"Fantastic Voyage" of the U-977 - Part 2

The U.K.'s "Daily Mail" reported on 16 March 2012 that Russian scientists and engineers on the Earth's southern polar continent of Antarctica have successfully drilled through to the submerged fresh water lake, Lake Vostok, and successfully removed samples of the water for scientific study of any potential microbial life that may be present in the lake, which standard geography maintains has been submerged and sealed off for potentially millions of years. The study could provide insights on whether or not life could survive in such an icy submerged environment, similar to conditions on Mars:

"Triumph! After two decades of drilling in most inhospitable place on Earth, Russian scientists return home with a barrelful of water from an 'alien' lake untouched for 20 million years".


But that may not be the real story. Note how the article ends:

"Earlier this week state-run news agency in Russia claimed that an extraordinary cache of Hitler's archives may be buried in a secret Nazi Ice Bunker near the spot where yesterday's breakthrough was made.

"‘It is thought that towards the end of the Second World War, the Nazis moved to the South Pole and started constructing a base at Lake Vostok,’ claimed "RIA Novosti", the Russian state news agency.

"It cited Admiral Karl Dönitz in 1943 saying ‘Germany's submarine fleet is proud that it created an unassailable fortress for the Führer on the other end of the world’...in Antarctica

Adm. Dönitz is said to have made this statement at the Nuremberg Tribunal:

"The German submarine fleet is proud of having built for the Führer, in another part of the world, a Shangri-La on land, an impregnable fortress—an invulnerable fortress, a paradise-like oasis in the middle of eternal ice".

The Israeli writer and former Mossad agent Michael Bar-Zohar in his book "The Avengers" widely publicized this quote, writing:

"In March 1945 a detailed report was circulated in the U.S. State Department, which read: 'The Nazi regime has exact plans for the continuation of their plans and doctrine after the war. Some of these plans have already been put into effect'.

After the war, however, Dönitz denied ever having made the statement in the first place.

"According to German naval archives, months after the Nazis surrendered to the Allies in April 1945, a U-530 submarine arrived at the South Pole from the Port of Kiel.

"The crew are rumoured to have constructed a still undiscovered ice cave and supposedly stored several boxes of relics from the Third Reich, including Hitler's secret files.

"A later claim was that a U-977 submarine delivered remains of Hitler and Eva Braun to Antarctica in the hope they could be cloned from their DNA. The submariners then went to Argentina to surrender, it was claimed".

The U-530 and U-977 did indeed show up in Argentina some months after the end of the war in Europe to surrender to Argentine authorities, which of course, in March of 1945, had entered the war on the Allied side, when Generalissimo Juan Peron declared war on his best friends, the Nazis [it will be recalled that a young Colonel Peron accompanied the Nazi delegation, including Hitler himself, when Hitler toured Paris after the Fall of France in June of 1940].

The rumor that a U-Boat secretly ferried Hitler and his wife out of Germany is an old one.

A "Time Magazine" story from 23 July 1945, relays the story of U-530, which surrendered to authorities in Mar del Plata, Argentina, some two months after Germany's surrender. The story notes that an Argentine reporter cited a police report describing a submarine surfacing off Argentina's coast and dropping off two passengers, "a high-ranking officer and a civilian". The "Time" reporter speculated that the couple  "might have been Adolf Hitler and his wife, Eva Braun, in man's dress".

Antarctic Haven Reported
The New York Times
18 July 1945

BUENOS AIRES, 17 July 17 [Reuter]—The startling theory that Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun may have landed in the Antarctic from the U‑530 is advanced by the Buenos Aires newspaper "Critica" today.

The newspaper mentions as the probable place of debarkation "Queen Maud Land" where "a new Berchtesgaden is likely to have been built" during a German Antarctic expedition in 1938–39. The U-Boat, "Critica" added, probably formed part of a convoy of submarines that went from Germany to the Antarctic.

There's no evidence that U-530 ever visited Antarctica, although neither the captain nor his crew explained exactly what they had been doing for the previous two months. 

A mystery attaches to the final voyage of U-530

When U-530 was examined by Argentine surveyors on 10 July 1945 this is what confronted them:

U-530 looked as though she had survived some dreadful maritime calamity. The hull was devoid of paintwork and very rusted, the deck and structures had been damaged by the use of a ferocious corrosive cleaning material, the upper casing appeared to have been the seat of a great fire. The turret was split apart, the interior of the boat mouldy and the Diesels had been damaged by sabotage. Neither the US nor the Argentine declassified documents provide any explanation for all the damage except for the Diesels.

A great quantity of material had been ditched. By Wermuth's own admission under interrogation, the following had been thrown overboard:

- The war diary and other secret books
- five unused torpedoes plus the gyro and warhead of a sixth in which the battery had exploded and jammed in a tube.
- the torpedo aiming equipment
- all ammunition for the 20mm and 37mm flak guns
- parts of the 37mm flak gun
- the dynamite scuttling charges
- manometer gauges
- 3 Metox anti-radars
- 1 Hohentwiel radar and antenna

Most of the crew, including the commander, lacked a Soldbuch and other identity documents. Some papers must have been recovered aboard U-530, because they are mentioned in paragraph [J] of the Naval Attaché's report, but this section does not appear to have been declassified to date.

In addition, although well stocked for provisions, the crew was starving and scurvy. This would indicate either that some substance aboard U-530 made food inedible and/or destroyed Vitamin C in food or the human body. Although the boat had been cleaned and aired at Mar del Plata for three days, there remained a vile and disgusting stench in its interior.

There appears to have been an unexplained substitution of commander for a brief period. The Real Wermuth likely got off the boat with the war diary and other secret documents to report on the voyage to the Nazi espionage network in Argentina. The False Wermuth substituted for him until the Real Wermuth returned on 12 July with the permission of the Argentine Navy. 

According to many crew members interviewed by the Argentine Press on 10 July 1945, the deck gun was a 105mm weapon weighing five tonnes which they had dismantled and manhandled overboard with great efforts on the high seas. This is unlikely to have been a false memory. The False Wermuth had stated to reporters that U-530 did not have a deck gun, which had been left on the quay when sailing, while the Real Wermuth does not appear to have mentioned it at all. No mention of the deck gun appears in the USN or Arg Navy reports. This highlights the great importance of the deck gun. The deck gun likely was the cause of the calamity aboard U-530.

The Outward Voyage

On 19 February 1945, U-530 provisioned at Kiel. Wermuth took aboard a week's supply of fresh provisions including meat, vegetables, bread and 17 weeks supply of special U-Boat foodstuffs. At no time did he reprovision, he said.The voyage lasted 15 weeks but at Mar del Plata there was so much foodstuff still aboard that the Argentines accused Wermuth that he must have reprovisioned at sea or elsewhere.

The date may be significant. Following the disastrous air raid on Dresden on 16 February 1945 , Hitler had ordered a reprisal using unconventional shells to be fired by a U-Boat against New York. It is possible that U-530 was chosen for this task. Much later Keitel and Jodl dissuaded Hitler from going through with the measure. [Günther Gellermann, "Der Krieg der nicht stattfand", Bernard & Graefe, Koblenz 1986].

Besides the 105mm deck gun and flak weapons, U-530 loaded 14 torpedoes. These were: 8 x T-3a LUT pi-2 and 6 x T-5 FAT pi-4c. Radio equipment receivers consisted of two main, one all-frequency, one radione and a D/F.

U-530 arrived at Christiansand [Skagerrak] and refueled. 225 tonnes oil was shipped, 20 tonnes short of capacity "for better stability" on the recommendation of the Chief Engineer. [The other known Argentine boat, U-977, also loaded short, in her case only 80 tonnes for a capacity of 130 tonnes, again "for better stability" on the instuctions of the Chief Engineer].

Wermuth stated that he received his operating instructions direct from Berlin. This would be Dönitz HQ "Koralle" at Bernau north of Berlin.

U-530 with a crew of 54 officers and men left Christiansand on 3 March 1945 for Horten, Olso Fjord, and after a two day stop there sailed for the Atlantic on 5 March 1945 hugging the coast until well north of Bergen. Nothing abnormal occurred during this part of the voyage.

U-530 In US Waters

On 24 April Wermuth received orders to "operate against New York". His last message from Berlin was received on 26 April, this advising defensive measures. There now began a series of mysterious problems of radio reception. By 30 April only the short-wave receiver was working, and when reception ceased that day the unlikely situation had arisen in which U-530 had no further wireless contact with other German transmitters. [Wolfgang Hirschfeld, radio operator of U-234 which was passing through the region at the relevant time, had no problems receiving short wave and local transmissions].

U-530 reached the 200-metre line on 28 April and spent the next fortnight south of Long Island on occasions so close inshore that the crew was allowed to see "the automobiles, trains, skyscrapers and dirigibles" of New York City.

On 4 May 1945 Dönitz sent his signal ordering a cessation of U-Boat attack hostilities. Because Wermuth supposedly could not receive wireless messages he opened his attack on coastal shipping that day. He attacked a convoy of "10 to 20 ships" with the almost infallible LUTs. Two missed and one stuck in the tube.

On 6 May he attacked a large convoy with two LUTs and missed, then a tanker and a straggler with one LUT each and missed with both.

On 7 May he fired two FATs at a convoy and missed with both, then was forced off by bombing. No U-boat was reported near convoys on any of these three occasions.

On 8 May, or it might have been 10 May, as Wermuth recollected, his radio reception mysteriously recovered and he received the order to cease hostilities. He doubted its authenticity but decided to quit his "attack zone" that day. According to his officers, it was on 12 May and still in US waters that he attempted to contact the BdU for permission to return to Norway and discovered the war had ended a week previously.

It was now decided to go to a very deep trench 1000 miles ENE of Puerto Rico to jettison torpedoes and ammunition, gun parts, the deck gun and papers. Once that was done the same kind of "democratic" decision was made to head for Argentina as reportedly occurred aboard U-977, if one can believe such a thing: the Equator was crossed on 17 June 1945 and U-530 arrived off Mar del Plata on 9 July.


The main problem presented by the U-530 story as recounted by Wermuth and his officers/senior NCOs can be summarized as follows:

(1) The strange difficulties of radio reception reported, in which not even local shore radio stations could be heard.
(2) The three unsuccessful attacks on convoys using the almost infallible LUT and FAT torpedoes.
(3) The failure of the declassified reports to explain what operations caused the damage to the boat.

The fact that U-530 went to the Atlantic trench 1000 miles ENE of Puerto Rico to jettison the material including the torpedoes, ammunition for the flak guns, and also, the 105mm rounds for the deck gun, suggests that the rounds for the latter were unconventional and of a highly noxious character.

Possibly from early on off New York the unconventional material in these shells was leaking and was of such a nature as to interfere with the electrics of the torpedoes and radio installation, and when the attempt was made to ditch the shells there was a grave spillage which endangered the boat. Perhaps even the tiniest droplets still remaining on the casing were hazardous to life. This would account for the fierce corrosive cleanser and the great fire being set on the casing, and might account for the vile stench, the mould inside the boat indicating that the hatch had been shut for excessively long periods of time, and the deleterious effects on foodstuffs and crew health which remained until Mar del Plata.

As reported in the "New York Times" of 22 October 1944, the Germans were working on a new V-weapon which could be fitted into a rocket or shell. Though not a nuclear weapon it involved a nuclear principle. The article describes how the additive-gas would expand at detonation to change the nature of the air environment in which the normal explosion occurred, thus greatly enhancing its effects to cover a huge area when the shell impacted.

Submarine U-977 also surrendered in Mar del Plata on 17 August 1945, after famously spending 66 days submerged as it travelled from the North Atlantic to Argentina. The voyage of U-977 has also fueled several conspiracy theories involving Hitler and Nazi Gold, but no real evidence.

In any case, it is highly unlikely that Nazi scientists would have even thought to attempt to preserve the Führer's DNA. The DNA molecule was first discovered in 1869, but it wasn't until 1952 that scientist confirmed that it plays a role in heredity. The first successful clone from an adult mammal didn't come until 1996, when Scottish scientists successfully cloned a sheep.

But what is not known is exactly where those U-Boats went nor what they were doing. Is it possible they went to Antarctica? Yes. Certainly. Is it possible that the Germans constructed some sort of base there during the war? Yes, that's also possible, but if there was a base in Antarctica, it may have been for a limited U-Boat operation and/or weather monitoring, and possibly research only.

As for Grand Admiral Dönitz's remark, this has often been construed -as the state-run Russian media apparently agrees- as implying Antarctica. But the Nazi compounds in and around San Carlos di Bariloche in Rio Negro province of Argentina are no strangers to harsh winters either. What is interesting here is why Russia would be calmly implying that this Nazi survival myth -to the exclusion of recent research that maintains Hitler and Eva escaped to Argentina- is true. And that they might "uncover something" in Antarctica that would shed further light on the mystifying end of World War Two. 

Maybe they already have, and for the moment, they're not talking, but they are letting people know that they have in their quiet, Russian, chess-playing way.

Tunnels as tall as the Eiffel Tower discovered under Antarctic Ice Sheets

This report ties in with the persistent postwar rumors of "high strangeness" on the southern polar continent, and of some sort of Nazi base in Antarctica .

British scientists discovered 820-foot tunnels in West Antarctica
Stephanie Linning
24 August 2014

They were detected on airborne radar imaging and satellite photos: A team of British scientists has discovered tunnels that are almost as tall as the Eiffel Tower under an ice shelf in Antarctica.

Researchers from a number of UK universities and the British Antarctic Survey – a research centre based on the continent – detected the tunnels when they flew a plane over the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf in West Antarctica.

Radar from the plane, as well as satellite photos, revealed that ridges and cavities on the surface of the ice sheet corresponded to tunnels lying at its base.

British scientists discovered the tunnel using radar from the specially-modified plane. It revealed that ridges and cavities on the surface of the ice corresponded to 820-foot-high tunnels hidden at the base of the sheet

The 820-foot tunnels are nearly as tall as the Eiffel Tower – which measures just over 987 feet – and more than four times as tall as Tower Bride – which comes in at 213 feet.

Researchers concluded that the placement of the tunnels means that they were most likely formed from meltwater – water released from melting ice – that flowing underneath the ice sheet, over land, and into the ocean.

Researchers used a specially-modified 'Twin Otter' aircraft,  equipped with with remote sensors that provided scientists with data on the land, ice and sea that it flew over, to make the discovery. The data revealed that water moved beneath the ice in concentrated channels, similar to rivers. Scientists had previously thought that meltwater moved in more evenly spread sheets of water

Specially-designed radar equipment deciphered the tunnels under the ice – it can also be used to pick out layers within the ice itself. Longer-term monitoring from the air can be used to record the break-up of ice sheets or atmospheric changes.

The British team will now use its newfound knowledge of the under-ice tunnels to predict how exactly that ice shelf will melt in response to climate change.

The researchers published a paper about their work in the journal "Nature Geoscience".


This is intriguing for the obvious reason that it appears to confirm in some respects those persistent stories about Nazi bases in Antarctica that have been around since the Nazi Neuschwabenland expedition to the continent in late 1938 and early 1939. These rumors have always included the idea, in some circles, that the Nazis actually built and maintained research facilities on the continent for the development of advanced and exotic technologies, a view which is unlikely when more secure, less logistically vulnerable possibilities existed for the placement of such facilities in southern Latin America.

Long after World War 2, the secretive Argentine Government was compelled at congressional hearings to declassify some of its wartime dealings with Nazi Germany.

One report stated that a German six-engined transport aircraft landed "at the war's end" on a German ranch at [Puntas de] Gualeguay in Paysandu province, Uruguay and had aboard items of highly secret technological equipment including a device known as "The Bell". It further stated that the latter then came into Argentina and finished up at a German lakeside laboratory near Bariloche, whose ruins are still visible and where AEG made further experiments postwar. 

To cover the embarrassment of the aircraft's existence in Argentina as the Third Reich collapsed, it was broken up with parts dumped into the Rio Pirana.

-- Classified Intelligence report of Argentine Economic Ministry 1945 [only declassified 1993]

But the presence of such tunnels, of such a large scale, hollowed out but under-ice flows of water, the presence of such tunnels, of such a large scale, hollowed out but under-ice flows of water, suggest the possibility, one which I have entertained as a distinct possibility, of hidden U-Boat bases under the ice. Such possibilities would have been within the capabilities of the German navy, and such bases would have been of value for a variety of reasons.

So let’s indulge in our trademark high octane speculation once again. Why would one look for such tunnels in the first place, and why would it be the British doing it? the geological and scientific reasons are fairly obvious and do not need to be rehearsed. It’s the hidden possibilities, the historical ones, that intrigue me. Tunnels of such size could hide any number of things, large things, and thus perhaps one is looking at yet another attempt to corroborate the existence of lost secret Nazi bases, or even something more ancient. The discovery of the tunnels [or perhaps, re-discovery] places the famous expedition of Admiral Byrd, Operation Highjump, in late 1946 and early 1947, once again into a unique light, for let it be recalled that this expedition was outfitted for a stay of several months, and yet, only stayed for a few weeks, when the Admiral called it quits, and headed back to the USA, giving an interview with the "El Mercurio" newspaper of Santiago, Chile, on the way back, in which he warned that the USA would have to prepare defenses against "enemy fighters that can fly from pole to pole with tremendous speed". Such possibilities would have been within the capabilities of the German navy, and such bases would have been of value for a variety of reasons.

Why would one look for such tunnels in the first place, and why would it be the British doing it? The geological and scientific reasons are fairly obvious and do not need to be explored. It's the hidden possibilities, the historical ones, that are intriguing. Tunnels of such size could hide any number of things, large things, and thus perhaps one is looking at yet another attempt to corroborate the existence of lost secret Nazi bases, or even something more ancient.

-- Joseph P. Farrell 
20 January 2016

On 5 March 1947, the prestigious Chilean newspaper "El Mercurio" carried an article from its correspondent Lee van Atta aboard the support ship 'Mount Olympus'. The title of the article was: "Admiral Richard E Byrd refers to the Strategic Importance of the Poles."

It has often been alleged that this item never appeared and is fiction, but now we have the cutting in question, and so it exists. In the past it has often been misquoted in translation by occult enthusiasts, the usual interpolation in the text being "flying objects" having the ability "to fly from pole to pole at incredible speeds".

The article reads in true translation as follows:

"Admiral Byrd declared today that it was imperative for the United States to initiate immediate defence measures against the possible invasion of the country by hostile aircraft operating from the polar regions. The Admiral stated: - 'I don't want to frighten anyone unduly but it is a bitter reality that in the case of a new war, the continental United States will be attacked by aircraft flying in from one or both poles'. 

As regards the recently terminated expedition, Byrd said that the most important result of the observations and discoveries made is the current potential effect which they will have on the security of the United States."

"El Mercurio" is a conservative Chilean newspaper with editions in Valparaiso and Santiago. No other newspaper appears to have carried this report.

English Translation of the Article:

Admiral Richard E. Byrd warned today that the United States should adopt measures of protection against the possibility of an invasion of the country by hostile planes coming from the polar regions. The Admiral explained that he was not trying to scare anyone, but the cruel reality is that in case of a new war, the United States could be attacked by planes flying over one or both poles. This statement was made as part of a recapitulation of his own polar experience, in an exclusive interview with International News Service. Talking about the recently completed expedition, Byrd said that the most important result of his observations and discoveries is the potential effect that they have in relation to the security of the United States. The fantastic speed with which the world is shrinking – recalled the Admiral – is one of the most important lessons learned during his recent Antarctic exploration. I have to warn my compatriots that the time has ended when we were able to take refuge in our isolation and rely on the certainty that the distances, the oceans, and the poles were a guarantee of safety.

-- Michael S. Heiser, "The Portent"

'Operation Highjump' [1946-47], which was organized to "explore" the Antarctic, was a totally military expedition decreed at the highest levels [ordered by Defense Secretary James Forrestal, planned by the Chief of Naval Operations, Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz, and carried out by an American hero, Admiral Richard Bird]. It involved 4,700 men, 33 aircraft, 13 ships, two seaplane groups, an icebreaker, a submarine and an aircraft carrier [the 'USS Midway']

– The “Highjump” task force converged from three directions exactly on New Swabia, where the Reich had a base in 1938-39

– In 1958 the U.S. military dropped three atomic bombs on the Antarctic [as part of a “physics experiment,” of course…]

– The name of the 1958 task force which returned to the scene, consisting of 1,500 military personnel and nine ships, was "Task Force 88".

At this stage the humor in the choice of the number “88” should be obvious to everyone. [The numbers 88 in numerology mean the letters HH, which means “Heil Hitler.” Lest anyone think there are no occult types at the Pentagon, D-Day occurred at 6 am on the 6th day of the 6th month of 1944, and 44 is a multiple of 11…and we had 9/11, the John Kennedy murder on 11/22, and on and on].

For those seriously interested in the momentous topic of whether the Reich survived the war as an operating force, one should consult the ten books by Joseph Farrell, Ph.D. on the massive survival of the Third Reich in the postwar period [though he focuses more on South America]. For Farrell, National Socialism now lives on as a financial, high-tech and nuclear-weapons network.

Did US Inteligence Help Smuggle Hitler to South America?

Jerome Corsi is somewhat of a "fixture" in the alternative research community, and a well-respected researcher. In his book, "Hunting Hitler" concerning the survival of Adolf and Eva Hitler from the war, Corsi brings to light many troubling questions, including:

• Why were the Americans unable to obtain physical evidence of Hitler’s remains after the Russians absconded with his body?
• Why did both Stalin and Eisenhower doubt Hitler’s demise?
• Did U.S. intelligence agents in Europe, including the OSS and Allen Dulles [who later headed the CIA under President Eisenhower], aid Hitler’s escape, as they did with so many other Nazis?
• Argentinean media reported Hitler arrived in the country and it continued to report his presence. Why have the findings not made it to the US?

Argentina is the forgotten World War Two belligerent, and its perspective on postwar events is all but ignored in mainstream Western Media. Its role and perspectives are signally important to a proper understanding of postwar history, including the persistent stories, since the end of the war, of Hitler's presence in and around San Carlos di Bariloche and the Rio Negro province. [The locals of the region preserve stories of a quiet, sudden, quick, and secret visit of President Eisenhower to the region in 1954, during that period he famously "went missing" for a couple of days, ostensibly to have a tooth worked on, or, if one listens to the UFOlogy crowd, to have a secret meeting with extra-terrestrials at California's Muroc air base].

But the reasons for that malign presence are even more significant, and the article strongly suggests them:

Corsi presents documentary evidence Allen Dulles’ wartime mission in Switzerland included helping Martin Bormann, Hitler’s secretary, to funnel billions of dollars of Nazi ill-gotten financial gain out of Germany and invest in the U.S. and Argentinian stock markets to provide a financial cushion to survive in hiding after the war, but Corsi has added a new factor to consideration: namely, the exchange of a postwar hideout and non-prosecution for war crimes to Herr und Frau Hitler, in return for access to that vast pile of plunder the Nazis had looted from occupied Europe.

This inevitably invokes the dirty deals done between the corporate elite of the American and German "military industrial complexes", and that leads ultimately to the implied dirty deals some within the Allied [and mostly American] camp made with Martin Bormann, and his boss.

The German armed forces surrendered, and that could be taken to mean Germany did. But no one was present at either the Rheims or Berlin ceremonies signing for the Reich government itself, nor for the Nazi Party. It is a curious omission that, in the wider context of secret financial and intelligence deals, make one wonder if that omission was not intentional.

What was it Hiler said? 

"There will never again occur a November 1918 in German history," and "I have never known the word 'surrender'.

And of all the people able to point a very aware and knowing finger at complicit American corporations and families that helped him and his regime into power, and of all the people that knew where he had instructed his lackey Bormann to "bury his treasure," it was Adolf Hitler.  He and Bormann both knew of the depth of the deal struck with US General Edwin Siebert, and OSS station chief Allen Dulles, whose brother, John Foster, was Eisenhower's secretary of State.

If one assumes that Hitler DID survive, and moreover, escaped Berlin and Germany successfully, where did he go? And what did he do once he arrived there?

It would simply be unreasonable in the extreme to assume that he went elsewhere in Europe. After all, as history's most notorious criminal, and having just savaged Europe for five and a half years, there would have been no safe haven for him there. Only Franco's Nationalist Spain would have been relatively welcoming, and even then, Hitler would have been within easy reach of Allied or Soviet "special operations teams". The only other possibility of a relatively secure and welcoming refuge would have been Latin America. There the situation would have been a little more secure, but it would have been more or less the same story.

The last two possibilities are disturbing, but must be mentioned. One place, of course, for the ex-Führer of the totally eclipsed Greater German Reich to go would have been the alleged "secret base" in Antarctica. One cannot, though, imagine Hitler, who had by this time become accustomed to living in some luxury, managing to be happy in Spartan and doubtless small living quarters surrounded by miles of cold and ice. Which leaves a final possibility...that Hitler's escape had been co-ordinated, not only with Nazis, but with other outside parties, who decided to take him in and screen him in thanks for a job well done. On this view, Hitler, in effect, went to ground with the very people who had put him into power.

It would seem to take, at some point, the knowledge and connivance of a great power with the intelligence and security resources to keep a secret of that magnitude secret for that long, and to maintain for decades a cover story that looks increasingly to be as shaky as a pristine bullet on a stretcher in Dallas, Texas, in 1963.

Of these possibities, then, we end with two as being the most likely, if the escape scenario is true, and both of them end with "America".

"After visiting these two places [Berchtesgaden and the Eagle's Nest on Obersalzberg] you can easily understand how that within a few years Hitler will emerge from the hatred that surrounds him now as one of the most significant figures who ever lived. He had boundless ambitions for his country which rendered him a menace to the peace of the world, but he had a mystery about him in the way that he lived and in the manner of his death that will live and grow after him. He had in him the stuff of which legends are made.

-- John F. Kennedy "Prelude To Leadership - The European Diary of John F. Kennedy - Summer, 1945". Regency Publishing, Inc. Washingon, DC

America Plans on Mistakes by Hitler
Glen Innes Examiner [NSW]
18 June 1948

FRANKFURT: The mistakes which Hitler's engineers made in constructing underground war plants are being utilised by the United States Department of the Army in investigating the possibility of constructing and operating subterranean factories in America.

American authorities are basing their plans largely on a report submitted by an Allied team, under the leadership of a New York engineer, Mr. Guy B. Panero, who investigated the German underground plants after the war. Mr. Panero's report to the Department of the Army asserts that the German effort to remove vital plants below ground was initiated without any co-ordinated planning in a feverish rush to escape the crippling blows of Allied air raids. As a result of the lack of planning, the report says, the German underground factories were seldom located near adequate transport facilities or near the source of badly-needed raw materials.

Captured German documents show that only a small percentage of Nazi-controlled underground factories ever reached maximum production over a sustained period. Had portions of the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe been assigned to protect the plants, however, competent Allied observers believe that the war might have been indefinitely prolonged.

Inasmuch as most of the German underground war plants used slave labour, little or no attention was paid to providing for either the safety or the comfort of the workers. The lack of facilities in the German underground plants studied makes it apparent that Hitler's plans were almost exclusively based on using the millions of slave labourers brought forcibly to Germany. The American report consequentlv concludes that effectively to use underground facilities in the United States, a large degree of attention must be paid to improving the working conditions of the Labour force. This would include: Special heating ventilation, air-conditioning, recreational facilities, emergency sleeping quarters, and noise control.

All the Allied investigators were agreeable that the results of their tour showed that few, if any, defence measures known to military strategists could equal the protection afforded by an adequate layer of earth. Few of the more than 150 underground war plants built by Hitler suffered damage from air raids, the investigators discovered. Most of this damage was found to have come from stray bombs aimed at nearby targets. While the Allied experts found that dispersal of plants offered general protection, they agreed the mere random scattering of factory units provided no effective guarantee against the effects of such long-range "blanket" bombing tactics as the Royal Air Force used during the war.

Underground Construction Best

Where a high degree of protection is needed for a vital plant that could not be replaced, underground construction was found to offer the best solution at a reasonable cost. Technical investigators, who worked with the team, assert that underground construction, in the long run, is more economical than two other available means of plant defence.

The alternatives are: Dispersal of factories and the building of strongly reinforced concrete plants. Both are more costly and less effective as protection than underground factories, the report declares.

Although Germany had considered underground protection as early as 1916 during World War I, it was not until 1943 that German engineers awoke to the vulnerability of the country. The first underground factory in Germany was, however, built in 1917. This early forerunner of the scores of subterranean V- weapon and aircraft engine factories was a precision instrument plant built in natural caves near Mulhausen in Thuringia.

Although two-thirds of all German underground factories during the Hitler regime were devoted to the manufacture of primary war weapons, several located were devoted to oil refining or the making of machine tools. In spite of the Nazi emphasis on production for war, the investigators say that any type of manufacturing process can be carried on underground. Germany's most ambitious "mole" factories were located at Mittelbau-Dora, in the Harz Mountains where the stratosphere-piercing V-2's were made in enlarged tunnels 30 feet wide, and in some cases with a 75-feet high ceiling.

Germany's belated discovery of the potency of Allied air attack resulted in the sudden decision to remove the plants to any available underground site. In their haste to move the manufacture of these "last chance" weapons to safe sites, German engineers readily seized upon any natural cavern and cave sites which would provide protection without the necessity of spending precious time and labour in excavation and construction. This haste, which provided reasonably certain safeguards from direct damage from air attacks, proved costly for the Germans however. Many of the natural cave sites, although they required only concrete flooring and the installation of power and water facilities, were so far from supply and transport facilities that their output was greatly limited.

A high-ranking officer in the American Corps of Engineers recently said:

"Present indications preclude such fantastic developments as an underground Pittsburg or Birmingham".

Nevertheless, basing their "fantastic" ideas on the lesson learned from the German mistakes end British success with underground munitions factories, the American planners are going ahead.