, but the pictures of the gardens and of the park of ancient oaks surrounding the Führerbunker area show exactly the opposite. All the trees surrounding the Führerbunker's exit are still standing with their branches intact, and there is no evidence of air-bomb hits nor of mortar craters. The Italian gardens also remained intact, those trees made it impossible for the SS Harry Mengershausen who testified that near Hitler's study, from a Chancellery's window, he could see Hitler's and Hitler's wife's body being burned, to have witnessed the Viking funeral. The supposed bonfire could not have been seen from the Chancellery's windows facing the exit because of the trees and the distance.

  The remains of the above-ground portion of the Führerbunker shortly before it was destroyed in 1947
Entrance was to the left

The photographic evidence presented two decades afterwards, also like identificating evidence, show just a jaw fragment with a golden prosthesis on top of it, the jaw bone has holes and the ceramic part of the golden bridge is missing. The X-rays used for comparison taken of Hitler's head in 1944 are of very low quality and have no forensic value.

During the first days of May 1945, a picture of a carbonized cadaver was taken, burned to such an extent that the members broke apart when moved, the only intact thing that appeared on the picture was the penis and the scrotum of one testicle, hence another myth.

The phone rings and suddenly a man who introduces himself as the valet adjutant calmly informs you that the head of your government is dead. But the courteous butler asks you to trust him on this, because there's nothing to prove his claim, other than disfigured parts of a charred corpse with one testicle, and some gasoline rags, rammed into the ground-soil of the Berlin Chancellery garden with a clumsy wooden club. 
Being a responsible civil servant, you wonder why it was necessary to dismiss your leader's body in such a macabre way. No funeral or burial rites? Diplomatic Corpus strictly forbids the morbid abuse of the deceased body of a head of state. 

"I did it with the bodyguard," the butler's voice politely cuts you off, "to prevent the enemy from desecrating his body."

While the reason for destroying essential evidence may seem dubious, if not bogus, you must now make a critical choice:

Either insist on more proof, including photographs, or simply trust a valet adjutant and affix your signature to a formal agreement for the transfer of world power.....

Strikingly, no films or photographs exist that would corroborate any aspect of the official narrative of the Third Reich's last days, least of all the claim that Hitler committed suicide.

The only witness to identify "Hitler's body" was a Russian diplomat who had previously met the Führer once. No German witnesses ever saw and identified the body supposed to be Adolf Hitler but it certainly wasn't because of a shortage of potential witnesses. Zukhov had twenty Germans identify Minister for Propaganda Josef Göbbels!

When the bodies of Josef and Magda Göbbels were found, they were put on display and photographed from every angle, even on the autopsy table. Only ONE photograph was taken of "Hitler's corpse" - it is a picture of a crate with something unidentifiable in it, and the shot was taken from a distance. Did no one take a decent photograph of the corpse when it was discovered or during the autopsy?

The Soviets were not really convinced that they had Hitler's body. They claimed to have part of the skull with some of the dentition and a mandible and the dental records and a "match", but never once did they ever produced the "evidence" or confront their German prisoners with it. This leads one to suspect that they were not really happy they had the real body. Kempka stated that the last he saw of Hitler's body was a "black substance". One finds it difficult to imagine that had the skull survived the burning process, those thorough Germans would have left identifiable parts of the skull attached to this black substance when it would have been a simple matter to decapitate the body.

The skull , that has now been proven to be that of a woman between 20 and 40 years old, has been dismissed as evidence on previous occasions, as the bullet hole is not nearly large enough to be the exit hole of a round fired from a Walther PPK at close range.

And the fire damage is not nearly extensive enough - Hitler's body was almost completely burned, and any piece of skull or bone that survived would have been far more burnt than the Moscow fragment.

But if the fragment is not from Hitler, then who did it belong to? One theory is that it came from Eva Braun, but as she did not die from a gunshot wound, the fragment cannot be hers. The truth is, many thousands were killed in Berlin in 1945, and the fragment could have belonged to any one of them.

Linge in his  book "Bis zum Untergang" assisted by historian Werner Maser stated that although he carried out the head end of Hitler's body, he never looked at the head or face nor ever saw the bullet wound even though the blanket reached only to the root of Hitler's nose. There are only a couple of points of agreement between the entire accounts of Günsche, Linge and Kempka.

The only clear and attributable picture made public by the Soviet authorities during the autopsies made in the first half of May 1945, was Helga Göbbels, twelve years of age. Another one was her father's carbonized cadaver, Josef Göbbels who is still wearing a white cotton shirt and a black tie.



Reopening the Hitler conspiracy 
"Serpents of Fire": German Secret Weapons, UFOs and the Hitler/Hollow Earth Connection
30 April 2014

69 years ago the Third Reich ended and rumors about Hitler's death began. It's probably more correct to say that conspiracy theories regarding Hitler's possible escape from Nazi Germany, as Soviet soldiers closed in on his Bunker stronghold, have never been closed. The final days and hours of Der Führer and the Reich he led continue to fascinate and even to mystify.

The official record states that Hitler and his newlywed wife, Eva Braun, committed suicide late in the afternoon of 30 April 1945, by gun and cyanide. According to some witnesses, their bodies were taken outside, doused with petrol and set ablaze. Attempts were made to destroy the bodies as completely as possible, but the conditions made the task difficult, so eventually, what was left of them was covered and abandoned in a bomb crater where they were found by Soviet soldiers who soon captured the compound.

At that point the record gets a little confusing, a situation that was not helped by the Soviets themselves who used the idea of Hitler's possible escape and survival as a propaganda device to throw their Western allies off track. Given all the evidence, it's difficult to know what really Stalin believed about Hitler's final fate, although it's also quite clear that various U.S. intelligence assets were checking out the rumors about Hitler's survival for many years to come.

"Serpents of Fire", a classic conspiracy book, by paranormal and conspiracy author, Gray Barker, is resurrected, re-edited and retooled for a new readership by Andy Colvin. Barker published his books privately through a press he called Saucerian Books. Colvin has chosen to reissue Barker's best using that model: New Saucerian Books. It is appropriate and fun.

Barker, whose reputation is notorious, [he researched and wrote about UFOs, ghosts, government cover-ups and, well, Hitler, and also played the double agent trickster with other investigators, like John A. Keel, flagrantly tried to profit from the scary experiences of others and even hoaxed certain events for publicity, some are convinced that he was a "spook" himself], is in rare form in "Serpents of Fire", co-written with Ruth Anne Leedy, as he scoots from rumors of Hitler's escape to Nazi-Alien technologies, the Hollow Earth theory, the Grail and Reichstag occultism. It is classic Barker, one large conspiracy bag fits all, and it is just so much fun.

The thing about Barker is that he's a pretty good writer. He tells a hellava yarn and, you, the reader, really, really want to believe it. And as with all such forays into unofficial and unusual knowledge, he does uncover some pretty strange things.

According to his sources, and some of them are good ones, culled from primary documents and published interviews, Hitler had planned various methods of escape and the official story told of his discouragement and despair in that bleak April does not seem to track with other statements of defiance and intended survival that he apparently, really made. Add to this the fact that the Soviets hid evidence regarding Hitler's demise and even used the rumor of his survival as an intelligence ploy to throw the West off and the idea of conspiracy sometimes seems rather well founded.

The latest forensic evidence, again, at least what is officially accepted, even by the 'authoritative' Wikipedia entry, has concluded that Hitler was definitely dead at the time the Soviets found his body (he would probably be dead by now in any event even if he had escaped). But then, there's that 'skull story,' that the so-called Smoking Gun was really a woman's skull. Mystery upon mystery. But the symbol of Hitler, an anti-Messiah if there ever was one, has survived as historians have discovered just how weird the Nazis really were.

Nazi scientists really did investigate the possibility of saucer shaped craft, time travel and some of them were obsessed with occultism, Hollow Earth theories and the possibility that the Aryan Race had descended from superior alien life forms. When one places these preoccupations next to the very real 'conspiracy' of Paperclip, that brought many Nazi scientists, including some who had experimented on human beings, to the U.S. to work on American government projects, including rocketry, improved nuclear weaponry and technology that would protect American astronauts in space, well, much else becomes easier to believe.

Barker simply stuffs it all together here-the real with the fanciful, true horrors with the simply bizarre and the mix is a little uncanny, even when the information he presents, since the original manuscript was written decades ago, is dated. For example, Josef Mengele was still alive when the book was written and plate tectonics had not yet become accepted knowledge to be taught in schools. [Mengele had escaped, incidentally].

But where Barker really shines is in his ability to detect the power of a symbol, a living, vital, if vicious symbol. And that, Hitler certainly became. And remains so-a form of survival that can survive either reality of his passing.

Barker's stories fundamentally influenced the course of UFO and conspiracy narratives in the United States. It was Barker who broke the genuinely strange, sinister and sad story of Morris K. Jessup, an aspiring astronomer (who was really a used car salesman, despite having a degree in astronomy) and the fate of his book, "The Case for UFOs" [1953] which ended with Jessup's mysterious suicide.

Barker also published the initial accounts, of the Men in Black phenomena that seem to plague many UFO experiencers.

The late Gray Barker, head of Saucerian Publications and author of numerous books about flying saucers, was one of the most prolific writers and publishers in the "fringe" area of UFO fanaticism.

His 1956 book "They Knew Too Much about Flying Saucers" made the Men in Black [M.I.B.] feared within UFO circles during the late 1950s and 1960s. In it, Gray told about alleged brushes between the sinister M.I.B. and a Connecticut man, Albert K. Bender, who set the pace for what is now the stereotypical M.I.B. story: Someone sees a UFO and tries to tell the world about it. Without warning, three men in black suits and driving a big black car confront the witness. Afterwards, the witness appears too frightened to talk further about the UFO -- or anything else.

In account after account within the pages of "They Knew Too Much" and subsequent writings by others (including John Keel, who began using the shorthand "M.I.B." in his writings), the mysterious trio -- who at times seem to have uncanny mental powers and weird, otherworldly faces -- squelch all discussion about supposedly true UFO encounters. The whole notion smacked of a huge, pre-Watergate conspiracy.

In July 1997, the news came that the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency indeed may have participated in a cover-up not unlike that supposedly initiated by the fabled M.I.B. U.S. intelligence historian Gerald K. Haines wrote an unclassified article for "Studies of Intelligence", a CIA journal, revealing that during the 1950s the U.S. Air Force and other agencies actually did conspire to suppress the UFO issue and to concoct false cover stories to explain sightings of such super-secret U.S. spy planes as the U-2 and later the SR-71 Blackbird.

So, Bender, Barker, and the rest indeed may have been inspired by a grain (or several grains) of truth.

The fact is, where ever there were weird stories to be told, Barker was on the case. Unlike Keel, he was not really interested in trying to understand or solve what was going on, he was following the narrative threads, building a story, creating a legend. What truths may be contained therein just added to the mystery and allure.

This book is a classic, heralding back to the "good old days" of maverick paranormal research, conducted in the paranoid shadow of Cold War politics, before the advent of Internet memes and mirroring algorithms. In such a world, Hitler, like Schrödinger's Cat, could be alive and dead at the same time. It's amazing to step back to a time when the study of unofficial knowledge was fun and and it seemed like all things were possible, even if they scared the crap out of you.

The following is from the school of thought that seeks to debunk the claims of Hitler's escape to Argentina.  Although they attempt to go to great efforts to debunk the theories, actually what they present as evidence would not hold up in a modern court of law as evidence.  The witnesses they claim prove Hitler's death in the Bunker are actually people with a complete motive to cover-up Hitler's escape.

Debunking the “Hitler Escaped” Myths – Forensic evidence trumps rumours, theories and romantic tales
Posted on 06/17/2013 by justice4german

Did Hitler escape to Argentina or to a secret South Pole hideaway? I’m afraid not, but I’m sure there is money to be made in keeping such conspiracy theories afloat, and various agendas are served by it, primarily the agenda of fear and loathing. There are many who wish to portray Hitler as a coward and betrayer of his people by fleeing, while other armchair quarterbacks insist that his suicide is also evidence of coawardice and they apparently think he should have surrendered to become the center piece of the Nuremberg Flying Circus show trials; that some how such a spectacle would have been "honourable". There are no doubt also many Hitler fans who have held a small hope in their hearts that the Führer had actually out-smarted the Allies,  got away, and lived the rest of his life happily ever after with his bride Eva Braun.  Well,  I am very sorry to disappoint you.  He did take his life in Berlin in 1945 and there is substantial verified and corroborated forensic evidence which proves it. The rumours of Hitler’s escape were started by none other than Josef Stalin, shortly after Berlin fell. and the German forces were defeated.

From Metapedia:

“Hitler heroically had before the start of the Second World War connected his personal fate with the outcome this war[1]. Not only in words, but also in deeds: he committed suicide on 30 April 1945, when the war was irrevocably lost. His suicide is also stated by authentic witnesses, who also lived in the Führerbunker, and it can therefore be considered as a fact of history. Despite this, rumours and theories that Hitler survived the war are widespread and popular. And there are many theories about what happened with Adolf Hitler after the fall of Berlin. These are all hoaxes; not based on the facts. Some of such rumours and theories say that Hitler escaped to continue the National Socialist struggle from a different country. A particular popular version is the theory that Adolf Hitler would have escaped during the fall of Berlin in 1945 and gone to Argentina.


The Soviets weren’t helpful on the matter of the German leader’s death.

“The Soviets continued to be difficult. They refused to allow Westerners into Berlin even after the surrender of Dönitz' government and the last armies in the field on May 7-9. On May 10, they announced the existence of the burned bodies in the Chancellory courtyard, but only allowed that one might be Hitler. The same report went on to say that his body might never be found.

“On June 6, a spokesman for the Soviet army in Berlin announced unequivocally that Hitler had committed suicide and that his body had been identified. Three days later, Marshall Zhukov, the head of the Soviet army gave a press conference with Deputy Foreign Minister Andrei Vishinski looking over his shoulder. ‘We did not identify the body of Hitler,’ he said. ‘I can say nothing definite about his fate. He could have flown away from Berlin at the very last moment.'"

In an interview on "Deadline – Live", an Argentine news program, journalist Santiago Romero interviewed Abel Basti about Hitler’s escape, life in Patagonia, and the events that followed World War Two.

Interview with Basti:

Romero: What is your opinion on Hitler’s escape?

Basti: “Hitler escaped via air from Austria to Barcelona. The last stage of his escape was in a submarine, from Vigo, heading straight to the coast of Patagonia. Finally, Hitler and Eva Braun, in a car with a chauffeur and bodyguard—a motorcade of at least three cars—drove to Bariloche [Argentina].

“He took refuge in a place called San Ramon, about 15 miles east of that town. It is a property of about 250,000 acres with a lake-front view of Lake Nahuel Huapi, which had been German property since the early twentieth century, when it belonged to a German firm by the name of Schamburg-Lippe".

Romero: “On what basis do you claim that Hitler was in Spain after leaving his Berlin Bunker?”

Basti: “I was able to confirm the presence of Hitler in Spain thanks to a—now elderly—Jesuit priest, whose family members were friends of the National Socialist leader. And I have witnesses that allude to meetings he had with his entourage at the place where they stayed in Cantabria".


The article is printed in:  "Latin America, Israel and the Jews" - Informing the world about events in Latin America that affect the Jews and Israel

The writer Abel Basti says the Nazi Führer died in Argentina
13 July 2010

The suicide in the Bunker in Berlin and with the Russians at the door, was a farce staged by the Nazis”.

This is the contention of the Argentinean historian Abel Basti, in his book "Hitler's Exile".

Basti says he started working on this issue when the case of SS captain Erich Priebke, who was arrested while he was interviewing him at home, broke out. The Nazi remained under arrest at his home for months and was finally extradited to Italy.

In "The Exile of Hitler" Basti claims that the German dictator did not die along with Eva Braun in the Bunker in Berlin, but that the Führer fled to Argentina stopping in Barcelona, where he remained hidden, and in Vigo, where he boarded the submarine that took him to Patagonia.

Basti provides a secret document where Hitler supposedly appears as one of the passengers who were evacuated on an Austrian plane to Barcelona on 26 April 1945. He claims that Hitler’s suicide, with his lover, Eva Braun, on 30 April  1945 in a Bunker in the building of the Chancellery in Berlin was "a farce staged by the Nazis".

"The big secret of the dictator’s flight was the arrival of a double at Hitler´s Bunker on 22 April 1945, when the real dictator flew to the Austrian airport of Hörsching together with eight other people, including Eva Braun "

This version coincides with that given to the CIA by Heinrich Müller, head of the Gestapo. Basti insists that his work also includes a paper from the British Secret Services revealing that a Nazi submarine convoy departed days later from Spain, and after a stopover in the Canary Islands, continued its journey to the south of Argentina.

"In one of these submarines Adolf Hitler travelled with Eva Braun, under the protection of the de-facto president of Argentina, Edelmiro Farrell, and his Minister of War, Juan Domingo Peron".

- Are there any witnesses who saw those Nazis in Spain?, asks Antonio Astorga on ABC.

And Basti replies:

"Yes, an officer of the Blue Division reported his presence, but many, because of fear, did not want their names to appear. A material witness is a Jesuit nonagenarian, who retreated to a monastery, and has ample information of their presence in Spain".

- You show a German secret document where Hitler appears as one of the passengers evacuated by plane from Austria to Barcelona on 26 or in the early hours of 27 April 1945.

"It was a secret official communication with copies to the pilot Werner Baumbach, who emigrated to Argentina and brought his copy. Baumbach, together with others known Nazi pilots, worked for Peron’s aeronautical project".

- What did Hitler do to avoid being recognized?

"Hitler cut his hair and shaved off his moustache. This was enough to go unnoticed, as well, of course, that he did not move overtly in public. The removal of his moustache exposed a scar on his upper lip, which was not known by the common people".

- Is then the version that the dictator together with his mistress Eva Braun, had committed suicide on 30 April 1945 in a Bunker in Berlin, false?

"There was never any evidence of that death. No criminological proofs showing suicide. The German government gave Hitler up for dead eleven years later, in 1956, by presumption of death. That is, legally for Germany, Hitler was alive after 1945. Not only alive, but also was not a man convicted by law, there was no warrant, no judicial process against him. While Hitler was in Spain, a great farce was played in the bunker, whose lead actor was one of Hitler's doubles. During the last hours, his lookalike was drugged and prepared to represent the final act".

- Do you think that suicide was a "safe conduct", a mere excuse, so that Hitler could get away?

"Hitler´s escape was provisioned in a large plan of escape by the Nazis: of men, capital and technology. That plan, in 1945, received the green light from the Americans, through a secret military pact. The thousands of Nazis that leaked into the West, of which about 300,000 came to the U.S., were "recycled" to fight communism. Hitler became a living dinosaur, protected and sheltered".

- In "Hitler's Exile,” you include the document of the British secret services revealing that Hitler fled to Argentina on a submarine, stopping to refuel in the Canary Islands. And you say that before the convoy of submarines left Spain, the U.S. Navy removed all units sailing the South Atlantic. You also indicate that Nazi submarines “exchanged messages" with the American fleet. The messages were intercepted by the English.

- How did the Nazi worm crawl into Argentina?

"Hitler was 56 years old when he came to Argentina, where he lived as a fugitive, with a false identity and trying to pass as unnoticed as possible. In the early years he lived in a ranch near Bariloche, then in other parts of the country, and he changed residence in more than one occasion. Always accompanied by two bodyguards, sometimes three. His political activity was limited to a few meetings with old comrades and some Argentinian military. Hitler died in Argentina in the sixties. Eva Braun, younger than him, survived".

Thanks to Ellen Popper for providing the information and the translation.

Historians have generally agreed since the end of the Second World War that, staring defeat in the face, an increasingly feeble and paranoid Hitler had married Eva Braun in the bowels of his Berlin Bunker after midnight on 29 April 1945, and later dictated his will. His physician Werner Haase, in response to Hitler’s questions, had recommended a dose of cyanide and a gunshot to the head as the most reliable form of suicide.

Hitler, convinced of the treason of SS leader Heinrich Himmler, doubted the reliability of the SS-supplied cyanide tablets and had one tested on his dog Blondi, after which the dog died.

Following lunch on April 30, with Soviet forces less than 500 metres from the Bunker, Hitler and Eva said goodbye to staff and fellow occupants, including the Goebbels family, private secretary Martin Bormann and military officers.

They went into Hitler’s personal study at 2.30pm and at around 3.30pm some witnesses reported hearing a loud gunshot.

Those, including valet Heinz Linge, who went into the study reported the smell of almonds, consistent with cyanide gas. They said they saw Hitler slumped on his desk with a bullet wound to his head, a pistol on the floor and blood pooling on the arm of the sofa on which Eva lay beside him with no visible sign of injury. Several witnesses said the bodies were then carried up to the emergency exit and into a small bombed-out garden behind the Chancellery where they were doused with petrol and set alight, then buried in a small crater when the Soviet shelling made it unsafe for the cremation to continue. Seven and a half hours later, Red Army troops began storming the Chancellery and the remains of Hitler, his wife and two of his dogs were said to have been discovered in a shell crater by a Soviet soldier.

But were they?

The Soviet story changed regularly in the aftermath of the fall of Berlin and in the following years. Conspiracy theorists point to suggestions that:

Josef Stalin told Western leaders at the Potsdam Conference in 1945 he believed Hitler may have escaped to Spain or South America.

Stalin’s top army officer, Marshal Georgy Zhukov, said: “We found no corpse that could be Hitler’s".

The acting chief of the US trial counsel at Nuremberg, Thomas J Dodd, said: “No one can say he is dead". The most convincing evidence of Hitler’s suicide came from the testimonies of those who were in the Bunker — but they did not all agree on the details.

Hitler’s bodyguard Rochus Misch, the only survivor of the Bunker still alive, told this year how he heard someone shout to Hitler’s valet, "Junge, Junge, I think it’s happened".

After the bodies were carried upstairs, Misch said: "Someone shouted to me, 'Hurry upstairs, they’re burning the boss!' But Misch decided not to go, in case the “last witnesses” were shot. He was later captured after fleeing the bunker and spent eight years in Soviet prison camps. Details of a Soviet autopsy on the remains they found, released years later, apparently showed gunshot wounds and cyanide poisoning. The remains were repeatedly buried and exhumed by Russian agents during their relocation from Berlin to a new facility at Magdeburg. There, they were put in an unmarked grave with the bodies of propaganda minister Josef Göbbels, his wife and their six children.

When the facility was due to be handed over to the East German government in 1970, the KGB, it is said, exhumed all ten bodies, burned them and threw the ashes in the river Elbe to prevent the area becoming a National Socialist shrine. They kept Hitler’s jaw and part of his skull — the fragment now thrown into doubt by US archaeologist Nick Bellantoni, who was given permission to examine the artefacts in the Russian state archive. Other discrepancies which have muddied the waters include a photo released by Soviets at the time of the fall of Berlin which purported to be the body of Hitler, shot in the forehead. It is now thought to be one of Hitler’s body doubles.

Others who believe he escaped subscribe to a variety of conspiracy theories. The most popular include one or more of these elements:

  • Hitler and Eva Braun escaped from the Bunker on 22 April 1945, leaving behind doubles who killed themselves or were murdered
  • They were flown to Norway where German subs were waiting to transport them away from Europe.
  • They were helped by the Vatican to escape to Spain then Argentina.
  • Two German submarines seized by Argentina after the war had delivered Hitler to a secret National Socialist base in the heart of Antarctica.

Forensic Evidence

Hitler did die in Berlin in 1945.  A post-mortem was conducted and his dental records, jaw bones, teeth and in particular, his dental bridge work have positively identified the remains of Adolf Hitler.

Dr Erwin Giesling working with Dr Carl Von Eicken, were Hitler’s ENT specialists. They treated Hitler’s ear injuries caused by the assassination attempt of 20 July 1944. At the time of the X-ray Hitler was ‘suffering’ from a festering infection in his left maxillary sinus. Not long after this he had dental surgery performed by Hugo Blaschke (10 November 1944) as a result of a massive infection in tooth No 6 in the left upper Jaw. Since this tooth formed part of a substantial bridge and Hitler refused lengthy treatment, Blaschke decided to cut off the section of the bridge with teeth 5 and 6 and extract tooth 6. Someone has ‘added’ this dental work to the X-ray.


Hitler’s well known dental issues and his custom bridge work were positively identified by his dentist and the dental assistant. The jaw bones found in the Kremlin archives combined with the X-Rays from the Post-Mortem report, which matched these with other images known to be that of Hitler,  plus the eye-witness testimony of those who were there prove that Adolf Hitler died in 1945.  The evidence is conclusive and there is no "escaping" it.


Dental detective work gets to the root of Hitler mystery
By Roger Highfield, Science Editor
The Daily Telegraph
London, October 26, 1999

A new portrait of Adolf Hitler's last days before he committed suicide in the Berlin Bunker emerged yesterday, revealing how the Nazi leader was tormented by tooth decay, abscesses and gum disease that caused "terrible bad breath".

The study of film footage of Hitler, enhanced by a computer, has confirmed that remains found by the Russians in 1945 were his, helping to end half a century of speculation about his fate and validating an identification technique of increasing value to forensic scientists.

A paper was presented yesterday at an international conference in London by Prof Michel Perrier, 52, of the University of Lausanne, and will be published in the "Journal of Forensic Science". It links newsreel footage with X-rays of Hitler's skull, jaw remains found in the Bunker beneath the Reich Chancellery garden and his dental records.

Even if Hitler had a double, so many characteristics in his teeth match in each source of evidence that Prof Perrier said yesterday he had no doubt that Hitler died in the Bunker.

Hitler married his mistress, Eva Braun, during the night of April 28/29, as Soviet troops advanced towards his Bunker complex. On April 30 he committed suicide with his wife. In accordance with his instructions, their bodies were burned. Russian forces found the remains and conducted the autopsy of the bodies the following month, said Prof Perrier.

"What they found were charred pieces of bone, such as pieces of skull, the lower jaw and part of the upper jaw consisting of a bridge with nine units".

Nothing was revealed to the public until 1968, fuelling speculation about Hitler's fate. That year a book by Lev Bezymenski contained a description of Hitler's autopsy and his remains. The jaw remains were compared with dental evidence given to the Americans by Hitler's American-trained dentist, Hugo Blaschke, who had been arrested in 1945. Blaschke, an SS general, had treated Hitler from 1934 until shortly before his death. When his testimony was added to that of his assistant, Kate Hausermann, there was a great deal of material to check the jaw remains against, and they seemed to match.

"Hitler had very bad teeth. He had periodontal disease. He had many reconstructions, some done before the time of Blaschke," said Prof Perrier. There were no X-rays of Hitler's jaw available at the time, which could have helped to provide even better confirmation. Then, in 1972, archives in Washington released five X-rays of Hitler's head, taken on 20 July 1944. They revealed bridge work, periodontal [gum] disease and "very unusual dental work", said Prof Perrier. These matched Blaschke's evidence and the Russian autopsy.

It is known that during the last year of the war, Hitler’s medical records were destroyed, and all the doctors who had seen him mysteriously vanished. The single exception was a young dental assistant who was called in to assist a dentist with cleaning Hitler’s teeth two times. She was later captured by the Russian Army and made to make a drawing of Hitler’s teeth so the Russians could match the charred remains they found in the Berlin Bunker with her drawing since no authentic dental records could be found. After days of torture, she still had only a vague memory of the actual teeth of Hitler, but the Russians decided that it was a match. Stalin was never convinced but could not allow the world to think that Hitler had escaped the Russian Army.

Prof Perrier has now provided further evidence to link the remains in the Bunker to footage of the Führer. He combed Swiss archives for newsreels of Hitler and produced computer-enhanced images of his teeth to compare with the autopsy, X-rays and Blaschke's report. Prof Perrier found clear-cut matches between the computer-enhanced footage of Hitler's teeth and the Bunker remains. Hitler once referred to his dental problems openly, albeit indirectly, after negotiations with General Franco. Hitler's interpreter, Paul Schmidt, wrote that "they talked to or rather at one another" until 2am and failed to agree on anything. Hitler later told Mussolini he would "rather have two or three teeth out than go through that again".

A book, entitled "Dentist of the Devil" by Menevse Deprem-Hennen, chronicles the work of Dr. Hugo Blaschke, who was in charge of the Führer's teeth for nearly 20 years.

Deprem-Hennen accessed Blaschke's hitherto unseen medical files on Hitler and other leading Nazis who were his patients in the 1930s and 40s.

"Everyone who knew something about the status of Hitler's teeth was of supreme interest to the Allies after the war because of the few remains of his skull and jawbone found in the ruins of the Bunker in Berlin where he committed suicide in 1945," she said.

"Blaschke, who had the rank of a Major General in the Waffen SS, was shown some records from the Americans who had him in a POW camp in a bid to confirm that Hitler was dead".

While the Russians, who discovered Hitler's charred corpse along with that of his new bride Eva Braun, could not get their hands on Blaschke, they did find his assistant Käthe Hausermann

"Afterwards," said Deprem-Hennen, "she vanished for ten years in the Soviet Gulag".

Most of Hitler's medical records allegedly burned before Berlin fell in May 1945 when one of the last aircraft to leave the besieged city was shot down.

"But," said the author, "many documents remained at Blaschke's practice. Fedor Bruck, a Jewish dentist, who survived the war hidden in Berlin, took over this practice at the end of the war and found them before the Russians woke up to the fact."

Bruck emigrated to America in 1947 taking the details of the Führer's fillings with him. They later passed into the possession of his son Wolfgang who went on to work as a lawyer in the state chancellery in Düsseldorf.

Deprem-Hennen said she befriended him as she was working on her dental doctorate after he said: "I think I have some interesting documents for you".'

She said: "I used them as the basis for my graduation project although the professor of medical history at the university was reluctant to recognise their worth at first, probably thinking back to the falsified 'Hitler Diaries' scandal. But in the end he verified them as genuine".

She worked on the records for six years.

Fresh doubts over Hitler's death after tests on bullet hole skull reveal it belonged to a woman 
By Mail Foreign Service
Updated: 28 September 2009  

Adolf Hitler may not have shot himself dead and perhaps did not even die in his Bunker, it emerged yesterday.

A skull fragment believed for decades to be the Nazi leader’s has turned out to be that of a woman under 40 after DNA analysis.

Scientists and historians had long thought it to be conclusive proof that Hitler shot himself in the head after taking a cyanide pill on 30 April 1945 rather than face the ignominy of capture. 

Now the story of Hitler’s death will have to rewritten as a mystery
- and  conspiracy theorists are likely to latch on to the possibility that he may not  have died in the Bunker at all.

The traditional story is that Hitler committed suicide with Eva Braun as the Russians bombarded Berlin.

Although some historians doubted he shot himself and suggested it was Nazi  propaganda to make him a hero, the hole in the skull fragment seemed to settle the argument when it was put on display in Moscow in 2000.

"We know the skull corresponds to a woman between the ages of 20 and 40," said  University of Connecticut archeologist Nick Bellantoni. 

"The bone seemed very thin; male bone tends to be more robust. And the sutures  where the skull plates come together seemed to correspond to someone under  40".  Hitler was 56 in April 1945.

Mr Bellantoni flew to Moscow to take DNA swabs at the State Archive and was also shown the bloodstained remains of the Bunker sofa on which Hitler and Braun were believed to have killed themselves.

'I had the reference photos the Soviets took of the sofa in 1945 and I was seeing the exact same stains on the fragments of wood and fabric in front of  me, so I knew I was working with the real thing,' he said.

His astonishing results have been broadcast in the U.S. in a "History Channel"  documentary titled 'Hitler's Escape'.

According to witnesses, the bodies of Hitler and Braun were wrapped in blankets and carried to the garden just outside the Bunker, placed in a bomb crater, doused with petrol and set ablaze.

In May 1945 a Russian forensics team dug up what was presumed to be the  dictator’s body. Part of the skull was missing, apparently the result of the suicide shot. The remaining piece of jaw matched his dental records, according to his captured dental assistants. And there was only one testicle.

Soviet doctor Lev Bezymenski, allegedly involved in the Soviet autopsy, stated in a 1967 book that Hitler's left testicle was missing. Bezymenski later admitted it was falsified. Hitler was routinely examined by many doctors throughout his childhood, military service and later political career, and no clinical mention of any such condition has ever been discovered. Records do show he was wounded in 1916 during the Battle of the Somme, and some sources describe his injury as a wound to the groin. Hitler's World War I company commander said a VD exam found that Hitler had only one testicle, but this individual was known to be politically critical of Hitler, and no documentation of the exam seems to exist.

A year later the missing skull fragment was found on the orders of Stalin, who  remained suspicious about Hitler’s fate. 

Just how and when he died is now shrouded in mystery. Mr Bellantoni said it was unlikely the bone was Braun’s, who was 33.

"There is no report of Eva Braun having shot herself or having been shot afterwards," he said. "Many people died near the Bunker".

Unknown to the world, the corpse then believed to be Hitler's was interred in Magdeburg, East Germany.

There it remained long after Stalin’s death in 1953.

Finally, in 1970, the KGB dug up the corpse, cremated it and secretly scattered the ashes in a river.

Only the jawbone [which remains away from public view], the skull fragment and the bloodstained sofa segments were preserved in the deep archives of Soviet intelligence.

Mr Bellantoni studied the remains after flying to Moscow to inspect the gruesome Hitler trophies at the State Archive.

He was allowed only one hour with the Hitler trove, during which time he applied cotton swabs and took DNA samples.

The samples were then flown back to Connecticut.

At the university’s Centre for applied genetics, Linda Strausbaugh closed her lab for three days to work exclusively on the Hitler project

She said: "We used the same routines and controls that would have been used in a crime lab".

To her surprise, a small amount of viable DNA was extracted.

She then replicated this through a process known as molecular copying to provide enough material for analysis.

"We were very lucky to get a reading, despite the limited amount of genetic information," she said.


Lot 918: [Hitler Adolf]: (1889-1945) Führer of the Third Reich 1934-45. A Small [2.5 X 0.5] Swatch of Gold Coloured and Patterned Upholstery Fabric removed from a Chair in Adolf Hitler's Führerbunker by Sapper Billingsby Of No. 2 Platoon, 672 Army Company In July 1945 and sent home to his Parents. 


Lot 919: [Hitler Adolf]: (1889-1945) Führer Of The Third Reich 1934-45. A Small [2 X 1] Swatch of Green Coloured and Patterned Upholstery Fabric removed from a Sofa In Adolf Hitler's Führerbunker by Sapper Billingsby Of No. 2 Platoon, 672 Army Company in July 1945 and sent home to his Parents.  

Accompanied by a Copy of an A.L.S. by Billingsby, Two Pages, Berlin, 14 July 1945, to his Mother and Father, on the Printed Stationery of Hitler's Chancellery ['Kanzlei des Führers der NSDAP'].

Billingsby writes, in part:

"I am very pleased to say we are getting along much better now. We have got rid of the bugs alright....Last night our company arranged a trip sight seeing into Berlin.  Me and about 20 of our fellows went....We visited the place where Hitler spent the last few hours. The Hitler Chancelery [sic] A most wonderful building I have ever seen. The Russians are keeping guard over it but they allowed us in to inspect the inside. We found quite a lot of usefull [sic] stuff. I gathered quite a lot of tbe old boys writing paper....You will see a bit of German on the top. The whole place has caught a most severe battering. Most of the place is all ruins....I can tell you the Coventry people can certainly rest assured that those German Swine were repaid with a little interest for what they did to them....I am sending you a little of Materials out of the Chancelery [sic] The bit of green off his Sette [sic] and the other bit off his Chair out of his sound proof Room".

A rare and unusual Artefact from the place where Hitler was to kill himself by gunshot on 30 April 1945.

Billingsby's reference to removing the present swatch from Hitler's 'Sound Proof Room', must clearly be taken as a reference to the Führerbunker where Hitler was to commit suicide. Billingsby's further comment in his letter in regard to visiting the place where 'Hitler Spent the Last Few Hours' reinforces this.

International Autograph Auctions' Autograph Auction July 2015
Saturday, 18 July 2015
Estimate: £400 - 500 each


Hitler bloodstained suicide sofa fabric auctions for $16,000

A swatch of bloodstained fabric, taken from the sofa on which Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun committed suicide, was auctioned in the US. The 6 x 3.5 inch piece sold for $16,000 on 19 February 2015 at Alexander Historical Auctions in Maryland, surpassing its $15,000 high estimate.

A combination of its grisly nature and strong provenance helped the lot to its excellent showing.

On the afternoon of 30 April 1945, just two days after being married, with the Russian army closing in on Berlin, Braun and Hitler retired to his personal study. There they were later found by Hitler's close associates, lying dead on the sofa. Braun had taken a cyanide capsule, Hitler had killed himself with a gunshot to the head.

The fabric was taken by a US army colonel, who entered Hitler's Bunker in the days after the Nazi leader's suicide.

As well as a macabre memento from the last moments of the Führer, the sofa also offers the opportunity for DNA testing.

"As no blood relics of Hitler's have ever been offered publicly, a DNA test would conclusively put to rest rumors of body doubles, flight to Argentina, and other theories of an escape from Berlin," says the auction house.

The item has undergone a Kastle-Meyer blood test, which demonstrated the presence of haemoglobin.

The Hitler FBI Files

The Federal Bureau of Investigations has declassified their Adolf Hitler files, which entertain the idea that Hitler survived World War II and went into hiding. The FBI investigated claims that the Nazi leader had faked his own death, and the newly released files show lab reports on Hitler's marriage certificate, will, as well as other political documents.

The Bureau has made 867 pages of files and documents public, hundreds of which are devoted to speculation that Hitler escaped Germany and lived safely in Argentina with other Nazi leaders, body doubles, and possibly even Eva Braun after the war. 

In all the documents, names have been blacked-out.

The documents also contain letters from people who either claim to have seen Hitler or know his whereabouts.

The papers include correspondence from FBI agents discussing interviews with informants and officials on such topics as political assassinations, payments and American Jews.

J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the FBI at the time, issued signed confirmation receipts on many of the reports and letters

1. Why did the AJR [Association of Jewish Refugees] journal in 1948 report Hitler to be on top of the list of the 10 most wanted war criminals?
2. Why did the CIA in 1956 follow evidence of people having seen Hitler in LaFalda/Aargentinia in the same hotel the FBI had searched for him in 1947, the FBI files however having been closed in 1947?
3. Why were those FBI files not closed in 1945?

After all wasn't Hitler was dead???

Adolf Hitler confirmed to have lived in Argentina until 1957
1 Apr 2009

Until yesterday, we had learned that Adolf Hitler and his wife Eva Braun committed suicide in Hitler's Berlin Bunker as Soviet troops fought only blocks away. New investigations had shown that while remains were found in the Bunker, none of them was that of Hitler's.

"The escape of Hitler had always been a myth," said United States Federal Bureau of Investigations spokesperson Andrew Schumacher. "Today, we concluded that it was true. Artifacts recently discovered in Argentina indicated that Hitler had escaped by submarine to Argentina and lived for over 10 years."

According to the information made public by the FBI, the case on Hitler took a backseat in the late 1940s, but it was never officially closed. Despite a very small budget, the team was able to track down several European and South American leads, ultimately finding a cellar in an unassuming house in an unnamed village some distance from the relatively remote town of Iruya in Northern Argentina. In the cellar, a metal WW2-era German Army ammunition box was found. Among the few items inside was a photo of Hitler, weary in appearance, shaking hands with a German Navy submarine captain. In the background, the presence of floss silk trees, unique to South America, is undeniable; this photograph serves as one of the key pieces of evidence of Hitler’s escape. It is hypothesized that Hitler had taken one of the final flights out of Berlin and left behind him an anonymous body double [who might had been murdered for the Soviets to discover]. Via the Norwegian coast, he was taken by a submarine to Argentina.

Other artifacts found in the ammunition box include an Iron Cross medal, a Luger pistol, a fountain pen with a dried-up bottle of ink, a program to the 1 April 1938 Berlin production of Richard Wagner's "Die Walküre", cut-out comic strips from 1940s and 1950s newspapers, a strand of hair which DNA testing concluded to be dog hair of German Shepherd breed, a rubber bouncy ball, a voodoo doll named Stalin, a coin that is presumably the first Mark he made as a boy, some glass marbles, a wooden spork, and several German military operations manuals.

Some conspiracy theorists place Hitler in the center of various plots aimed at toppling the US government. In actuality, however, his life could not be any more different. The post-war profile of Hitler that the profile FBI released had him raising chickens and planting cabbage for a living. "Herr Schmidt", as he came to be known, made the best Sauerkraut in town. An older village resident remembered that "Herr Schmidt fed his chickens in the courtyard every morning right after dawn, making clucking noises as he threw feed onto the ground. Sometimes when he saw me, he would run back into the house and return with a jar of Sauerkraut as a gift."

Another resident shared that Hitler sometimes performed scenes from "Tristan and Isolde" under the full moon in front of the chicken shack to a poultry audience. The folks in town seemed to think of "Herr Schmidt" as a strange man, but all agree that they put up with him because his Sauerkraut was so delicious.

"Off the official record, many of us at the Bureau are rather disgusted that he was never brought to justice, and instead lived in simple comfort for the remainder of his life," commented Schumacher during an interview with the Steve Inskeep of American radio program 'Morning Edition of National Public Radio'.

"However, we can at least be glad that he seemed to have given up his ambitions after fleeing to Argentina."

Since Hitler's death in about the first week of April 1957, the house had been sold several times. A previous owner tore down the chicken shack to expand the cabbage lot, and the present owner Mr. Hernández reported that he had nearly thrown out everything in the cellar, but only stopped because there was so much "junk" in there and he did not really need the storage space. Little did he realize the historical importance of the metal box in the cellar, which contained proof that the house was at one time owned by a man who is widely considered the most evil man in human history, and was the two-time recipient of Best Cabbage Dish Award of the Iruya Town Fair of 1952 and 1953. Mr. Hernández was given Hitler's rubber bouncy ball by the chief FBI field agent in charge of the project; he is reported to be setting up an eBay account to see if the bouncy ball can fetch some money to help him pay for his son's upcoming wedding.

At the bottom of every page in the report released to the public by the FBI noted, in fine print "in case you have not yet realized, this entire news article is fictional and should not be taken seriously".

In the 1970s "National Lampoon" did a photo spread called 'Exile in Paradise', in which they got a Hitler lookalike and went down to the Bahamas and shot photos of him.

Midway through the shoot they needed money, and sent a telegram back to NY that said something to the effect of "This is an expensive trip. Hitler needs more money."

Western Union reported the message, and the US gov't took it seriously enough as to immediately investigate what "National Lampoon" was doing with Hitler.

The FBI showed up and seized a whole lot of stuff that they thought connected to Hitler, and it wasn't until "National Lampoon"  could prove that the man they hired was not actually Hitler that the FBI backed off.

Photo Creation by an 
Argentine Documentary Company
in the 1990s
based on the picture below
which was taken in Berchtesgaden from his home movies

   This combination of six pictures recently released by the US National Archives  shows altered
headshots of Adolf Hitler. The Office of Strategic Services [OSS] had asked Eddie Senz,
a New York make-up artist to clone the portrait of German leader Hitler after D-Day on
6 June 1944 because they feared that the Führer would flee from Germany


   When the end of World War II was near and the fall of Nazism was imminent,
one of the major concerns of the Allies was that the Führer could slip through their fingers and
disappear, hiding among "normal people". For this reason various photographic montages of
possible aspects of him were made. But not only governments and secret services  speculated
about the different appearances of Hitler in a normal life. The press, also, 'played' with the face of
the dictator trying to imagine what he might look like. This is the case for a Canadian newspaper,
"Free Press Weekly Prairie Farmer" in its edition of 8 November 1944. 

Adolf Hitler Alive in Argentina Until 1990 and Knew Pope Francis
February 18, 2015
The Damien Zone
A website dedicated to human stupidity and dumbness
New photographs and stories have appeared on the FBI website which prove that Adolf Hitler did not die in his Bunker in 1945. Not only did he live and flee to Argentina, he died in 1990 — living to the age of 101.

According to eyewitnesses, he was a quiet man who liked  to entertain guests in his lakefront home and loved to make fun of Jimmy Carter who he referred to as, "The worst President in the history of the USA.”

Of course there is another element to this story that is stranger than fiction.  Read it here because "The Damien Zone "got  the exclusive interviews.

New information has shown that the defeated Nazi leader fled Germany days before the Russian army overran his country.  The remains that were found were impostors. There is, however, some reason to believe that Hitler’s wife Eva Braun,  may have actually been killed in the Bunker to make the murder-suicide seem more realistic.

According to witnesses who are long dead, Hitler did not kill Eva himself because he placed such a high moral value on human life.  He had someone else do it.   There were witnesses to this and one stated in sworn testimony that Hitler “cringed a little” when he heard the distant gunshot that killed Eva Braun.

According to secret documents, Hitler fled to Flores, Argentina where he went unnoticed in the crowded and squalid barrio adjacent to Buenos Aires.

According to forensic experts who are now searching for a possible grave or tomb, Hitler shaved the top of his head to appear bald, got rid of the mustache and stopped dying his hair until it grew in gray.  He also changed his named to Hans Müller where he spoke fluent Spanish and often played with the local children who were very poor and hungry.

Hitler lived a quiet life in a small apartment in Flores for about four years and then he moved to a small lakefront home near the town of Guamini where he lived off the land with another man who has yet to be identified.

Most of the people questioned in this most recent investigation were alive as children and knew Hitler as kindly Hans Müller who lived in a rundown house with his dog Kiki.  The local kids said he was a nice man who often patted them on the heads and told them to stay out of the sun and to avoid pawn shops.

“Each morning there was a young boy with a donkey and a cart.  His name was Jorge  Bergoglio,  He would deliver milk and eggs to Senor Hans Müller and for that he would be given small amounts of money and a prayer card,” said Herve Florinas who is now 81 and living with his life partner Ramondo in Santiago, Chile.

“As a child. I was always very jealous of Jorge Bergoglio,” continued Florinas.  "He always managed to have money and nice clothes while the rest of us were starving and without shoes". 

“One day we tied him up and ate his donkey.  My father used the animal’s hide to make shoes for me and several of the children from the slums.  When Jorge found out, he screamed and cried and stomped his feet.  

“I remember vividly that Hans Müller found this to be very funny overall but he was annoyed by Jorge’s incessant crying.  Finally Hans Müller slapped Jorge across the face and yelled, ‘You can act like a man,’ and from then on Jorge became very quiet and religious and he wanted everybody to like him.”

"The Damien Zone" noticed that Herve Florina’s memory is either not what it used to be,  or maybe he is simply suffering from the ravages of being old and gay in Argentina. In one sense Herve seemed to enjoy telling his dead donkey story in great detail and poking fun at little Jorge Mario Bergoglio.  But with regards to his brush with Hitler,  he left out the most important ingredient to his story.  Turns out that he didn’t know the best part of his own story.

While little Herve,  may have had the unique experience of knowing Adolf Hitler after WW2,  he was blissfully unaware that he was witness to the strangest paring of people, and the crossing of paths, in the history of the world.

We had to tell him the missing element to his story — one about which he was amazingly surprised.

“I did not know that Jorge Bergoglio grew up to be Pope Francis.  Oh my god, I so totally did not know that.  What a strange coincidence,” said Florinas.

“I was a little confused and hungry at the time I guess and I didn’t put two and two together.  When I knew Hans Müller, who turned out to be Adolf Hitler, I had only just recently met my life partner in the garbage dump behind our shack.  I guess I was so in love that I didn’t pay attention to Nazis and Popes and things like that.

“That was in 1946, and who can remember that far back?  I knew that Jorge was an annoying kid and. there was no doubt about that because that’s why we ate his donkey and made shoes with his skin, but I totally didn’t know that the little boy who delivered groceries to Adolf Hitler grew up to be Pope Francis.  Isn’t that something?”

The little boy with the donkey and groceries — Jorge Mario Bergoglio — grew up to be none other than Pope Francis.

It’s true — Pope Francis used to be Adolf Hitler’s delivery boy.


Russia: Skull of Adolf Hitler found in Josef Stalin's Family Heirloom
Via worldnewsdaily

Moscow| A team of Russian historians cataloging a heirloom recently donated by a descendant of Josef Stalin, believes that they have identified the skull of Adolf Hitler among the donated items.

The experts of the Hermitage museum in St-Petersburg, led by Professor Ivan Iourikanov, were searching through the 17,324 items of a collection which they had received from a personal donator, in order to determine the historical value of the various artifacts.

The collection was constituted of objects which were part of the family heirloom of Artem Fyodorovich Sergeev, the adopted son of Josef Stalin, and were donated to the museum when he died in 2008.

Three Mysterious Skulls

Among the many items donated by M. Sergeev where a dozen firearms, some personal journals belonging to his father, and three human skulls of unknown origins.

The scientists undertook a series of tests to identify the bones, and were finally able to identify their owners.

The first two skulls were rapidly identified as belonging to one of Stalin’s main opponents in the Bolshevik movement in the 1930′s, Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev, who was executed in 1937, and Stalin’s second wife, Nadezhda Sergeevna Alliluyeva, who is presumed to have committed suicide in 1932.

The analysis of the third and final skull took much longer, since the features and dentition did not fit any of the known relatives of Josef Stalin, nor any Soviet leader.

The Skull of Adolf Hitler

The various tests and analysis of the teeth and bones, allowed the historians to determine that the skull belonged to a man in his late 50s or early 60s, who had grown up in either Bavaria or Austria. He is estimated to have measured between 1,70 m and 1,80 m, and some clues suggest that the man had eaten meat for most of his life, but had been following a strictly vegetarian diet for some years at the time of his death.

Using some 3D forensic facial reconstruction techniques, they were able to determine the physical appearance of the individual.

By comparing the skull’s teeth with the Führer’ dental files, which the Soviet forces had obtained in 1945 after tracking down an assistant to Hitler’s dentist, they were able to confirm that the skull was, indeed, Adolf Hitler’s.

A Collection of Morbid Trophies

According to Professor Iourikanov, the skulls were probably collected and kept by the Soviet leader, Josef Stalin, acting as eerie reminders of his fallen adversaries.

“The skulls all bear some small dents and cuts, which we identified as knife marks” said the renowned historian. “This suggests that the skulls were skinned, emptied and cleaned, probably to be kept as trophies. In fact, they were found on the site of Stalin’s death, laying over the fireplace of his Kuntsevo residence. They must have been precious to him, but nobody made a great deal about it at the time, and even his adoptive son had completely forgotten about them. This could be the historical discovery of the century".

The Museum has not decided yet, whether they will make the skulls available to the public. The direction of the Hermitage explains that the bones are clearly of great historical values, but they fear that the skull of Hitler could become a site of pilgrimage for Nazi sympathizers.

Was Hitler A Woman?
Andreia Fernandez
Press Examiner
18 October 2015

DNA tests performed on a fragment of the skull of Adolf Hitler have indicated that it was "clearly" that of a woman. Researchers at Harvard University carried out analysis on the bone that had been held in the Russian State Archives in Moscow for many years.

The research in the genetics laboratory at the University was led by Professor of Anthropology Hans Verner, and is said to have completely astonished the scientists.

Similar tests carried out at the University of Connecticut in 2009 had come to the same conclusion. However, those tests produced several flaws, which led to the dismissal of the findings by the science world. The latest tests used advanced technology which was not available in 2009. PhD student James O’Connor told reporters that the skull fragment is 100% female.

A Swiss author and historian, Abraham Zerlig, claimed in a book he published in 1976 that Hitler was, indeed a woman. He had been a teacher at the University of West Berlin in the early 1970’s and had access to Hitler’s personal medical records. He became friendly with Dr Helmut Lang, who had been Hitler’s personal physician and had noted several physical anomalies that led him to believe Hitler was, indeed, a woman.

Zerlig had the opportunity to discuss these anomalies in detail with Dr Lang which he then presented in his book "
Die Frau hinter Hitler" [The woman behind Hitler]. He said in an interview on German television this week that at last the work of his friend Dr Lang had been vindicated. 

Britain hatched a bizarre plan to win the Second World War by turning Hitler into a Woman
Daily Mirror
15 August 2011

The Allies secretly schemed to smuggle female sex hormones into the Führer’s food in an attempt to curb his aggression. If the plot – like something out of TV comedy "Blackadder" – had gone ahead, it could have turned Herr Hitler into Her Hitler.

It was just one of a number of outlandish ideas to break the war’s stalemate, according to a new book by a leading academic.

The hare-brained schemes are revealed for the first time in "Secret Weapons: Technology, Science And The Race To Win World War II". They have come to light now because of the recent publication of documents not previously seen because of their sensitive nature.

The book by Professor Brian Ford, a fellow at Cardiff University and pioneer of popular science, revealed that the British Government was serious about giving Hitler a sex change.

He said:

"There was an allied plan that they would smuggle estrogen into Hitler’s food and change his sex so he would become more feminine and less aggressive. Their research had showed the importance of sex hormones – they were beginning to be used in sex therapy in London. The plan was to give sex hormones to Hitler and counterbalance his unnecessary aggression".

Professor Ford said the plan was perfectly feasible because British spies were in place to lace his food.

"There were agents who would be able to get it into his food – it would have been entirely possible. He had testers who used to taste his food. There was no mileage to putting poison in his food because they would immediately fall victim to it. Sex hormones were a different matter. They only affected you if you took them for weeks or months on end, so no one would have ever realised that the hormones were in the food".


Hitler's Paranormal Conspiracy
Mitchell Salter
7 March 2014

What is the Hitler Paranormal Conspiracy?

The Hitler Paranormal Conspiracy is the believe that Hitler was involved in Occult and Paranormal activities. This ranges from Hitler performing experiments to research ESP, to sending Nazi elites 200 years into the future.

There are many conspiracies about the paranormal activities involving Hitler, but in this presentation we will be focusing on Hitler's connections with the Thule Society, The Spear of Destiny, Nazi UFOs, Time Travel, and finally Hitler's death.

Like the Ahnenerbe section of the SS, and due to its occult background, the Thule Society has become the center of many conspiracy theories concerning Nazi Germany Such theories include the creation of spacecrafts and secret weapons.

The Thule Society also believed that the master race lived in the center of the earth and believed in the Hollow Earth Theory.

Hitler, however, has never been proven to be a member of the Thule Society despite the connections he had with them.

The Thule Society was founded 17 August 1918, as the Munich branch of the Germanenorden, a secret society a.k.a. the "Order of Teutons" [1912].

Hitler came into connection with the Thule Society because of Johann Dietrich Eckart, who was one of the main reasons that the Nazi party came into power,  by introducing Hitler to many influential parties.

Eckart exerted considerable influence on Hitler and is strongly believed to have helped establish the theories and beliefs of the Nazi Party. Many believe this because the mission of the Thule society was to create a master race and to eliminate the lesser races.

The Thule Society even helped Hitler with his speaking skills, some have even suggested that the society somehow granted him magic powers that contributed to his later success.

In partnership with the Thule Society and the Nazi Party, the Vril Society developed a series of flying disc prototypes

The German UFO theories describe supposedly successful attempts to develop advanced aircraft or spacecraft prior to and during World War II, and further assert the post-war survival of these craft in secret underground bases in Antarctica, South America or the United States, along with their creators. According to the limited available information on the UFOs, various potential code-names or sub-classifications of Nazi UFO craft have all been referenced.

In 1953, when Avro Canada announced that it was developing the VZ-9-AV Avrocar, a circular jet aircraft with an estimated speed of 1,500 mph [2,400 km/h], German engineer Georg Klein claimed that such designs had been developed during the Third Reich.

A CIA report dated 27 May 1954, states:  

"A German newspaper [not further identified] recently published an interview with George Klein, famous German engineer and aircraft expert, describing the experimental construction of 'flying saucers' carried out by him from 1941 to 1945. Klein stated that he was present when, in 1945, the first piloted 'flying saucer' took off and reached a speed of 1,3000 miles per hour within 3 minutes. The experiments resulted in three designs: one designed by Miethe was a disc-shaped aircraft, 135 feet in diameter, which did not rotate; another designed by Habermohl and Schriever, consisted of a large rotating ring, in the centre of which was a round, stationary cabin for the crew. When the Soviets occupied Prague, the Germans destroyed every trace of the 'flying saucer' project and nothing more was heard of Habermohl and his assistants".  

The German newspaper appears to have been "Welt am Sonntag" for [different dates are given] 25 or 26  April 1953. The article is titled "Erste 'Flugscheibe' flog 1945 in Prag", and there is a photo of 'George Klein' pointing at a vague diagram of a disc.

One of the world’s leading experts on Nazi Germany says Hitler mastered time itself, sending “time warriors” centuries into the future to conquer a world that is yet to be!

Dr. Kurt Fischer told a symposium in Mysen, Norway, that evidence accumulated over the past 64 years has convinced him that the Nazis developed a crude but working time machine before the fall of Germany in 1945.

He says parts of the machine and tattered blueprints were recovered from a bombed-out Bunker in Berlin by Allied forces. And he suspects that Hitler, long obsessed with paranormal science, might have used the device to propel himself into the future and back on numerous occasions.

"Volumes have been written about the Nazis’ heavy water experiments and Hitler’s obsession with perfecting the atom bomb", said Dr. Fischer. “But the cutting edge of Nazi technology was concerned with nothing less than the mastery of time and space itself".

“There is evidence to suggest that they did, in fact, open a portal. It couldn’t help them alter the course of World War II. But there is a very real possibility that it gave them a chance to win an even greater victory – the control and domination of our future.”

Fischer provided ample documentation for his broader theories during his presentation in Norway.

In a dramatic videotaped interview, secret Nazi physicist Erich Kreiner – now deceased – confirmed that he was one of 28 scientists who conducted the time-travel experiments.

He refused to name his colleagues and appeared to be addled or intentionally evasive when asked to discuss specifics. But he did say the Nazi goal was to send 5,000 elite troops to Germany in the year 2145, which was then 200 years into the future.

“There was some measure of success,” he said, adding that several technicians were sent decades into the future and returned to their own time before Germany fell to the Allies.

“I don’t know if there is a connection. But German police reported that a man in Nazi uniform appeared at a power plant near Dresden last August and later vanished from a heavily guarded cell,” said Dr. Fischer. “Was that man a Nazi time traveler? Unfortunately, we’ll never know for sure.”

Components of the purported time machine that were recovered from the Berlin Bunker have long since been lost, he added. But detailed descriptions contained in Allied inventory reports suggest that it was no bigger than a filing cabinet and was designed to generate light and ultra-high frequency sound waves.

“It’s a chilling prospect, but the greatest threat to our future may not be an enemy that exists today,” said Dr. Fischer. “It might be the Nazis – and a world controlled by a madman".

Many people have heard that Hitler killed himself on 30 April 1945 while hidden in his Bunker as Soviet forces marched towards his position, but not many people know that 30 April /1 May  is actually a day where Witches gathered to worship their gods. This day is known as Walpurgis Night, but over time has been changed to May day. Some believe that Hitler performed a sacrifice so that he could get away, this theory is unlikely but it doesn't help that Hitler's body has never been confirmed to have been found.

In 2009, DNA tests were performed on a skull Soviet officials had long believed to be Hitler's. According to the American researchers, the tests revealed that the skull was actually that of a woman less than 40 years old.

The most popular conspiracy concerning Hitler's death is that Hitler in fact escaped. Theories tend to differ on where Hitler went when he escaped, some believe that he went to a secret Nazi base on the moon while some believe he went to the center of the earth to meet up with the secret army he had there. Some even say that Hitler is in the US military base -the US Navy Exchange, San Diego,  Bougainville Road- that is shaped like a Swastika.

While many of these theories may never be proven there are countless examples of Hitler dappling in the occult that seem to have points that just can't be ignored.


Hitler working with Paranormal forces and having connections with occultism has become very popular in the media involving sci-fi movies and games, movies like "Raiders of the Lost Ark", "Hellboy", "Captain America", "Nazis at the Center of the Earth", "Hannibal Rising", and  games like "COD Nazi Zombies", "BloodRayne", "Lost Horizon", "Wolfenstein: The New Order".

Believe what you want about Hitler but he actually did have friends.

One was Dr. Walter Stein. According to him when Hitler was young he started getting into the occult, essentially the more he read the more he thought it was real.

Hitler actually said in his book "Mein Kampf" [My Struggle] that those were the most vital years of his life and from those years he learned how to lead the Nazi party.

Stein got to know Hitler because they shared a mutual interest in the Spear of Destiny.

Essentially the Spear of Destiny is what was supposed to have punctured the side of Christ during His Crucifixion. According to the legend whoever has the spear has the power to conquer the world, however if you were to lose it, you would immediately die.

Hitler confided to Stein that the first time he had seen the Spear that he had experienced extraordinary visions of his own destiny unfold before him.

On 12 March 1938 Hitler got the Spear of Destiny and immediately sent it to Nuremberg the spiritual capital of Nazi Germany. At 2:10 on 30 April 1945 after considerable bombing to Nuremberg, the Spear then fell in the hands of the American 7th Army's General Patton and in fulfillment of the legend Hitler killed himself later that day. Coincidence... most likely.

Many people claim to have the original Spear: The Vatican in Rome says it has it...a museum in Vienna says it has was on the sunken U-Boat the U-534 [proved false].

U534 [Kapitänleutnant Werner Nollau, Officers Class 1936] had sailed from Copenhagen on 5 May 1945. Later that day she was sunk by an RAF Liberator maritime patrol bomber [Warrant Officer J D Nicol RAF] east of Anholt Island in the Kattegat. Somehow tales of escaping Nazi leaders, bullion, jewels and art treasures grew and she was raised from the depths on 24 August 1993. Nothing other than ammunition was aboard, but U534 is now a superb museum exhibit in Birkenhead.

One of the most interesting theories behind it is that a pseudonymous “Capt. Wilhelm Bernhart” said that under a Maximilian Hartmann, Hitler had actually sent the real Spear to Antarctica for safe keeping and that Maximilian Hartmann in 1979 came back for the treasures. Then the Spear was hidden somewhere in Europe by a secret Nazi society.

As far as the media is concerned this theory is pretty much put to rest because it is so old and multiple people claim they have the real Spear so.... there really is no way to tell who is right.

The Paranormal Conspiracy theory is relatively ridiculous because, although Hitler was helped out a lot by the Thule Society it really pushed the Occult,  Hitler himself did not really believe in it at all. Almost the entire conspiracy is baseless and untrue, it just had some real things in it like the Spear of Destiny..

With the Nazi defeat, the society allegedly retreated to a base in Antarctica and vanished into the hollow Earth to meet up with the leaders of an advanced race inhabiting inner Earth.

A non-rotating disk was developed at Breslau by V-2 rocket engineer Richard Miethe, which was captured by the Soviets, while Miethe fled to the US via France, and ended up working for Avro.

"Contact with Hitler's Spirit"
Advocate [Burnie, Tas]
27 September 1949

FRANKFURT, Contact was made with Hitler's spirit in a séance at an undisclosed place on 6 July, claims the Stuttgart periodical "Neues Europa". It Quo ted Hitler its saying: "All rumors that I am living in South America are false. I voluntarily passed over to the beyond on 30 April 1945."

Hitler added: "I invoke you all to reconstruct in peace and harmony that which was destroyed by war through my guilt. You must overcome our nationalist arrogance and dangerous militarism."

The "revelations*' ended with a crisp, "You may call me again whenever necessary."

Other newspapers attributed the "appearance" of Hitler's spirit in spiritualist periodicals to the money-earning power of articles dealing with the new "Hitler legend."

-- Reuter

The time travelers: Please do not kill Hitler
In almost any scenario involving science fiction time travel, the default action is to kill Hitler.  So terrible that a human being as he was, there are many reasons why this is probably not a good idea
The Guardian
26 March 2014  

If you find yourself suddenly having access to a time machine, what's the first thing you do?  If you answered "kill Adolf Hitler", then congratulations, you are a science fiction character.  Actually, the whole issue of "access to a time machine" suggests that already, but the desire to kill Hitler proves it.  Any character science fiction time travel [at least those created by Western society] seems to want to kill Hitler, so much so that there is a trope of how impossible.

That attempt on Hitler has become an element of science fiction plot common, says it all.  What about Stalin?  He was definitely worse, killing 20 million people to feed hisr own ideology.  But no, Stalin went on his way undisturbed by time travelers, all of whom are busy focusing on Hitler.

It's understandable.  Who would not want to avoid the holocaust?  It is probably the worst in history.  And I only say "probably" because I know the whole story, and the human capacity to be horrible is not to be underestimated.  But as noble as it seems, killing the Führer through time travel is a terrible idea, for reasons of real life, and not just fiction.  So you should you have a time machine and make plans to kill Hitler, here are some reasons why you should not

Ethical Dilemma

Could you really kill another human being?  Despite implying pop culture, human beings in general, are not predisposed to kill each other.  This is not an absolute, of course.  Abstract thinking homicide is relatively common, and many humans end up taking the lives of others because of complex circumstances, as brutal upbringing/environment or possibly psychiatric illness.  And, of course, some people are just evil.  It seems difficult to reconcile these motivations with the mindset that plans to kill Hitler as an altruistic act.

But let's assume that you are willing to kill one to save millions of people.  All history to visit, and his first port of call involves killing.  Fine.  Whatever.  When do you kill Hitler?  As a child, Hitler had done nothing monstrous enough to justify his murder, which would have you to be willing to take his life then?  "Minority Report" wrestled with this problem, and that was on a much smaller scale.

Maybe later, when the Reich is in place, but he had not committed genocide yet.  But this would be too late?  Once everything has been created, removing Hitler would change anything?  This brings us to another reason not to.

General context

Stephen Fry dealt with this beautifully in his book "Making History".  No claims, the problem is that many assume Hitler was the sole cause of the Second World War and all the associated horrors.  Unfortunately, this is an oversimplification.  Germany in the 1930s was not a Utopia of peace lovers baskets that were suddenly and severely corrupted by the charismatic Hitler mustache.  Political tensions and conflicts were all there, the results of a previous world war and a great depression;  Hitler was able to take advantage of this.  But if he had not, for example, because he had been removed by a traveler walking time, then there is nothing to say that no one else would.

Problems rarely exist in isolation.  As you can enter and start a tumor because it is connected with the wider body that react badly to a strong intrusion, removing the main figurehead does not necessarily prevent events that were as much a product of the wider context socio- political situation. 

 Chaos theory

There is the oft-cited example of the butterfly effect, that is, very small changes in a complex can have very large effects system.  You can criticize Hitler for many valid reasons, but one thing he was not was "insignificant" and if it were, there would be no desire to kill.  So even if you succeeded, given the impact he had on so many lives, that will drastically alter the future/present, even if turned out to be "better" without Hitler.

Say who replaced him was ineffective and the war ended with the least loss of life and destruction.  In this timeline, German rocket scientists maybe not di not end up in the US space program  It would lose some of its best minds, and occurs more slowly [or not?] The space race resulted in an impressive amount of scientific and technology spin-off, a thread that eventually led to time travel.  Now that you've changed things, time travel was not invented in this life, so you either fade and everything falls apart, or your machine time does.  So now you are stranded in wartime Berlin.  And you just killed the beloved leader of one of the most powerful military machines in history. 


This may seem a minor issue, but it is unwise to dismiss Hitler and how his actions shaped the society of those who opposed him.  The Nazis have been almost unanimously considered the "bad guys".  The phenomenon of Godwin's law emphasizes the cultural reflection of Nazi = evil and wrong.  Anyone who agrees with them at the present time is [rightly] condemned en masse.  Without this stark and horrible example of how prejudice and fascism can lead to atrocities, would such things be as vilified as they are today?  The existence of Hitler probably served to unite his enemies at the social level, which has significant ramifications.

And let's not overlook the consequences of the war that led to major changes in terms of equality and similar in society as a whole.  This does not mean that these things would not happen anyway, but it probably occurred much faster due to the presence of Hitler.  It is impossible to say how many may have suffered and died over the years, if people had not joined to fight Hitler.  Is this something that you want to run the risk of change?

Hitler lost

This is overlooked surprisingly often, so it bears repeating: Hitler did not win.  What you think about the present, we do not live in a bleak wasteland dominated by a global Reich.  Because Hitler and his armies lost.  Although it was a costly victory, it was still technically a victory, so why risk coming back and interfering with a result you favor?  And no doubt, it was due to the incompetence of Hitler as a war strategist who panned out the way he did.

In a way, Hitler had the perfect combination of drive, charisma, malice and incompetence to unite the world against him and ensure that his forces lost.  It is as unlikely a combination of factors that the only way to consciously make this happen would be to go back in time and remove any other person who would stop it.

The Victory Strategy Räder Proposed to Hitler

Erich Räder [chief of the German Navy] felt that the senior army generals had a "purely continental outlook," did not understand the war-winning opportunities that had opened up on the south shore of the Mediterranean, and would never counsel Hitler correctly. Although the OKH and OKW did advise Hitler to send troops to North Africa, their proposals lacked Räder's urgency. Never did Brauchitsch, Halder, Jodl, or Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, chief of staff of the OKW, express the conviction that the war could be won in the Mediterranean, although Keitel told Benito Mussolini that capture of Cairo was more important than capture of London.

Part of their hesitancy lay in the knowledge that Hitler had been fixed for a long time on destroying the Soviet Union and gaining Lebensraum for the German people. Their careers depended upon not rocking that boat. However, they never stressed to Hitler, as did Räder, that victory in the Mediterranean would make it easier, in the end, to achieve victory over the Soviet Union.

Once Axis forces overran Egypt and the Suez Canal, they would close the eastern Mediterranean to the Royal Navy. The British fleet would immediately retreat into the Red Sea, because it could not be supplied sufficiently by means of convoys through the western Mediterranean. Whether or not the Germans seized Gibraltar by a direct attack---and this was virtually excluded because of [Spanish dictator Francisco] Franco's opposition--- Britain strategically would be paralyzed.

The Axis could move at will into the Middle East, for the British had no substantial forces there. Thus, not only would Syria and Palestine fall, but German panzers could seize Iraq and Iran with little effort. These two countries produced much of the world's oil, and their capture would provide ample amounts of Germany's single most-needed strategic material.

The advance on the southern frontier of Turkey would put the Turks in an impossible position. Hitler was already in the process of gaining Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria as allies. Therefore, Turkey could be approached either by way of Bulgaria across the Bosporus at Istanbul or from northern Iraq and Syria. Turkey would be forced to join the Axis or grant passage for Axis forces and supplies. A defiant stance would result in the swift defeat of the Turkish army and disaster.

Passage through Turkey would reduce the importance of Malta and Gibraltar. However, both could be eliminated without the active support of Franco and without direct assault.

German forces could easily occupy French North Africa [Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia] with or without Vichy France's cooperation. From French Morocco, they could approach from the south the small strip of Morocco along the Strait of Gibraltar ruled by Spain. Spain would be forced to grant transit rights, or stand aside if German forces occupied the strip without permission. Spain could not resist for fear of a German attack into the heart of Spain from France. Consequently, German airfields and batteries could be set up along the south shore of the strait. This would close it to Britain---without an expensive military assault on the rock of Gibraltar.

Furthermore, closing the Strait of Gibraltar would force the British to abandon Malta, because they could not supply it.

With the Royal Navy out of the Mediterranean, it would become an Axis lake. This would permit German forces to occupy all of western Africa, including the French base at Dakar, in Senegal. Aircraft, ships, and submarines from Dakar could close down much of Britain's convoy traffic through the South Atlantic, even without seizure of the Cape Verde islands.

In the Middle East the strategic payoff would be even greater. German forces in Iran would block that country as a route for supplies to the Soviet Union from Britain and the United States. Russia would be left with only the ports of Murmansk on the Barents Sea and Archangel on the White Sea through which goods from the west could be funneled. This would require dangerous passages in atrocious weather, with constant danger of attacks by German ships and aircraft stationed in Norway.

Even more important, the Soviet Union's major oil fields were in the Caucasus and along the western shore of the Caspian Sea, just north of Iran. Germany could threaten not only an attack directly from Poland and Romania in the west but also from the south through the Caucasus to the Soviet oil fields. This danger of envelopment and quick loss of oil would immobilize Stalin, and obligate him to provide Germany with whatever grain and raw materials it might need. In other words, Germany---without loss of a single soldier---would have the benefits of the Soviet Union's vast materials storehouse, as well as delivery of tin, rubber, and other goods from southeast Asia by way of the Trans-Siberian Railway.

A German position in Iran also would pose a huge threat to India, agitating for independence under Mohandas K. Gandhi and other leaders. From Iran Germany could invade India through the Khyber and other passes, invasion routes long before and long after Alexander the Great made the passage in 326 B.C. Germany would not actually have to do a thing. The threat alone would force Britain to commit every possible soldier to defend its crown jewel. Germany, again without the expenditure of a single man, could immobilize Britain.

In possession of the Middle East, all of North and West Africa, and Europe, its armed forces virtually intact, its economy able to exploit the resources of three continents, Germany would be virtually invincible. Britain's defiance on the periphery of Europe would become increasingly irrelevant. Germany would not have to inaugurate an all-out U-Boat war against its shipping. Britain's remaining strength would have to be expended in protecting its empire and the convoys to and from the home islands.

The United States would have no hope of launching an invasion against the mainland of Europe and an undefeated and waiting German army until it had spent years building a vast navy, army, and air force, not to speak of the transports, landing craft, vehicles, and weapons necessary for such a giant undertaking. It is possible that the United States would take on this task, but the chances for its success would be extremely small. Far more likely, the American people would turn first to counter the expansion of Japan in the Pacific.

Meanwhile Germany could consolidate its empire, bring subject nations into an economic union, and grow more powerful economically, militarily, and politically every day. Before long, the world would become accustomed to the new German Empire and insist on a return to normal international trade.

This at last would give Hitler the opportunity he had sought for decades. He never wanted more of the Soviet Union than the region west of the Ural mountains. Once a de facto cease-fire had been achieved, Hitler could strike at European Russia from south and west, drive Stalin and the surviving Soviets into Siberia, and get the Lebensraum he coveted

Hitler, Northwest Africa and the Path Toward America
Was Adolf Hitler preparing to conquer the United States? 

Some historians dismiss the idea that Hitler planned to conquer the world as propaganda or wishful thinking by a dictator whose whims changed daily, but Hitler's strategy in Northwest Africa, especially during the crucial years from the Fall of France in 1940 to Operation Torch in 1942, were designed to secure air and naval bases in preparation for the German-American war that he expected. It was to fight America, not isolate Britain that was Germany's real goal during this period. 

Hitler's pre-war plans were or a large surface fleet and very long range bombers, were better suited for combat in the Western Hemisphere than in Europe. More important, the defeat of France and the rise of the Vichy French regime showed Hitler's true intentions. He relentlessly pressed Vichy for the right to build bases in French North Africa, especially at Casablanca, on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. He pressed Franco's Spain for the right to create bases in the Canary Islands and even for Portuguese islands such as the Azores, which would be vital outposts in a transatlantic battle.  


Couldn't those bases have been intended as defensive bulwarks against an American drive to relieve Britain, rather than as beachheads for a D-Day at New York? If Hitler's strategy against the U.S. had been defensive, it would have been more logical for Hitler to agree to support Vichy and Spain against an Allied invasion. Yet Hitler would not agree to mere sharing of these countries' bases, but outright control of their own facilities.


One cannot define Hitler's desire to steal strategically favorable positions before his future enemy could do so as defensively motivated; one may as well argue, as Hitler did, that the Germans were defending themselves when they attacked Poland, France and the Soviet Union. One may as well argue that that bombers and battleships are defensive weapons.


Hitler contemplated war with America, however, it was not the overriding German goal in the West. Was the plan to seize Gibraltar aimed at isolating Britain or keeping the U.S. out of the Mediterranean? The answer is that it could have been both.


The political backstabbing was almost comical. Those who think the infighting between the Allied leaders was bad should take a look at the fracas between Germany and its partners. Italy wanted parts of French North Africa, Spain wanted to grab Morocco, while Vichy was determined to keep its African empire intact and fend off the piranhas (including Britain and De Gaulle). Above them all sat Hitler, the master manipulator who thought he could trick everyone into cooperating, and instead had his plans frustrated by French pride and Spanish stubbornness.


The Führer looks less like a devious warlord and more like the father of squabbling siblings. Most interesting is how close Hitler came to actually getting his unlikely, mismatched Mediterranean coalition together. Contrary to popular belief, Franco was quite prepared to join the Axis and to assist in taking Gibraltar, as long as he could get his hands on French Morocco. Vichy was eager to fight the British in Central Africa, figuring that it might as well get its spoils from what seemed like the inevitable victory of Germany. It is terrifying to see just how close Nazi Germany came to forming an Axis coalition that would have dominated the Mediterranean.

Fortunately, Hitler's own hesitations and deviousness destroyed that opportunity. He vacillated between backing Vichy and Spain, and satisfied neither. Despite the willingness of Vichy to join the wolf pack scenting blood from a wounded Britain, the Führer never could quite get over his distrust of France.

In the end, everyone wanted a piece of the pie, but no one was prepared to share his slice.

German-planned Invasion of the United States

Before the winter of 1941, Germany appeared to be moving toward a swift victory over the Soviet Union. Alfred Rosenberg, Reich Kommisar for Eastern Affairs, was ordered to print the motto "Deutschland Welt Reich" [German World Empire] and Hitler made known his intention of further conquest following victory over Russia. These plans appeared to include an invasion of the United States.

In Autumn of 1940, the attack on the US was fixed for the long-term future. This appears in Luftwaffe documents, one of which dated 29 October 1940 mentions the "...extraordinary interest of the Führer in the occupation of the Atlantic Islands. In line with this interest...with the cooperation of Spain is the seizure of Gibraltar and Spanish and Portuguese islands, along other operations in the North Atlantic".

In July 1941, the Führer ordered that planning an attack against the United States be continued.

Operations supposedly related to the planned invasion of the United States

Orders to send German saboteurs to U.S. territory, along with spies and collaborators

German forces sent agents to Greenland to install a base for secret operations in the area, along with use of the radio station in Saint Pierre Miquelon Island, under the administration of France

German submarine missions to Atlantic coasts and Caribbean area, with submarines such as U-134, U-853 and others.

Maritime reconnaissance flights by German flying boats Blohm und Voss Bv 222 C-0 "Wiking" from France and Norway to the north and central Atlantic area to watch Iceland, Greenland, and the Canadian and coasts.

The alleged collaboration between Schutz Staffel [SS] and All American SS unit "Amerikan Frei Korps" or "George Washington Brigade" towards the invasion of the U.S. Also, some Americans were recruited to American versions of the German Wehrmacht and SS services to provide aid to invading German forces.
The projected use of submarines with V-1/V-2 Launchers against American coasts.

Also, the planned use of special mobile launchers from French coasts for launching one ultra long-range multi-stage V-4 "Rheinbote" missile or other similar type.

A plan to use one Junkers Ju 290 long-range reconnaissance plane armed with four V-1 rockets against United States territory.

A Kriegsmarine or Luftwaffe attack against the Panama Canal, U.S. territory at the time. The former would use submarines to strike the Atlantic side of the Canal. The latter would pretend a squadron of ultra long-range bombers from France to North Africa, were continuing to South America in support of a neutral country.

On 11 December 1941 Germany declared war on the United States.

Is there a possibility that Hitler could have managed to take advantage of political, regional, and ethnic divisions in America in the 1940s, and defeated the "Good Old USA"?

It certainly would not have been possible for Hitler to stage a successful naval invasion across the Atlantic to take the Eastern Seaboard, irrespective of whether or not America succeeded in Europe. He simply did not have a Navy that was large enough for that task.

Here are various ways in which the Germans would have defeated America, assuming that they had succeeded in their mission to conquer the Soviet Union:

1. They might have attempted to conquer Alaska, based on their ability to control Siberia and the Arctic regions of Russia. From there, they would have rolled over poorly defended Canada, from which they would have launched a massive invasion from the sparsely populated North-Western U.S.

2. Using the historic grievances that Mexico has, especially over territorial loss in the 1848 war, Hitler could have encouraged the Mexicans to stage a massive military invasion from the South [something similar to what their illegal are already doing]. Given that many South Americans had pro-axis fascist feelings during the war, Brazil and Argentina could have send their own armies as well, to support the Mexicans. And, considering that Latin America continued to trade with Germany in the war years, Germany would have been able to move massive armaments and troops to South America, to support an invasion from Mexico. As a reward, Mexico would have been rewarded with the return of California, New Mexico and Arizona. The rest of South America would have had a chance to be freed from American regional dominance that has existed since the Monroe Doctrine.

3. Hitler could have reached out to the anti-FDR right-wing, the likes of Charles Lindberg, Henry Ford, Rev. Charles Coughlin, and their many followers who were influential in the America First Movement. He could have used the resentment that Irish-Americans and German-Americans had for Anglo elites who wanted to save Britain, a nation that many in both groups disliked [Many Irishmen resented going to help Britain: The Republic of Ireland made a conscious decision to stay neutral in the war to the very end].

4. Germany could have offered the South a second chance. If the South militarily supported the defeat of the Yankees, they could get back the Confederate States of America. The CSA would have been a fully independent right-wing nation that was allied to Germany, like Franco's Spain. They would have been allowed to preserve their system of segregation, a system that Germans approved of.

5. In the 1940s, Eugenics was highly favored by both liberal and conservative elites in New England. American race scientists like H. Goddard, Carl Bingham, Madison Grant, and Lothrop Stoddard were standard readings in the school system in Nazi Germany. A shared interest in race issues would have brought the Nazis and the New England Eugenicists together.

A combination of all those forces would have overwhelmed the FDR administration.