The Junkers Ju-390 six-engine transport aircraft was one of the first aircraft in the world equipped for mid-air refueling, a technique pioneered by the Luftwaffe. Juan Peron, a colonel in the Argentine military, vice president of the Argentine federal government, Secretary of War of the Argentine federal government, and later president of the Argentine federal government, built a modern laboratory for German scientists for research into plasmas and high voltage at a location near Bariloche, Argentina.
Nuclear island: The secret post-WWII mega lab investigated
After the Second World War, Argentina hired German émigré scientists to build a top-secret mega lab in the middle of a Patagonian lake. Did they really create nuclear fusion -- or was it a bluff?
by Enrico Fantoni
14 February 2011
A boat slices through the chilly cobalt waters of Lake Nahuel Huapi in Patagonia. In the distance, the leafy island of Huemul emerges from the mist. The pilot pulls the launch as close to the shore as he dares, but he can't dock: the wooden pier at the landing is crumbling. Beneath it, there's the semi-submerged wreckage of a boat. The only way to disembark is to jump ashore.
Huemul is just ten minutes by boat from San Carlos de Bariloche, the famous lake town in a region of Patagonia known for its raw-boned cowboy culture, skiing and fine fishing. But Huemul, in the middle of this idyllic lake, remains ghostly and mysterious: several large, ruined brick-and-concrete structures stand as witnesses to a secret scientific project conducted in the long and shadowy aftermath of the Second World War. Sixty years ago, Argentinian leader Juan Perón hired a number of German émigré scientists to jump-start Argentina's push into industrialisation. Perón was particularly excited by a nuclear-research project the aim of which was to generate cheap electricity for the factories and steel mills created by his five-year plan, which the dictator imagined would make the country economically independent.
El Alemán [the German] running the project was the physicist Ronald Richter, who was actually born in Austria-controlled Czechoslovakia. From 1948 to 1951, Richter managed to burn through hundreds of millions of pesos of Perón's money building the mega lab, with its own power plant, on Huemul island.
Between 1945 and 1948, slightly more than 100 former Nazi rocket scientists were relocated to the West, principally to the US. Dozens of others were sponsored by and moved to Moscow. The two groups were the major contributors to the most significant technological efforts of the Cold War: the intercontinental ballistic missile and the space race. A smaller group of Austrian and German scientists found refuge in South America -- infamously, Adolf Eichmann, who lived in Argentina until his capture by Israeli intelligence operatives in 1960, and Josef Mengele, who fled Argentina for Paraguay following Eichmann's capture. Mengele had lived comfortably in Buenos Aires for over a decade.
Richter was born in a small town in Czechoslovakia. In 1948, he was invited to Argentina by Kurt Tank, the lead aeronautical engineer for the aircraft manufacturer Focke-Wulf between 1931 and 1945, who had been appointed to the aerotechnical institute in Córdoba under the codename Dr Pedro Matthies. Soon after the Austrian's arrival, Tank arranged an audience between Richter and Perón.
Although woefully under-qualified to conduct such a project, Richter sold the dictator the idea of controlled nuclear fusion from thermonuclear reactions as the most easily attainable power for Argentina's industrialisation. The ingredients [if not the equipment] would be cheap too, involving commonly found materials such as hydrogen, lithium, deuterium and heavy water. Excited by the possibility of nuclear fusion, Perón gave Richter the go-ahead to build a reactor, and a blank cheque to spend what he needed. Construction started in late 1949 and no expense was spared. When, in mid-construction, it was determined that some radial 5cm pipes leading to the 1,400-cubic-metre reactor's core had been installed incorrectly, Richter made the builders tear down the entire cement structure and build it again from scratch.
Huemul was selected as the site partly because of its abundant water supply. But there was another major reason both Richter and Perón were keen to keep the project secret: Perón had fallen out with many senior figures in the Argentinian scientific community, such as the world-renowned astrophysicist Ramón Enrique Gaviola. Both Perón and Richter were keen that the Huemul Project, as it became known, should be conducted without external interference.
Perón placed all his faith in Richter, who set about the project with absolute authority. He filled warehouses with expensive equipment, such as a four-metre-high copper coil that weighed 50 tonnes.
In the first two years the project produced no energy and managed to sour what little relationship Perón had with the scientific establishment. But in March 1951 the president announced that fusion had been accomplished. The news was splashed on front pages across the world, but the scientific world was incredulous. Two months later, CJ Bakker, a highly regarded Dutch nuclear physicist, visited Huemul but was provided with no scientific proof. Rumours from within the Argentinian military described Richter's scheme as a "colossal bluff ". Hans Thirring, the director of the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Vienna, wrote in a journal that "it is a 50 per cent probability that Perón is giving credit to the ravings of a fantasist; a 40 per cent probability that the president has been the victim of a huge scam; and a nine per cent chance that Richter is telling the truth.".
Perón became concerned that the money he'd spent [about £190 million] had been wasted. To establish the truth, he set up a board that was unable to find a shred of evidence for any scientific merit in Richter's work -- the temperature reached in the experiments was far too low to produce a thermonuclear reaction. Richter didn't even attain nuclear fission; according to one account, all he managed was a hydrogen burn in an electric arc, which he bombarded with lithium particles, thus causing an explosion so massive it cracked the concrete structure.
Huemul was abandoned and some of the buildings were blown up. In 1955 a provisional military government took over from Perón. The new administration began to investigate corruption under the dictator's regime. Richter was arrested and questioned, but was eventually released. He died in Buenos Aires in 1991.
Argentina's atomic reputation was restored in the following decades by two research institutions founded, and still growing, near the site of Richter's debacle. One is the Centro Atómico Bariloche, which houses a nuclear reactor built in the 80s; the second is the Instituto Balseiro, a research institute for physics and nuclear engineering. Sixty years after Richter's colossal technological fail, Argentina now exports atomic technology to countries such as Australia and the Netherlands.
The country also managed to claw back something from its investment in Huemul: Richter's lab machinery went on to form the core of the technological structure of both the Centro Atómico Bariloche and the Instituto Balseiro. In 1951, while on his buying spree for the project, Richter ordered a particle accelerator from Philips in the Netherlands. For decades, it was the only one in use in South America.
Now Invap, a public company born as an offshoot of the Instituto Balseiro, is manufacturing satellites for NASA and is responsible for the first reactor built in Bariloche. Unwittingly, Richter sowed the seeds of high tech on the pampas.
-- March 2011 issue of "Wired" magazine
Update 28/2/14: An earlier version of this article incorrectly stated that Ronald Richter worked on the German atom-bomb project under the theoretical physicist Werner Heisenberg.
Edited by Liat Clark
One of General Hans Kammler's tasks was the evacuation of the Nazi Bell [Glocke] device from the Riese Complex. Geoffrey Brooks unequivocally maintains that the Bell and Hans Kammler were transported in a Ju-390 to Argentina, and then taken to the plasma and high voltage laboratory at a location near Bariloche, Argentina. Files relating to a super aviation fuel and advanced aircraft probably were on this flight in the long-range Ju-390 transport aircraft that flew non-stop from Norway to Gualeguay aerodrome in Entre Rios province, Argentina — about a 26-hour flight. Passengers on this flight probably included Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun.
According to several 1945 claims, a six-engine German transport plane arrived at a private aerodrome at Puntas de Gualeguay in Argentina 195 km north of Buenos Aires where it unloaded a Bell device and its passengers.
There is a place in Argentina with high fences that was guarded 24 hours a day by armed guards up to 1982 that is called the 'New Eagles Nest'.
There is evidence that Adolf Hitler lived in the Bariloche area of Argentina until 1982 when he passed away at the age of 93.
According to Geoffrey Brooks, whose information in this regard corroborates Igor Witkowski’s own discovery of the Bell’s classification as "Kriegsentscheidend" -War Decisive the Bell rated higher than the atom bomb in the German High Command’s estimation. While this may seem odd or unusual, it should be recalled that a similar classification scheme has been alleged for captured 'UFO' technology in the post-war USA, rating it higher than the hydrogen bomb
Nazi Germany did have something like Los Alamos and what some thought was a secret nuclear project at the "Riese" Complex. 120 Danish and Norwegian scientists were said to have been employed at the site, and 63 of the 120 are said to have been executed by the SS at the end of the war to keep secret the research conducted there. It was last sighted in
The Riese Complex was home for two top secret SS research groups, SS-E-IV and SS-U-13. A newspaper correspondent of a leading daily newspaper in Argentina has stated in writing that he inspected official documents confirming that "the German anti-gravity experiments SS-E-IV and SS-U-13, together with the notorious Bell arrived aboard a Junkers Ju-390 long-range transport aircraft that flew non-stop from Norway to Gualeguay aerodrome in Entre Rios province, Argentina, in 1945", probably departing from Bodo airbase in Norway.
The long range Junkers Ju390 – disguised as a
Swedish civilian aircraft, last seen in Portuguese Guinea,
where it refueled for its trans-Atlantic flight, in late April 1945,
is said to have taken high ranking German officers
and scientists with an undisclosed cargo from
Munich to Uruguay in South America.
The Nazi Bell was referred to in a classified intelligence report of Argentina's Economic Ministry in 1945 declassified in 1993 and again in classified Polish post war interrogations of Jakob Sporrenberg which were declassified in 1998.
These reports were cross corroborated by Tom Agoston's interviews with Kammler's deputy SS Col Dr Wilhelm Voss who was in hiding from the Nuremberg trials.
"The highest known priority for any project in the Third Reich was '"Kriegsentscheidened' - decisive for the war. Only one single project was awarded this category by protocol of the Army Weapons Office session of 21 July 1942, the AEG [Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AG] electrical giant's project "Charite Anlage". Directed by Dr Richard Krämer, it involved the use of tremendous voltages in a Plasma Physics project "which will last until at least the end of the war". It is known that this project involved spinning containers of mercury at fantastic speeds within a ceramic bell-shaped object".
This 'Interkontinentalflugkörper' was originally intended to be released, Mistel fashion, by high altitude bombers such as the He-277 at altitudes of 46,000ft and 0.67 Mach, to ignite the engines. It would then climb to 80,000ft flying at 2.8 Mach much like the SR-71 cruise altitude, continuing its flight to the USA as a robot similar in concept to the V-1.
-- Claus Reuter, "The V2 and the German, Russian and American Rocket Program"
The lack of suitable launch aircraft to carry Trommsdorff D-6000 9000kg weight to 46,000 feet for launch was the overriding issue.
Later, a catapult launch was alternatively proposed. Two auxiliary starter rockets would accelerate the 10.24 meter long D-6000, 1.12 meters in diameter and 9 tons of fly weight at the end of the catapult to 850 m/s. Then the ramjet would deploy the aircraft-similar-projectile at a cruising speed of 4248 km/h. At a planned altitude of 24 kilometers, the D-6000 was able to achieve a range of 5300 kilometers including the 300 kilometer descent flight.
Nazi Germany had very limited resources and in 1944, all efforts were being directed towards breakthough wonder weapons, and faced a long uphill slog to create an A-bomb from Plutonium or Uranium enrichment, but with a high energy Proton generator in the Nazi Bell, Germany could bombard Thorium 232 to produce Uranium 233 which could easily be used in a gun detonator type, A-bomb.
By using Thorium the Nazis could breed Uranium 233 for a bomb without costly enrichment.
Colonel Juan Peron operated a Spanish spy ring which penetrated Los Alamos. The Germans had regular transcripts of telephone calls between FDR and General Groves and knew of the Manhattan Project from day one in 1942. When Paris was liberated the ALSOS mission made a bee line for the Champs d'Elysee offices of a scientific newspaper called "Celastiq" where they liberated said transcripts.
In addition to internal security violations related to the use of foreign workers on key atomic installation construction programs, the Germans had tapped the Churchill/FDR telephone and later decrypted the Churchill/FDR radiotelegraphy system.
In 1942, the Nazis got serious about nuclear research. Officially the Nuclear research project of the German Post office was abandoned. In truth it was handed to 'Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft' - the civil project under Heisenberg.
Borman and Göring however secretly funded the Heereswaffenamt [HWA] a top secret military project associated with Dr Kurt Diebner and Dr Paul Harteck.
There were heated arguments within the German scientific community over the direction of nuclear research. Heisenberg's group preferred a reactor using uranium and heavy water as moderator. Its research, however, had been going on at a snail's pace. Heisenberg just seemed unable to grasp some fundamental principles of making an atomic bomb. This group seemed to believe that a whole reactor would have to be dropped as a nuclear bomb. Even the scientists involved admitted that no atomic bomb could be built before the end of the war.
Another group, led by Paul Harteck and backed by Dr. Wilhelm Ohnesorge, head of the Reich Post Office, opted for the low-temperature [-80C] reactor. A low-temperature reactor would produce neither heat nor power, but would leave radioactive material behind in the forms of spent fuel, radioactive isotopes and plutonium. These by-products, except plutonium, of course, did not amount to an atomic bomb, but there was another possibility. Fine sand and dust could be mixed with the radioactive material to make themselves radioactive [such a device is now known as "dirty bomb"]. Packed around the high explosive warheads of the V-1 and V-2, the radioactive dust could spread far and wide, and knock out large cities like London. Harteck, however, met oppositions from Heisenberg, who disagreed with Harteck and withheld crucial materials. As a result, Harteck and others' work did not amount to much.
There was also a Kriegsmarine project based at Hamburg and later at Stettin trying to create nuclear powered versions of the Type XXI Elektro U-boat.
Meantime Heisenberg was working on a heavy water reactor to try and breed Plutonium, in association with Dr Fritz Houtermans. This could have led to a Plutonium A-bomb, but that path required at least five years.
The so called Caultrons, used at Oak Ridge were built in USA by an expatriate German scientist named Kerst, using patent rights for the Siemens "Betatron" plasma particle accelerator. Patent rights were sold to General Electric just a day before the invasion of Poland in 1939 and probably based on GE's insider knowledge that the invasion was about to happen.
The route followed to the bomb by the Manhattan Project was technologically backward and inept relative to the Nazi path, since the Caultrons used something like ten percent of the USA's national grid so were not the most favorite concept. Caultrons were a step way below spherical Tokamaks in efficiency.
A document called the Monsanto report was prepared for Arthur Compton at the end of WW2 based upon captured German scientific documents. NA file G371 'Report by Monsanto scientists Weinberg and Nordheim to A.H Compton of Manhattan project on state of Nazi nuclear science in WW2', dated 8 November 1945 stated:
"Point III. What was the state of German theory of the chain reaction?"
"Answer. Generally we would say their approach was in no wise inferior to ours; in some respects it was superior".
What was different between the Nazi and Allied A-bomb concepts were that the Nazis came up with a concept based in applied physics which enabled them to detonate a small A-bomb with far less fissile Uranium or Plutonium. In 1942/43 Germany developed an A-bomb using Uranium 233 and Deuterium (according to patents). By late in the war the SS had a new underground project aimed at using Plutonium and Trittium located east of Melk on the banks of the Donau River in Austria under the codename "Quartz II"
The biggest difference was that the Nazi bomb concepts could utilize as little as 150 grams of fissile Uranium whilst the Allied Uranium bomb needed 56 kilograms of U235 to achieve critical mass.
The Allied Uranium bomb was about as low tech approach as one could get. The Plutonium bomb was slightly more sophisticated perhaps, but still required a critical mass of Plutonium.
Because the Nazis could build a bomb without the need to first obtain 56 kilograms of Uranium the idea of using some sort of particle accelerator to obtain smaller amounts became a viable concept.
Arthur Compton tried but failed to make a successful Uranium centrifuge, whilst Nazi Germany created four different types ranging from a dozen to thirty times more efficient than Manhattan's porous barrier enrichment method. Caultrons used by Manhattan were based on a design whose patent rights were purchased by General Electric in September 1939 from Siemens. In fact Manhattan's Plutonium bomb was too sophisticated for US scientists and engineers who were relegated to making the Uranium bomb. The Nagasaki bomb was built almost exclusively by exiled expatriate scientists trained in Germany. By the end of WW2 ALSOS captured at least three spherical Tokamak particle accelerators built in Nazi Germany.
Dr Erich Schumann and Dr Walter Trinks developed and patented tactical nuclear weapons based on a technical understanding far superior than that possessed by the Manhattan project, using opposed hollow charges with Lithium liners smashed into a core of Uranium coated with Lithium Deuteride. This approach causes a Deuteron beam to ignite sub critical amounts of Uranium. With variations on the same theme, this is how all tactical nukes work. Nazi nuclear scientists were familiar with using Lithium and Deuterium to cause nuclear fusion at least as early as 1936. These weapons are primarily fission weapons however they are ignited by a fusion reaction.
This was referred to in one of the wartime Gouldsmitt Papers G-303, "Attempts to initiate nuclear reactions by the action of explosive materials" by Walter Herrmann, Georg Hartwig, Heinz Rackwitz, Walter Trinks, H. Schaub.
It was also noted in patent No. 977863; "Procedures for the ignition of thermonuclear reactions by means of convergent detonation compression shocks".
Atomic Bomb Discovery of Germans Told
by William H. Stoneman
Chicago Daily News Service
LONDON, 19 July 1945. One of the strangest security leaks since V-Day in Europe was registered yesterday when an Australian R.A.F. officer broadcast a description of the Uranium bomb.
Speaking from Melbourne, Wing-Comdr, A.G. Pither of the R.A.A.F. declared that if the war had lasted six months longer the Germans would have employed a 21-pound Uranium disintegration bomb having the force of a one ton V-2 warhead.
Heisenberg's pupil Friedwart Winterberg over the years has referred to nuclear explosions utilizing as little as 150 grams of fissile material. [see "A Third Way Towards the Controlled Release of Nuclear Energy by Fission and Fusion" University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, USA, 8 March 2004]
Critical Mass is determined not by the weight of fissile material but by the neutron flux.
In other words the density of neutrons passing a particular location. If the density is high enough one can cause a fission explosion in a few grams of Uranium.
A neutron reflector is only one very crude and primitive way of increasing the density or neutron flux by re-reflecting some escaping neutrons back into the mass.
[The Hiroshima bomb was 56 kg of 80% enriched 235U. One slug was fired down a five inch gun barrel into three concentric rings of 235U which were instantly fused and welded together into a sphere on detonation. Of this 56kg ball of 235U only 780 grams actually underwent fission... whilst the rest was blown apart. A very crude and inefficient bomb by today's standards. Today one could take the entire 780 grams mentioned and combust all of it].
Tactical nuclear weapons are made possible by the artificial generation of huge amounts of neutron flux by initiation of nuclear fusion. Nazi scientists first learned of nuclear fusion by chance from adding Deuterium into the plasma flux of electric arc furnaces, employed to reduce Lithium for U-Boat batteries. This chance discovery became the source of intense research 1940-41 at the University of Prague.
Tactical nukes work because the smashing together of Lithium and Deuterium by conventional explosives creates Deuteron beams with intense Neutron fluxes.
Foo Fighters were associated with specific locations in Germany where Particle Accelerators were in operation. When the power to low aspect ratio spherical Tokamaks is shut down suddenly, they give off plasma discharges which float up into the atmosphere as Ball Lightning. When spotted by Allied pilots they were named Foo Fighters.
That is a simple and plausible explanation for Foo Fighters - they were not aircraft.
The Nazis found a superior path but abandoned it for political reasons. Hitler was given an ultimatum for use of biological and nuclear weapons before he was ready to deploy his own weapons of mass destruction.
Germany was also manufacturing thousands of tons of Tabun-B near Breslau from August 1943, and were stockpiling artillery rounds and aircraft bombs filled with nerve gas for a planned offensive in October 1944 according to an OSS report from Switzerland dated November 1944.
A prisoner of Gross Rosen revealed after the war that prototypes of the V-1 and V-2 with nerve gas warheads were being developed in a factory at Breslau. After the war General Walther Dornberger revealed during internment that Hitler hinted at using the V-2 with more than just two tons of explosive.
They never used it, or Sarin and Soman, because it is suspected that Hitler, a victim of gas warfare himself, was left scarred by that experience and did not wish to initiate a chemical exchange.
Despite continued urging from Bormann and Field marshal Ferdinand Schörner, Hitler flatly refused to load exploding canisters of Sarin gas into V-2 rockets which would have turned Europe into a graveyard.
This was discussed in a private meeting with Schörner and Dönitz after the Führer's explosion on 22 April 1945 when he discovered he had been lied to about the Steiner counter attack-and declared "the war is lost".
Both Linge and Güunsche told this to their Russian interrogators and the Americans twisted it around to say that he feared the Russians had a secret gas - they didn't.
Frank J. Dinan, PhD, professor of chemistry and biochemistry at Canisius College in Buffalo, NY, shares his insight as to what would have happened if Hitler had chosen to use the deadly nerve gas Tabun, that he alone possessed, to oppose the D-Day landings
General Omar Bradley, commander of all of the American forces landing on D-Day, writing in his memoir, "A Soldier’s Story", commented on how relieved he was that the Germans did not use gas as a weapon on D-Day. "When D-Day finally ended without a whiff of gas, I was vastly relieved. For even a light sprinkling of a persistent gas could have forced a decision in one of history’s climactic battles".
If General Bradley’s fears were correct, the Allies could have been forced back into the sea with enormous casualties. The political repercussions of a D-Day defeat for Roosevelt, Churchill and Eisenhower, the three men most responsible for the landings would have been devastating. Would another invasion attempt be made? Surely not soon. The war would have been prolonged and could have resulted in the Allies using their still developing atomic bombs against Germany rather than Japan.
Seeing Tabun’s effectiveness as a weapon and the lack of an Allied response, Hitler certainly would have used it against the Russians. Would Stalin then, frustrated by Tabun’s use and by the loss of a long promised Allied second front, have sued for a separate peace? Now confident that no nerve gas retaliatory attacks were forthcoming, it is likely that Hitler would have launched his rapidly improving V2 rockets now filled with Tabun against Allied targets with devastating effect.
The Tabun story began on 23 December 1936, when a single drop of that newly-made chemical fell to the floor of a laboratory in Germany. The two men working there immediately suffered diminished vision, labored breathing and a loss of muscle control. Ironically, Tabun was made to be an insecticide that was toxic to insects but harmless to humans.
The Nazi government required that all discoveries of potential military value be passed along to them. The men’s employer, the giant I.G. Farben Corporation, complied, and its representatives were soon called to Berlin to discuss Tabun with the military.
Demonstrations of Tabun’s lethal effects at extraordinarily low concentrations made its potential as a devastating weapon obvious. Everything about Tabun was immediately classified as top secret and few were aware of its existence.
A weapon oriented Tabun research program began and construction of a plant designed for its production soon started. By mid 1943 thousands of tons of Tabun had been produced, loaded into artillery shells and bombs that were moved to storage sites throughout Germany. The secrecy that surrounded Tabun was so effective that the Allies had no hint of its existence and had no comparable weapons to retaliate with if the Nazis used it.
Nerve agents such as Tabun, are among the deadliest chemicals ever devised and are now classified as weapons of mass destruction by the United Nations. They exert their deadly effects by inhalation and absorption through the skin.
In the body they prevent the action of a key enzyme that regulates all nerve transmission processes. A nerve impulse is transmitted along a nerve pathway by a chemical called a neurotransmitter. Once it has done its job, the neurotransmitter must be immediately removed or the nerve transmission process repeats itself uncontrollably. Tabun prevents this removal and a victim’s ability to see, breathe and control bodily functions is rapidly lost. Death soon follows.
On D-Day, 6 June 1944, the largest invasion armada ever assembled assaulted the Normandy beaches of France. Allied troops stormed ashore and gradually overcame determined German resistance to establish narrow, tenuous beachheads. The invaders were tightly packed together and pinned on the beach with the sea at their backs and the German defenders before them. There was no going back; it was a clear case of advance or die. By nightfall, nearly 100,000 Allied troops had landed and about 10,000 of their comrades were either dead or wounded. Allied forces slowly fought their way inland. Within two weeks they had progressed far enough to allow a makeshift port to be built and soon 20,000 tons per day of supplies were being landed. At this point, although much fierce fighting and many casualties were still to come, the fate of Hitler’s Third Reich was effectively sealed. But did this have to be the case?
Allied confidence that Germany had not developed new war gasses of any significance was so great that General Bernard Montgomery, Commander of the British and Canadian D-Day forces, ordered that all gas protection equipment be left behind when his troops departed England on D-Day. American soldiers carried only a gas mask but no rubber protective gear to stop gasses from being absorbed through clothing and skin. They would have quickly become casualties to Tabun.
Earlier, in the summer of 1940, the British had formulated plans to use gas to repel what then seemed a likely cross Channel invasion of their island by Nazi forces. They recognized that gas would be a much more effective weapon than explosives to use against an invading army tightly packed together on a narrow invasion beach. Prime Minister Winston Churchill was so convinced that the use of mustard gas, much less effective than Tabun, would stop a German invasion and drive the invaders back into the sea that he urged the military to use its entire supply of mustard gas on the first day of an attack.
Why then didn’t Hitler, certainly no humanitarian, use the far deadlier Tabun, that he alone possessed, to defeat the Allies on D-Day? The answer to this question centers on one fateful meeting and an event that occurred in the closing days of World War I when then corporal Adolf Hitler was temporally blinded by gas and was hospitalized at the war’s end. This experience gave Hitler a life-long aversion to poison gas warfare.
By 1943, the tide of war had turned against Germany and Hitler came under increasing pressure from fanatical Nazi leaders to use Tabun. He resisted, maintaining that it would only be used in response to a nerve gas attack on Germany. But their pressure was unrelenting, and in the fall of 1943, Hitler agreed to discuss Tabun’s use with Otto Ambros, Germany’s leading expert on chemical warfare and Albert Speer, the Reich’s Minister for Armaments.
In his book, "Inside the Third Reich", Speer relates that at that meeting Ambros told Hitler that he doubted that Germany had a monopoly on Tabun. He stated that Tabun had appeared in the chemical literature as early as 1902, that I.G. Farben had patented Tabun in 1937, and that since 1939, no mention of phosphorus insecticide chemistry had appeared in the scientific literature of the Allied nations. Ambros argued that these facts indicated that the Allies had nerve weapons and had imposed strict censorship on them to prevent Germany from realizing their deadly nature. After hearing Ambros’ arguments, Hitler never again seriously considered Tabun’s use.
We know now that Ambros was wrong. The Allies knew nothing about nerve weapons until the war ended. But what we can never know with certainty is whether Ambros deliberately mislead Hitler as a result of his own misgivings about Tabun’s use, or if he believed the information that he gave to Hitler was correct. However several facts indicate that, whatever the reason, Ambros may have deliberately misled Hitler.
Ambros was a Director of I.G. Farben Industries and knew that although Tabun had been patented, the patent was held in complete secrecy. It did not issue publicly until well after the war ended and was not available to the Allies. An extensive search of the scientific literature over the period 1896 to 1911 recently conducted by experts failed to reveal any report of Tabun’s existence or mention of any such highly toxic chemicals. Ambros’ claim that nothing about phosphorus chemicals appeared in Allies’ scientific literature was correct, but this was a result of their efforts to prevent Germany from considering the use of these materials as insecticides.
Disease has always been a major enemy of armies during wars and Allied policy dictated that all information on insecticides was classified as secret. This caused the lack of publication that Ambros reported to Hitler.
We can never be sure what might have happened if Tabun had been used but we know this: what the little known chemist, Otto Ambros told Adolf Hitler at their fateful 1943 meeting saved countless lives, shortened history’s most horrific war and may have prevented a tragic D-Day defeat.
|German Poison Gas [1914 - 1944] |
By Richard A. Widmann
When the public thinks about the topic of German or Nazi poison gas development and usage throughout the years leading up to and including the Second World War, images of vast extermination programs and the gas chambers of Auschwitz and other concentration camps immediately leap to mind. The Holocaust story however suggests that the Nazis utilized methods, equipment and gas that were put to use in a way and for a purpose other than for which they were designed. It is suggested that, in a rather primitive way, the various Concentration camp personnel developed different methods to put into effect what is argued was a coordinated extermination program for Jews.
The traditional Holocaust story suggests the importance of adapting equipment and methods to put into effect a centrally organized program for mass-murder. It will be argued that had the Nazi leadership designed a program for the mass extermination of Jews that the weapons of such mass destruction were already developed and could have easily been used. Nazi chemical warfare development was the most sophisticated in the world. The poison gas developed during the years leading up to the Second World War make the traditional Holocaust story absurd. There is no reason whatsoever that the Nazis would have needed to adapt Soviet tanks or divert the use of Zyklon B from delousing programs designed to keep inmates alive to programs of extermination.  The weapons required for an extermination program not only existed but were manufactured in quantities that would have supported such a program had one been ordered.
To understand German poison gas capabilities during World War Two, it is important to consider briefly the use of poison gases during World War One. During the First World War both sides used large quantities of poison gas. Over 1.3 million tons of chemical were used throughout the war in agents ranging from simple tear gas to mustard gas.  At the time that the war began, Germany had the leading chemical industry of any of the combatants; in fact, they were the leaders in the entire world. The major chemical factories were situated in the Ruhr and were known as the Interessen Gemeinschaft Farben or I.G. Farben. 
The introduction of chemical warfare was actively lobbied by I.G. Farben and by its head, Carl Duisberg. Duisberg not only urged that the German high command use poison gas at a special conference in 1914, he personally studied the toxicity of the various war gases.  Duisberg also supported Fritz Haber, Germany's leading scientist at the time and head of its premier scientific laboratory, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry in Berlin. In his studies of the effects of poison gas, Haber noted that exposure to a low concentration of a poisonous gas for a long time often had the same effect (death) as exposure to a high concentration for a short time. He formulated a mathematical relationship between the gas concentration and necessary exposure time. This relationship became known as Haber’s rule. 
During World War I, the Germans and the Allies both used several types of poison gas rather effectively. These ranged from chlorine gas early in the war to phosgene gas which was introduced by I.G. Farben. Phosgene was about 18 times as powerful as chlorine gas. Concentrations as low as 1/50,000 were deadly. Throughout this period, the Germans would develop and initiate the use of several new gases only to have them copied by the Allies. In July 1917, I.G. Farben created a new gas initially called "Yellow Cross" by German artillerymen. Yellow Cross was more lethal than anything that had come before. This gas, dichlorethyl sulphide came to be known as "mustard gas".
Troops that were attacked by mustard gas initially reported only mild irritation to the eyes. It appeared to do little or nothing and many troops did not bother to put on their gas masks when they encountered the gas. Within a day, however, they would be in terrible pain. Troops developed moist red patches on their skin that grew into large yellow blisters up to a foot long. Those hit with mustard gas would die a slow agonizing death. In a ten day period the Germans used over a million shells containing 2,500 tons of mustard gas against Allied positions.  As a side note, the British too would use mustard gas in the final days of the war. In one attack on 14 October 1917 Adolf Hitler would be temporarily blinded by a British attack against the 16th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment. 
The Interwar Years
In the years following the First World War, the major combatants announced their opposition to the use of chemical warfare. In Geneva in 1925 representatives of the major powers signed a legal constraint against the use of chemical warfare. Still, during the “interwar” years, various European powers did in fact use poison gas. Among them were the British [against the Soviets in 1919], the Italians [against the Ethiopians in 1935], and the Japanese [against the Chinese in 1937]. 
Throughout these years I.G. Farben continued to expand its scientific base. From the laboratories of Bayer, one part of the I.G. Farben cartel, a scientist, Gerhardt Schrader, made a major breakthrough. On December 23, 1936 he prepared a new chemical as part of a part of a study of potential pesticides. During the test, Schrader used his new compound on lice in a concentration of 1/200,000. All of the lice died within a few seconds. 
By January of 1937, Schrader discovered that his new agent had unpleasant side effects on humans. The compound that Schrader developed was Tabun, the worlds’ first nerve gas. Tabun represented an exponential leap in toxicity level of poison gases. Even in very small amounts, the inhalation or absorption through the skin of Tabun affected the central nervous system and resulted in almost immediate convulsions and death.  Tabun was so lethal that it quickly became clear that it could not be used as an insecticide. Schrader, however contacted the war ministry and tests were carried out for the Wehrmacht.
By 1938, Schrader was moved to a new location to develop new compounds for the Wehrmacht. He discovered yet another compound, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate which he named Sarin. In the initial tests of Sarin gas on animals, it was discovered that Sarin was ten times as lethal as Tabun.  At the close of the war, German chemists were actively engaged in the development of Soman gas. Soman, another organic chemical related to Tabun, was estimated to be 200 times more deadly than Tabun.
Poison Gas and the Holocaust Story
Despite the toxicity and huge stores of these lethal nerve gases, the Holocaust story developed around the use of two gases, carbon monoxide and Zyklon B. Zyklon B was developed during the 1920s when scientists working at Fritz Haber’s institute developed this cyanide gas formulation to be used as an insecticide, especially as a fumigant for grain stores.  I.G. Farben, interestingly would sell the production rights of Zyklon B right before the war to two private firms, Tesch and Stabenow, of Hamburg and DEGESCH, of Dessau.
As the story goes, four out of six of the principal "killing centers” used carbon monoxide gas, which allegedly was generated through the use of rather disparate equipment. In Chelmno, according to Arno Mayer prisoners were “herded into the vans in which they were asphyxiated with carbon monoxide fumes". He goes on to note, "There was nothing particularly modern or industrial about either the installations or the operations at Chelmno-Rzuchow". 
The second alleged killing center was Belzec. There we are told that after using bottled carbon monoxide, the operatives switched to using exhaust fumes from trucks. In Sobibor, we are told that the gas was generated through an engine. If we are to believe Kurt Gerstein, Zyklon B was delivered there for sinister purposes as well.  At times we have also read of a submarine engine at Sobibor used to generate CO to kill Jewish inmates.  In Treblinka we read of carbon monoxide pumped into a chamber from the Diesel exhaust of a captured Soviet tank. Even the orthodox Holocaust story contains an episode in which Auschwitz Commandant Höss visits Treblinka and concludes that the killing method there is inefficient. 
The final two "extermination centers" Majdanek and Auschwitz are said to have used Zyklon B as the agent of extermination. The killing process described at Auschwitz requires that someone climbs a ladder above the "gas chamber" opens the can of Zyklon B with a special can opener and shakes out the solidified pellets of hydrogen cyanide into a special shaft in the supporting column of the chamber where the pellets would over time turn into a gaseous state.  The absurdity of the Zyklon B story is that even orthodox Holocaust historians like Jean-Claude Pressac and Robert Jan van Pelt have admitted that typhus epidemics experienced at the camps required that everything be deloused and that "tons of Zyklon B were needed to save [Auschwitz]".  So, the story goes, that on one hand, the Nazis were using Zyklon B to delouse the camps and thereby prevent the spread of typhus, while on the other hand they were using the same agent to kill the very inmates whose lives they were attempting to save.
The Holocaust gassing story suggests a lack of co-ordination by the Nazi government. There is a simultaneous adoption of varied methods, which would have yielded varied results to carry out what is typically described as a "centralized industrial genocide". In fact, the official Holocaust story itself suggests that the program was anything but centrally organized and the methods were evolved in a rather chaotic manner in the field.
Based on the development of sophisticated poison gases including Tabun and Sarin, and their manufacture in huge quantities, the official Holocaust story appears absurd.  Holocaust historians have yet to answer the question why the Nazis would not have used Tabun or Sarin had they wanted to carry out an extermination of the Jews. Furthermore, even in the final days of the war, when the Nazi leadership sought out new-sophisticated weaponry, they did not use their stockpiles of poison gas on either front. This stands in stark contrast to the popular image of Nazi methods and thinking.
There is little doubt that the Soviets discovered significant quantities of Zyklon B when they arrived at Auschwitz and Majdanek that were there to combat typhus rather than to kill the inmate population. Similarly the tales of submarine engines and captured Soviet tanks pouring out Diesel exhaust for mass murder appear to be nothing more than the result of wartime propaganda. Had the Nazi leadership wanted to exterminate the Jews of Europe, they had far more sophisticated and lethal means to carry out such a plan. The official Holocaust gassing story requires a suspension of reason and a belief in the absurd.
1. Jean-Claude Pressac and Robert-Jan van Pelt, "The Machinery of Mass Murder at Auschwitz". Chapter 8 of 'Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp'. Yisrael Gutman and Michael Berenbaum, editors. Indiana University Press. Bloomington and Indianapolis. Pressac and van Pelt recount the incredible story of the Nazi SS utilizing 95% of Zyklon B shipments to Auschwitz for delousing purposes in order to keep inmates alive, while siphoning off 5% to operate the alleged gas chambers to execute the same inmate population.
2. David Tschanz, 'A Whiff of Death: Chemical Warfare in the World Wars'. "Command Issue" 33, Mar-Apr 1995. XTR Corporation, San Luis Obispo, CA 93403
3. The Empire of I.G. Farben. http://reformed-theology.org/html/books/wall_street/chapter_02.htm
8. William Moore, "Gas Attack! Chemical Warfare 1915-18 and afterwards". Leo Cooper, New York, 1987
13. M. Szöllösi-Janze [2001)] 'Pesticides and war: the case of Fritz Haber'. "European Review" 9: 97–108
14. Arno J. Mayer, "Why Did the Heavens Not Darken? The 'Final Solution' in History". Pantheon Books, New York, 1988.
16. For a thorough analysis see Henri Roques, The 'Confessions' of Kurt Gerstein, Institute for Historical Review, Costa Mesa, CA, 1989.
17. Friedrich Paul Berg, 'The Diesel Gas Chambers: Myth Within a Myth'. Journal of Historical Review, Vol. 5, No. 1, Spring 1984. Institute for Historical Review
18. Raul Hilberg, "The Destruction of the European Jews", Quadrangle Books, Chicago, 1967
19. Pressac and van Pelt
20. Ibid, p. 215.
21. In a reworked version of his classic article on the Diesel gas chambers, Friedrich Berg made exactly such a claim. In fact he renamed his article, 'The Diesel Gas Chambers: Ideal for Torture - Absurd for Murder'. See Ernst Gauss, "Dissecting the Holocaust", Theses & Dissertations Press, 2000.
There are references in a diplomatic signal from the Japanese embassy in Stockholm about Germany's use of small nuclear weapons, which the Japanese claim were used on the Eastern front in 1943.
This report, declassified by the National Security Agency only in 1978 is entitled simply "Reports on the Atom-Splitting Bomb".
Some elements of the Japanese report were obviously in error, such as the confusion over descriptions of a fission versus a fusion bomb and the date of the Kursk offensive, which did not begin until 5 July 1943. Mistakes notwithstanding, it is clear that Japanese Intelligence was firmly convinced that the Germans had used a revolutionary type of weapon on the Eastern Front.
The contents in their entirety, with the original breaks where they occurred in the text for transmission:
This bomb is revolutionary in its results, and it will completely upset all ordinary precepts of warfare hitherto established. I am sending you, in one group, all those reports on what is called the atom-splitting bomb:
It is a fact that in June of 1943 the German Army tried out an utterly new type of weapon against the Russians at a location 150 kilometers southeast of Kursk. Although it was the entire 19th Infantry Regiment of the Russians which was thus attacked, only a few bombs [each round up to 5 kilograms] sufficed to utterly wipe them out to the last man.
The following is according to a statement by Lieutenant-Colonel UE [?] I KENJI, advisor to the attache in Hungary and formerly [on duty?] in this country, who by chance saw the actual scene immediately after the above took place: "All the men and the horses [within the area of?] the explosion of the shells were charred black and even their ammunition had all been detonated".
Moreover, it is a fact that the same type of war material was tried out in the Crimea, too. At that time the Russians claimed that this was poison-gas, and protested that if Germany were ever again to use it, Russia>, too, would use poison-gas.
There is also the fact that recently in London - in the period between October and the 15 November - the loss of life and the damage to business buildings through fires of unknown origin was great. It is clear, judging especially by the articles about a new weapon of this type, which have appeared from time to time recently in British and American magazines - that even our enemy has already begun to study this type.
To generalize on the basis of all these reports: I am convinced that the most important technical advance in the present great war is in the realization of the atom-splitting bomb. Therefore, the central authorities are planning, through research on this type of weapon, to speed up the matter of rendering the weapon practical. And for my part, I am convinced of the necessity for taking urgent steps to effect this end.
The following are the facts I have learned regarding its technical data:
Recently the British authorities warned their people of the possibility that they might undergo attacks by German atom-splitting bombs. The American military authorities have likewise warned that the American east coast might be the area chosen for a blind attack by some sort of flying bomb. It was called the German V-3. To be specific, this device is based on the principle of the explosion of the nuclei of the atoms in heavy hydrogen derived from heavy water. Germany has a large plant [for this?] in the vicinity of Rjukan, Norway, which has from time to time been bombed by English planes.
Naturally, there have been plenty of examples even before this of successful attempts at smashing individual atoms. However, as far as the demonstration of any practical results is concerned, they seem not to have been able to split large numbers of atoms in a single group. That is, they require for the splitting of each single atom a force that will disintegrate the electron orbit.
On the other hand, the stuff that the Germans are using has, apparently, a very much greater specific gravity than anything heretofore used. In this connection, allusions have been made to SIRIUS and stars of the "White Dwarf" group. [Their specific gravity is (6?) 1 thousand, and the weight of one cubic inch is 1 ton].
In general, atoms cannot be compressed into the nuclear density. However, the terrific pressures and extremes of temperature in the "White Dwarfs" cause the bursting of the atoms and A-GENSHI HAKAI DAN. That is, a bomb deriving its force from the release of atomic energy.
There are, moreover, radiations from the exterior of these stars composed of what is left of the atoms which are only the nuclei, very small in volume.
According to the English newspaper accounts, the German atom-splitting device is the NEUMAN disintegrator. Enormous energy is directed into the central part of the atom and this generates at atomic pressure of several tons of thousands of tons [sic] per square inch. This device can split the relatively unstable atoms of such elements as uranium. Moreover, it brings into being a store of explosive atomic energy.
The end of this amazing intercept then reads:
Inter 12 Dec 44 [1,2] Japanese; Rec'd 12 Dec 44; Trans; 14 Dec 44 [3020-B], apparently references to when the message was intercepted by American intelligence, its original language [Japanese], when the message was received, when it was translated, and by whom [3020-B].
-- Edgar Mayer and Thomas Mehner, "Hitler und die Bombe" [Rottenburg: Kopp Verlag, 2002], citing "Stockholm to Tokyo, No. 232.9 December 1944 [War Department], National Archives, RG 457, SRA 14628-32, declassified 1 October 1978.
The date of this document two days before the beginning of the Battle of the Bulge must have set off alarm bells in the offices of Allied Intelligence personnel both during and after the war. While it is certainly clear that the Japanese attache Stockholm seems to be somewhat confused about the nature of nuclear fission, a number of startling things stand out in the document:
(1) The Germans were, according to the report, using weapons of mass destruction of some type on the Eastern Front, but had apparently for some reason refrained from using them on the Western Allies;
(a) The areas specifically mentioned were Kursk, in the approximate location of the southern pincer of the German offensive, which took place in July, and not June, of 1943, and the Crimean peninsula;
(b) The time mentioned was 1943, though since the only major action to have occurred in the Crimea was in 1942 with the massive German artillery bombardment, one must also conclude that the time frame stretched back into 1942;
At this juncture is it worth pausing to consider briefly the German siege of the Russian fortress of Sevastopol, scene of the most colossal artillery bombardment of the war, as it bears directly on the interpretation of this intercept.
The siege was led by Colonel-General [later Field Marshal] Erich von Manstein's 11th Army. Von Manstein assembled 1,300 artillery pieces - the largest concentration of heavy and super-heavy artillery deployed by any Power during the war - and pounded Sevastopol with this mighty arsenal twenty-four hours a day for five clays. These were no ordinary heavy field pieces.
Two mortar regiments - the 1st Heavy Mortar Regiment and the 70th Mortar Regiment - as well as the 1st and 4th Mortar Battalions, had been concentrated in front of the fortress under the special command of Colonel Nieman - altogether 21 batteries with 576 barrels, including the batteries of the 1st Heavy Mortar regiment with the 11- and 12 1/2 inch high explosive and incendiary oil shells...
Several of the 16 1/2 inch "Big Bertha" Krupp cannon and their old Austrian Skoda counterparts were massed against the Russian positions, along with the even more colossal "Karl" and "Thor" mortars, gigantic self-propelled 24 inch mortars firing shells that weighed over two tons.
But even "Karl" was not quite the last word in gunnery. That last word was stationed at Bakhchisary, in the Gardens of the ancient residence of the Tartar Khans, and was called "Dora," or occasionally "Heavy Gustav." It was the heaviest gun of the last war. Its caliber was 31 1/2 inches. Sixty railway carriages were needed to transport the parts of the monster. Its 107-foot barrel ejected high-explosive projectiles of 4800 kg -i.e., nearly five tons- over a distance of 29 miles. Or it could hurl even heavier armour-piercing missiles, weighing seven tons, at targets nearly 24 miles away. The missile together with its cartridge measured nearly twenty-six feet in length. Erect that would be about [the] height of a two-storey house....
These data are sufficient to show that here the conventional gun had been enlarged to gigantic, almost super-dimensional scale - indeed, to a point where one might question the economic return obtained from such a weapon. Yet one single round from "Dora" destroyed an ammunition dump in Sevastopol although it was situated 100 feet below ground.
"So horrendous was the bombardment from this massed heavy and super-heavy artillery that the German General Staff estimated that over 500 rounds fell on Russian positions per second during the five days' artillery and aerial bombardment, a massive expenditure of ammunition. The rain of steel on the Russian positions pulverized Russian morale and was often so thunderous that eardrums burst. At the end of the battle, the city and environs of Sevastopol were ruined, two entire Soviet armies had been obliterated, and over 90,000 prisoners were taken".
-- Paul Carrell, "Hitler Moves East", 1941-1943 [Ballantine Books, 1971]
Why are these details significant? First, note the reference to "incendiary oil shells". These shells are the indication that unusual weaponry was deployed by the Germans at Sevastopol and delivered through conventional -though quite large- artillery pieces. The German Army did possess such shells and deployed the frequently and with no little effectiveness on the Eastern Front.
But might there have been an even more fearsome weapon? The Germans indeed developed an early version of a modern "fuel-air" bomb, a conventional explosive with the explosive power of a tactical nuclear weapon. Given the great weight of such projectiles, and the German lack of sufficient heavy-lift aircraft to deliver them, it is possible if not likely that super-heavy artillery was used to deploy them. This would also explain another curiosity in the Japanese military attache's statement: the Germans apparently did not deploy weapons of mass destruction against cities, but only against military targets that would have been within the range of such weapons.
To resume the analysis of the Japanese statement:
(2) The Germans may have been seriously pursuing the hydrogen bomb, since reactions of the nuclei of heavy water atoms -containing deuterium and tritium- are essential in thermonuclear fusion reactions, a point highlighted by the Japanese delegate [though he confuses these reactions with fission reactions of atom bombs].
3) The enormous temperatures of atom bombs are used as detonators in conventional hydrogen bombs;
(4) In desperation the Russians appeal to have been ready to resort to the use of poison gas against the Germans if they did not "cease and desist";
(5) The Russians believe the weapons to have been "poison gas" of some sort, either a cover story put out by the Russians, or a result of field reports being made by Russian soldiers who were ignorant of the type of weapon deployed against them [The detail of "charred bodies" and exploded ammunition certainly point to non-conventional weaponry. A fuel-air device would at least account for the charring. The tremendous heat produced by such a bomb could also conceivably detonate ammunition. Likewise, radioactive burns with its characteristic blistering effects might well have been misunderstood by Russian field soldiers and officers, who would most likely not have been familiar with nuclear energy, as the effects of poison gas] and finally, and most sensationally,
(6) According to the Japanese cable, the Germans appeared to have gained their specialized knowledge via some connection to the star system of Sirius and that knowledge involved some exotic form of very dense matter, a statement that strains credulity even today.
It is this last point that directs our attention to the most fantastic and arcane recesses of wartime German secret weapons research, for if the allegation has even a partial basis in truth, then it indicates that at some highly secret level, physics, and the esoteric, were being pursued by the Nazi regime in some very extraordinary ways.
To anyone familiar with the wealth of material on alternative research into the Giza compound in Egypt, the reference to Sirius will immediately conjure images of Egyptian religion, its preoccupation with death, with the Osiris myth, and to the Sirian star system.
In this regard it is important to note that the extreme density of the material described by the Japanese envoy resembles nothing so much as a construct of modern post-war theoretical physics called "dark matter". In all likelihood his report greatly overestimates the mass of this material -if it existed at all- but nonetheless it is crucial to observe that it is material far beyond the ordinary density of matter.
The idea of a "Superbomb" was first patented prior to World War Two in Austria, and a modification of the idea was patented in Germany in 1943. [German patent 905.847, 16 March 1943] Its inventor, Dr. Karl Nowak, explained the reason for his invention as being to create a superbomb without the radioactive fallout effects that were evident from atomic and thermonuclear explosions. In other words, the Nazis were already looking past the thermonuclear age toward the creation of second and third generation weapons systems that would give the same offensive and strategic 'punch' but without the side effects.
In theory, the bomb is workable, but was way beyond the technological capabilities of Germany, or any other power, in that time period. Basically, the idea was to create a state of matter in which, through ultra-low temperatures approaching absolute zero, matter would be super-compressed. The idea was then to detonate this material, subjecting it to sudden stress and heat, to create a sudden and massive expansion and explosion, and therewith, an enormous, H-bomb sized blast. Thus, there may have been a basis in actual German secret research for the incredible claim of the Japanese military attache in Stockholm's 1943 report to Tokyo that the Germans were investigating the properties of super-dense matter for weaponization.
According to news reports of January 2016, the United States military is replacing the fixed tail section of the B61 bomb with steerable fins and adding other advanced technology. The result is a bomb that can make more accurate nuclear strikes and a warhead whose destructive power can be adjusted to minimize collateral damage and radioactive fallout.
Professor Friedrich Lachner, assistant for twenty years to professor Mache at the Department for Technical Physics at the University of Vienna, wrote a letter from exile in Argentina a few years ago to German researchers, Mayer and Mehner, claiming Germany produced 15 nukes.
-- Edgar Mayer and Thomas Mehner, “Hitler und die, Bombe" [Rottenburg: Kopp Verlag, 2002]
These were tactical nukes, based directly on the Nazi patents of Dr Erich Schumann and Dr Walter Trinks in 1942. Warheads weighed 4kg. with about 0.5 kiloton yields, of which two were captured by the Soviets.
Heisenberg was the head of the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft [Institute], which was not at the heart of the Nazi bomb project. The Army Ordnance Dept (Heereswaffenamt) was. It was led by Kurt Diebner and he was contracted to run specific trials at Kummersdorf in 1942 experimenting with miniature tactical nuclear weapons using hollow charge explosives.
A WW2 He-177 pilot, Peter Brill, a few years ago came forward at a reunion and mentioned he had been stationed at Werneuchen [which trained night fighter flying] in 1944 to train as a celestial navigator in preparation for a planned He-177 attack on New York.
In May 1944 the British repatriated General der Panzertruppe Hans Cremer to meet with Hitler and convey a warning that Churchill was contemplating dropping Anthrax over Germany unless Hitler abandoned his nuclear project.
Rainer Karlsch reveals in his book that in July 1944 Schumann was warned to halt all work on the Nazi atomic bomb.
A letter from Professor Paul Harteck to Josef Borkin, concerns Allied threats in 1944 to force abandonment of nuclear weapons project, and Japanese signals reveal Soviet threats to use poison gas against Germany.
In August 1944, Churchill warned Hitler via Romania’s Marshall Antonescu that the RAF would deliver Anthrax spores all over Germany, if a single German nuclear weapon was used against the British isles.
-- Evidence of Anthrax attack threat to force Hitler to abandon nuclear weapons, “Germany and the Second World War,” by Kroener Bernhard, Müller Rolf-Dieter, Umbreit Hans; "Germany and the Second World War: Organization and "Organization and Mobilization of the German Sphere of Power: Wartime administration, economy, and manpower resources 1942-1944"; Volume 5, Part 1; Andreas Hillgruber, ed., "Staatsmänner und Diplomaten bei Hitler."..."Destruction of Jews and Gypsies under the Antonescu Regime 1940–1944" [Chicago, 1999] This is also referred to by Dr Paul Harteck in Farm Hall transcripts 6-7 August 1945; also in "Virus House" by David Irving.
"Nazis with biological weapons" sounds like the "bad guys" in some sci-fi video game, but it is a thing that almost existed. Germany's biologists during WWII actually figured out how to make all sorts of bioweapons. The fact that they did not use any is all thanks to one individual who single-handedly threw a wrench in this Nazi super-plot -Adolf Hitler.
In 1943, a high-ranking Nazi scientist had recommended, "America must be attacked simultaneously with various human and animal epidemic pathogens as well as plant pests". And they could have done it; the Nazis had already carried out a series of bizarre insect-related tests, at one point even toying with the idea of releasing up to 40 million weaponized potato beetles over England's crops.
The scientists also learned how to weaponize a many of human diseases, including typhoid, cholera, and anthrax. The ingenious synthetic medium they invented to keep the diseases dangerous for weeks was considered an 'outstanding' achievement by the American scientists who raided Nazi laboratories after the war.
So why did they not they use these 'weapons'? Early in the war, Hitler issued an obscure order that said there could be no offensive biological weapons research. Nazi scientists basically ignored that order and did it anyway, but Hitler refused to change his mind when he was informed that he now had WMDs. Theories about why he did that abound.
Germany had no antibiotics and would have faced starvation within 2 weeks had Anthrax been used.
On 5 August 1944, Hitler, Ribbentrop and Keitel met with Antonescu and discussed the tremendous destructive power of Germany's new 'wonder weapon'. Hitler described Germany’s latest work on "new explosives, whose development was already advanced to the experimental stage".
Hitler confided his view that the jump from modern explosives to this one was the biggest since gunpowder.
Antonescu, when arrested by the Russians and questioned for war crimes, later quoted Hitler saying: "These weapons, for example, have such colossal force that all human life is destroyed within three, or four kilometres of its point of impact".
He also said he would not unleash this weapon until Germany could adequately defend itself against similar weapons which the Allies threatened Germany with.
By late 1944, Germany lacked air superiority over its own skies and German bombers could not survive over British airspace during 1944, except for a few fast non-precision night attacks by He-177 bombers which had to dive from great height over Europe and escape at sea level. Bombing the UK was not a possibility by then, the last Luftwaffe reconnaissance flight over England was on 10 April 1945 by an Arado 234.
On 14 February 1945, Hitler spoke to Dr Erwin Giesing, who had treated his shattered eardrums until October 1944 after the failed 20 July plot.
"Germany is in a tough spot, but I’ll get her out of it. The British and Americans have miscalculated badly.... In no time at all I’m going to start using my Victory weapon [Siegwaffe] and then the war will come to a glorious end. Some time ago we solved the problem of nuclear fission, and we have developed it so far that we can exploit the energy for armaments purposes [Rüstungszwecke]. They won’t even know what hit them! Its the weapon of the future. With it Germany’s future is assured. It was Providence that allowed me to perceive this final path to victory.
"The West Wall will stand fast and then our Siegwaffe will decide the war in a very short time.... And if the war should go against us, then we must all die bravely. I shall remain at the head of my forces and die in action. But Providence has brought me this far unscathed, and I shall continue along this prescribed path undeterred by whatever may befall me".
-- Giesing wrote his account of this conversation with Hitler from memory on 21 June 1945—six weeks before Hiroshima! The origin of Hitler’s optimism is puzzling. Scientists under Professors Werner Heisenberg and Carl-Friedrich von Weizsäcker had been studying nuclear fission and atomic bomb physics since 1939, and they had started building an experimental atomic pile at Haigerloch in 1944; in December the Reich chief of nuclear research, Professor Walther Gerlach, appealed to Bormann for exemption for them from Volkssturm service and mentioned their "atomic bomb" research as justification.
Bormann may have been Hitler’s source.
In a previously classified document by the 'Headquarters Mediterranean Allied Air Forces Target Intelligence Section', reference is made to a bomb with a destructive effect of several kilometres and a radioactive warhead for the V-2.
Evidence in PRO file WO.208/4178, GRGG 341, is a report of secretly recorded conversations by Maj General Dornberger with fellow German Generals, at the internment camp CSDIC Camp 11, which was entered in evidence at Nuremberg trials. Dornberger had commented that Hitler intended to use V-2s, fitted with the Schumann-Trinks designed tactical nuclear weapon.
In "Hitler's Rocket Soldiers", by Barber & Keur pub. Tattered Flag 2011, there is mention of a conversation, overheard by a certain Helmuth Frenk who was employed in testing the V2 and was fairly senior:
" ....Frenk clearly recollected overhearing a most illuminating conversation that took place between von Braun and a visiting dignitary: 'Once by accident, I overheard an exchange between von Braun and a visitor, who asked: 'Why do you not use an atomic bomb in the V2?' With a sneer, von Braun replied: 'Because we do not have one!'
Who the visitor was is not revealed and the date is also not made clear.
Also within the paragraph, it is also suggested that, "....Frenk never heard of any attempt to use Phosphorus as was sometimes rumoured. Similarly, the use of biological or chemical weapons, as far as he was aware, was simply not considered".
Douglas Dietrich was librarian of the U.S. Department of Defense, responsible for the destruction of archived WW2 records in the Presidio military base in San Francisco. He claims to have destroyed documents about German use of tactical nukes against the Soviets in Pomerania at the end of WW2.
An American Intelligence report dated 15 June 1945 about German Technical Transfer to Japan during WW2, noted the interrogation of Japanese officer who disclosed during 1944 Germany had transferred details of a matchbox sized warhead with a blast radius of 1200 metres.
Nazi patents hidden in the personal papers of Dr Walter Trinks detail a warhead using just 150 grams of Uranium 233, which would make a marble sized warhead core.
Enough is known about this nuclear warhead to say that it was a small boosted fission weapon weighing 5 kilograms. It had two opposed hollow charges with conical Lithium liners containing a small marble of Uranium at the centre in a vacuum. the marble was coated with a Deuterite in order to ignite a fusion reaction to boost fission.
During January 1945 Japan began manufacturing their own V-2 rockets at the Mukden Arsenal in order to arm it with these sub kiloton nuclear warheads, as a tactical threat.
Apparently the Germans did make an attempt to bomb New York with a Junkers Ju-390 on 17-18 September 1944. The aircraft, with black and green camouflage paint, is on the seabed just off Owl's Point, Maine, USA. On 28 September the bodies of three Luftwaffe aviators were recovered from the waters of nearby Penobscot River and were taken to the nearby Coast Guard station.
At first locals were told to keep quiet as an enemy submarine had been sunk there, however several people had seen the plane wreck. FBI and Secret service then told witnesses never to say anything.
Many years later, a constructor's plate for the aircraft was removed by a recreational diver with the nickname "Plouise" [possibly Patricia Louise Gray] from Vermont, who announced it was a Junkers RMZ tag and the aircraft had six engines.
There was no point in a raid on USA by a single aircraft with anything less than a nuclear weapon. It was a once only window of opportunity to strike, because after a first raid had tipped off US air defences there would never be another chance to strike New York.
Hitler was obsessed with bombing New York and in 1943 Göring and the Supreme Command of the Luftwaffe [Oberkommando der Luftwaffe] had drawn up plans for a nuclear attack on New York resulting in a map.
On this map of lower Manhattan Island are concentric circles detailing the blast and heat damage radii of an atomic bomb detonation over New York City. But the most unusual aspect of this "study" is that it shows the detonation of an atom bomb in the 15-17 kiloton range, approximately the same yield as the Little Boy uranium bomb dropped on Hiroshima, an odd "coincidence".
The Luftwaffe's intentions are quite obvious and clear. The destruction of the financial and business center of New York City would alone have been an unparalleled military and psychological blow against the American war effort. Beyond this, given the fact that New York City was an important point of embarkation for American shipping and troops, as well as a naval base, and a transportation hub for the entire American northeast, such a blow would have been incalculable.
For the Nazi leadership, such a blow would have made military and political sense. It would have demonstrated conclusively to the United States that Germany was capable of mounting significant military operations against the American mainland, and at levels of destructive capability that were militarily, economically, and psychologically devastating. From their point of view, such a blow would arguably been seen as weakening American resolve and perhaps, after a succession of similar such blows against prominent targets such as Boston, Philadelphia, Washington DC or Norfolk, would conceivably have led to America's exit from the war, leaving Britain to follow not far behind. The war against the Soviet Union could then either have been prosecuted without mercy until the inevitable Soviet capitulation, or at the minimum, a negotiated peace highly favorable to the Reich.
In October of 1943, then, such a study was a tempting prospect. But is there any indication that the OKL's "study map" was anything more than a study?
Why not use the "weapon" tactically against airfields or Soviet ground forces?
If the Americans laboured from 1942 to 1945 and only produced three nuclear weapons in that time including: "Trinity", "Little Boy" and "Fat Man", why did they specifically use them on undamaged Japanese cities rather than tactically in the battle for Okinawa?
The answer is they were too precious and too rare to be wasted tactically and a devastating attack on New York would have greater impact. A Soviet tank division could be replaced. A couple of squadrons on an airfield could also have been replaced. Other airfields could be pressed into service within days or hours with new units.
Such tactical use would have been meaningless compared to a knock out blow against New York which Hitler was apparently fixated upon.
The Messerschmitt Me-163 rocket fighter aircraft, perhaps better known as the 'Komet',
was possibly the most radical German manned fighter aircraft design to actually enter the
WW II combat theatre. Here Me-163 Komet fighters of the Luftwaffe climb vertically
through an 8th Air Force bomber formation and its top fighter cover before swooping down
on the "heavies" for their short but often deadly attack
The Reich Air Ministry [RLM] first learned of the American B-29 'Superfortress' heavy bomber in late 1942. These concerns were heightened in in March/April 1944, when YB-29 'Hobo Queen,' painted in European Theatre Operations ETO green camouflage, made a well-publicised appearance at RAF Bovingdon, which had been mentioned in an American-published "Sternenbanner" German language propaganda leaflet from Leap Year Day in 1944, meant to be circulated within the Reich. There were at one time plans to equip 9 Groups with the B-29 in the U.K. replacing the B-24 and having bases in Northern Ireland.
The B-29 was spotted by the Germans overflying Austria in daylight far too high to intercept. It remained in the U.K. until returning to the USA on 10 May 1944.
The performance estimates of this aircraft were a cause for great concern in the Luftwaffe. The B-29 had a maximum speed of around 560 km/h [348 mph)] and would attack in a cruise at about 360 km/h [224 mph] at 8,000-10,000 m [26,247-32,810 ft], an altitude where no current Luftwaffe aircraft was effective, and for which the only effective Wehrmacht anti-aircraft gun was the rarely-deployed 12.8 cm FlaK 40, which could effectively fire to an altitude of 14,800 metres [48,600 ft].
To counter the B-29, the Luftwaffe would need new day fighters and bomber destroyers with greatly enhanced performance at extreme altitude. The fighter chosen was the Focke-Wulf Ta 152H. This was based on the Fw 190D with longer wings and the new high-altitude "E" model of the Junkers Jumo 213 engine.
The Focke-Wulf Ta 152, arguably the finest aircraft of WW2, was a German high-altitude
fighter-interceptor designed by Kurt Tank and produced by Focke-Wulf.
It was intended to be made in at least three versions—the Ta 152H 'Höhenjäger' [high-altitude fighter]
the Ta 152C designed for medium-altitude operations and ground-attack using a different engine and
smaller wing, and the Ta 152E fighter-reconnaissance aircraft
with the engine of the H model and the wing of the C model
An alternative was the Messerschmitt Me 155B, a long-winged development of the Bf 109 which had already undergone several stages of design and would ultimately be built in prototype form by Blohm & Voss. The centre-line thrust twin Dornier Do 335, powered with two of the competing Daimler-Benz DB 603 engines also offered a service ceiling of some 11,400 m [37,500 ft], but the promising Dornier heavy fighter and 'Zerstörer' was still under development solely with prototype airframes flying, and the first production examples expected to enter operational service late in 1944.
For the bomber destroyer and night fighter roles, the Ta 154 and Heinkel He 219 had the performance needed to catch the bomber; however, both designs only gained that performance by mounting low aspect ratio wings which were inadequate for flight at high altitude and resultingly produced too high a wing loading.
In development was the Ju 388 'Störtebeker' a multi-role aircraft based on the Ju 88 airframe by way of the Ju 188. It differed from its predecessors in being intended for high altitude operation, with design features such as a pressurized cockpit for its crew.
By the summer of it 1944, it was clear that B-29 bombers were being sent to the Pacific and would not be operating over Germany anytime soon.
"During July 1944 Heisenberg was visited in Berlin by Maj Bernd von Brauchitsch, Göring’s adjutant, with a report that the German legation in Lisbon had learned of an American threat to drop an Atomic Bomb on Dresden during the next six weeks if Germany did not sue for peace in some way before then".
-- Irving, David. "Virus House". 'Abandonment of nuclear research under threat of retaliation by USA via Lisbon to bomb Dresden'
-- Operation "Epsilon" [conversation between Karl Wirtz, von Weizsäcker and Heisenberg 6-7 August 1945] National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD, RG 77, Entry 22, Box 164 [Farm Hall Transcripts].
The USA was anxious about OSS intelligence reports it had been receiving since 1943 discussing advances in the German Atomic bomb and preparations to use Tabun B nerve gas.
in the secretly recorded Farm Hall transcripts of conversations between German Atomic scientists in August 1945, it was also discussed between Heisenberg and Harteck in British captivity.
-- Operation “Epsilon” [ 6-7 August 1945] National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD, RG 77, Entry 22, Box 164 [Farm Hall Transcripts]
-- "Germany and the Second World War" by Bernhard R. Kröner, Rolf-Dieter Müller, Hans Umbreit, Oxford University Press, 2003
The German "Transozean Press Agency" published details of the Manhattan project widely in Germany during October 1944. The Manhattan Project itself may have operated discreetly but US nuclear aims and objectives were no secret and were known by Germany in 1939, since Heisenberg's visit to USA that year where he was approached to help USA develop an atomic bomb.
It is more than likely there were such threats made and there were probably some form of secret peace feelers in 1944.
Hitler had first proposed during early 1940 through US envoy Sumner Welles some form of armistice with Britain and France and settlement over Poland so that Germany could be free to deal with Russia and this was revived several times during the War including the famous flight of Rudolf Hess to Scotland in 1941.
Hitler again explored in late 1944 the prospect of a separate peace in the West but continuing to fight the Soviets in the East. There appears to have been at the very least some humoring of Hitler if not an actual agreement for capitulation to US forces.
At the Nuremberg Trials the British produced in evidence against Maj General Walter Dornberger secretly recorded conversations he had with other German generals during British internment at CSDIC camp 11.
Dornberger gave a number of comments about the German atomic bomb which remain classified even today. He also described Hitler's intention to use unconventional warheads on the V-2 rocket.
Dornberger went on to describe secret surrender talks which he and von Braun had at Lisbon in December 1944.
In late 1943 Roosevelt had sent Moe Berg as a special OSS envoy to Rome whilst it was still under German occupation. Wernher von Braun's brother Sigismund was a diplomat at the Vatican and private talks were held there which resulted in further talks between Wernher von Braun and two GEC officials at Lisbon in December 1944.
-- "The Secret History of the Rockets and Flying Craft of the Third Reich" by Friederich Georg. English language edition published by Helion & Company Ltd. in the UK citing a previously classified document by the Headquarters Mediterranean Allied Air Forces Target Intelligence Section.
It should be recalled that 450 Penemünde scientists and engineers were sent by train south to Oberammergau to await the Americans.
Dornberger noted he and von Braun were freed from arrest at the barracks in Oberammergau by SS Lt Gen Dr Hans Kammler who drove them west to Oberjoch, where they came in contact with the 772th Tank Batalion at Reutte.
When Dornberger went to work for Bell, Bell recruited another former German army scientist, Krafft Ehricke, "who had been an adviser on the German wartime atom bomb project" according to Jack Manno, "Arming The Heavens" [Dodd, Mead & Co., 1948].
Manno also said that Wolfgang Noggerath was brought in and put in charge of what became the Polaris missile. Willy Fiedler was brought in and made chief of planning of the underwater launch systems for submarines.
Rheinbote [Rhine Messenger] was a German short range ballistic rocket developed by Rheinmetall-Borsig at Berlin-Marienfelde during World War II. It was intended to replace, or at least supplement, large-bore artillery by providing fire support at long ranges in an easily transportable form.
One of the problems for the German military, and indeed any mobile military force, is the weight of the artillery and, more importantly, its ammunition supply. Battlefield rockets were intended to circumvent the problems, which led to the development of Rheinbote. The Rheinbote was the successor of the earlier Rheintochter [Rhine Maiden].
Developed in 1943 by the Rheinmetall-Borsig company, Rheinbote was a four-stage solid-fuelled rocket, and the only long-range battlefield ballistic missile to enter service in World War II. The first test flights were carried out that year. Several changes were made to the system, but the basic design remained the same. It measured 11.4 m [37 ft 5 in], with fins at the tail and one set of additional fins at each stage. The propellant was a diglycol dinitrate mix, which enable test models to achieve 6,800 km/h [4,200 mph; 3,700 kmh], the fastest rocket of the period.
The Rheinbote carried a 40 kg [88 lb] warhead [just 6.5% of the missile's total weight] to a height of 78,000 m [256,000 ft], for an effective range of 160 km [99 mi; 86 nmi]; it reached over 220 km [140 mi; 120 nmi] in testing. For shorter ranges, some of the stages could be removed. It was launched from a simple rail on a mobile trailer, based on the one used to transport the V-2. It was aimed simply by pointing the trailer and elevating the launch gantry; guidance was based on careful aiming of the launcher, with each stage of the missile having six slightly canted fins which caused the missile to spin, reducing inaccuracies.
In autumn 1944 talks were held between the Leiter der Einsatzleitung Heeresartillerieabteilung 709, Lieutenant Colonel Tröller, and SS-Obergruppenführer Kammler on the use of the 'Rheinbote' for a nuclear payload.
As to the threat to bomb Dresden in 1944, USA expected to have sufficient Plutonium for their first bomb in 1944 however the first operation of Hanford B reactor resulted in severe Xenon-135 poisoning of the reactor. It had to be de-fueled and restarted with fresh fuel which delayed Plutonium production until the end of 1944.
The nuclear attack on Dresden that was planned, was only withdrawn in October 1944.
"Hitler promptly canceled all bomber construction and abandoned plans for a major offensive in October 1944 intended to use nukes and stockpiled Tabun B nerve gas deployed by the Arado 234-C5 bomber or Dornier 217P/He-277".
The German "Transozean Press Agency" published details of the Manhattan project widely in Germany during October 1944.
The Manhattan Project itself may have operated discreetly but US nuclear aims and objectives were no secret and were known by Germany in 1939, since Heisenberg's visit to the USA where he was approached to help the USA develop an atomic bomb.
The "Dresden Story": A wartime atomic mystery
One of the strangest stories regarding the Nazis and the atomic bomb is the one that the German physicist Werner Heisenberg told at Farm Hall about being asked about an apparent rumor that the United States was planning to use an atomic bomb against Dresden.
The Farm Hall transcripts reports him telling it several times during his internment, and it changed slightly each time he told it. Here’s the first version:
"About a year ago, I heard from Segner from the Foreign Office that the Americans had threatened to drop a uranium bomb on Dresden if we didn’t surrender soon. At the time I was asked whether I thought it possible, and, with complete conviction, I replied: 'No'."
In a later version, he says he replied that it was possible — perhaps a face-saving maneuver, since by the second time Heisenberg tells the story, he has now started to believe that the reports of the atomic attack against Hiroshima were accurate.
Heisenberg repeated it several times over the course of his six month stay at Farm Hall.
There is an interesting follow-up on this story. The leak in question is a weird one and worth sharing.
In August 1944, a German science magazine, the "Physikalische Blätter" [Physical Pages], ran a short, anonymous piece titled 'Another Utopia':
"Transocean Service" transmits a report cabled to Stockholm’s "Tidnigen" from London:
""In the United States scientific research for a new bomb is underway. The material is Uranium, and if the forces bound in this element could be liberated, explosive forces of so far unimagined power could be created. A 5-kilogram bomb could made a hole one kilometer deep and with a radius of 40 kilometers. In a circle of 150 kilometers all buildings were be smashed".
The math on the energy release is way off by any measure — the damage radius described is well over 100 megatons, which is around what you’d get if you combined 5 kg of uranium with 5 kg of anti-matter [a pure E=mc2 conversion], much less if it fissioned with perfect efficiency [which would 'only' release 85 kilotons] - The rule of thumb is that the completely fissioning of a kilogram of fissile material produces about 17 kilotons of yield. Either they have carried a few decimal points incorrectly or they are just really confused.
Was this a "legitimate" leak? That is, did it derive from disclosure of confidential information? It is hard to tell. The fact that it pinpoints the United States as making an atomic bomb out of uranium seems accurate, but everything else seems to be sketchy and confused. It is true that the plutonium bomb used only around 6 kg of material… but that almost seems like a coincidence given the rest of what they are talking about here.
Anyway, the interesting bit comes 20 years later, in 1964. "Physikalische Blätter" was [and is] still around, and they ran a story on their wartime leak story. Much of it is repetitive fluff, a by-the-book [for 1964] accounting of Allied and German nuclear research. But along with this, they did attempt to track down the origin of the leak — with no success. But they did decide, thoughtfully, to try and assess the impact of the leak by surveying a few of the Farm Hall physicists to see whether they were aware of the 'Another Utopia' story.
Otto Hahn wrote back that he "knew nothing" of the article at the time, and added that while they knew that there were people abroad probably working on the subject of atomic bombs, and that the stopping of all publications about the subject probably indicated the work was secret, that nonetheless they didn’t suspect that the United States would actually be able to produce such weapons in time for use in the war. He then suggested that the "Physikalische Blätter" should get in touch with Heisenberg, since he was more plugged into such matters than Hahn.
And they did get in touch with Heisenberg, whose first response was that he hadn’t seen the article, was surprised to hear about it, suspected it was based on "vague rumors", but said he would love if they sent him a copy so he could evaluate it further.5 They did this, of course, and his second response was the more interesting one. He said that rumors of this sort occurred repeatedly because of articles related to atomic energy that had already been published, and he did not let such rumors occupy him much during the war. But then Heisenberg wrote:
"Perhaps I should mention here an exception. In the summer of 1944 [probably early July], an aide of Göring’s came to me with a message from a German representative in Lisbon that there was a pronounced American threat against the German government, that an atomic bomb would be dropped on Dresden in the next six weeks if the government did not immediately sue for peace. The exact conditions of where the message came from were not communicated to me. I was asked by Göring’s adjutant if I thought it was possible that the Americans had already created an atomic bomb. I was understandably made very uncomfortable by this question, because of the large responsibility connected to my answer. I said that I thought it was extremely unlikely, but not impossible, for the Americans to have such a weapon at this time, and I tried to explain that the production of the weapon would in any case require an enormous industrial effort, and that I could not imagine that the Americans had already done it".
And so the Dresden atomic bomb rumor raises its head again, no less confounding than before! But here we have a little more information on the source: it is supposedly from an agent in Lisbon, Portugal. Which is interesting.
There was a Nazi double-agent in Lisbon who was assigned to learning about the Manhattan Project. General Groves had written a "note to file" about a meeting he had with the Military Policy Committee on 21 June 1944, where he describes this incident and his response to it. In his notes, Groves wrote the following:
"This refers to the German agents who came to this country through Portugal, and the messages that were sent back to Germany in their behalf. These people were picked up as soon as they got into the United States and the messages were framed by me. There was considerable argument by my creeps as to these messages. I overruled them and did not deny that certain work was being done. It was pinpointed at certain universities and certain people, none of whom had anything to do with the project. The amount of the work was minimized, and an attempt to convince the Germans that it was an academic effort and that nothing would come of it. The creeps wanted to say that nothing was being done and that checks at various places had indicated that all potential personnel was being used on other work — I think radar".
-- Leslie Groves, Notes on the Military Policy Committee of 21 June 1944 [undated, but prior to 1964], Leslie R. Groves Papers, National Archives and Records Administration, RG 200, Entry 7530M, Box 4, 'Working Papers'.
This coincides very well with the timing of Heisenberg’s supposed query — apparently originating in Nazi agents in Portugal — regarding whether Dresden would be atomic bombed.
The geographical and chronological proximity is a rather impressive overlap; could something have gone wrong, or gotten scrambled, in Groves’ attempt to manipulate one of the few German atomic espionage attempts? I.e., Groves had wanted to suggest that the American program was small and unimportant; somebody instead reported back that it was massive and almost ready to go. It seems not impossible, though this is admittedly scant evidence.
But, here’s the twist. Arguably the exaggerated outcome would have been [and in fact was] as good an outcome as Groves’ intended minimization, if not a better one. Heisenberg looked at the six-weeks-to-an-atomic-Dresden claim and said, no way — that doesn’t make any sense. He came away from the whole thing convinced it was just ridiculous wartime nonsense. If the report he had gotten was, "do you believe that the only people working on nuclear fission are a bunch of no-names, instead of Bethe and Fermi and Oppenheimer and Wheeler and all of those other physics luminaries we know the Americans have?", might that not have raised his suspicions even more?
Lastly, is it possible the Dresden threat could have been real? The "Physikalische Blätter" story got picked up by the "Washington Post", and they got in touch with Richard G. Hewlett, the Atomic Energy Commission’s official historian. He thought Heisenberg’s story was pretty nuts: "I can’t possibly believe there was an actual threat from the U.S. Government".
-- Howard Simons, 'Were We Vulnerable: Swedish Report in World War II Tipped U.S. A-Bomb Hand', "Washington Post" [27 December 1964]. Simons’ story butchers many of the facts, including getting the nationality of "Physikalische Blätter", and even misspells Hewlett’s name
This was, obviously, because the US was still a year away from an atomic bomb at the time, and the idea of it being some kind of legitimate, diplomatic threat seems pretty out of character. Though do remember that Roosevelt asked Groves about using the bomb against Germany in December 1944 — so maybe, somewhere, this kind of idea was kicking around inside the heads of some people who knew about the Manhattan Project work but didn’t know how close it was to completion — maybe even someone who was working some kind of diplomatic/espionage backchannel. .
As it was, Dresden was of course catastrophically attacked. Over the course of three days in February 1945, some 1,250 Allied heavy bombers pounded the city with incendiaries and high explosives, killing well over 20,000 people and burning the heart out of a city that until that point had been spared the horrors of area bombing. Could Dresden have been kept "pristine" on the theory that it might have been a good atomic bombing target, in the same way that Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Kokura, and Niigata had been? The "Physikalische Blätter" speculated that maybe this was the case, though there is no evidence that supports this conclusion.
-- 'Dresden – Schicksal und Warnung', "Physikalische Blätter" 21, no. 4 
The selection of Dresden as a target has its own trajectory that seems independent of any possible atomic narrative, and the idea that it would have been selected as a possible atomic bomb target as early as the summer of 1944 seems rather far-fetched. It should be noted, as well, that the narrative about the atomic bomb in mid-1960s Germany was very much tinged by the Cold War context; it was a common thread of discussion in both the West and the East that the United States would be willing to throw Germany under the bus if it came to a real confrontation with the Soviets.
Still, it’s an interesting constellation of stories: the leak, Heisenberg’s query, and Groves’ attempt at misinformation. If Groves’ misinformation attempt really did result in the query to Heisenberg, what tremendous irony would abound. Ironic that Groves’ attempt to minimize the effort would result in a exaggerated interpretation; irony that the exaggerated interpretation would lead to total dismissal by the expert.
Dresden was targeted in February 1945 because it housed Max Steenbeck's plasma physics laboratory vital to Dallenbach's project and the Allies wanted it destroyed before Dresden fell to the Soviets. In fact the laboratory survived Dresden's bombing and afterwards equipment was evacuated south by Dr Rolf Wideroe to Kreis Ebermannstadt.
Twenty years after Kammler's "Bell" went missing, a remarkably similar object reportedly crashed in Kecksburg, Pennsylvania, in a wooded area in the country.
There had been some speculation [e.g. NASA's James Oberg] that the object in the Kecksburg Incident may have been debris from Kosmos 96, a Soviet satellite. Kosmos 96 had a bell- or acorn-like shape similar to the object reported by eyewitnesses [though much smaller than witnesses reported].
However, in a 1991 report, US Space Command concluded that Kosmos 96 crashed in Canada at 3:18 a.m. on 9 December 1965, about 13 hours before the fireball thought to be the Kecksburg object undergoing re-entry was recorded at 4:45 p.m.
In addition, in a 2003 interview Chief Scientist for Orbital Debris at the NASA Johnson Space Center Nicholas L. Johnson stated:
"I can tell you categorically, that there is no way that any debris from Kosmos 96 could have landed in Pennsylvania anywhere around 4:45 p.m. [...] That’s an absolute. Orbital mechanics is very strict".
There are a number of curious data points, however, that would appear to connect Kammler's "Bell" with the Kecksburg's "Acorn".
Both objects are described in very similar terms, as "acorn" or "bell" shaped, and both objects are described as having similar, if not identical, dimensions, being approximately 9 to 12 feet in diameter and 12 to 15 feet in height;
In fact, it is on only one point that the two objects differ, if indeed they are two distinct objects, and that is the consistent testimony by witnesses who actually saw the Kecksburg "acorn" UFO, that some strange form of writing existed around the bumper of the object, resembling hieroglyphics to some, but without the animal and people pictures, and resembling geometrical forms according to a few others. No similar statements exist for Kammler's Bell.
But even this may not necessarily be a sufficient reason to dismiss the possible connection. The kind of writing described may have been a form of runes, a form of writing in which the occult-oriented SS was also interested. These types of symbols can sometimes resemble geometric objects that some witnesses associate with the writing on the Kecksburg UFO. It is much more difficult, however, to find a resemblance between them and "hieroglyphic" writing.
According to the Joint Intelligence [Sub-] Committee:
"Unless the migration of important German scientists and technicians into the Soviet zone is immediately stopped, we believe that the Soviet Union within a relatively short time may equal United States developments in the fields of atomic research and guided missiles and may be ahead of U.S. development in other fields of great military importance, including infrared, television and jet propulsion. In the field of atomic research for example, we estimate that German assistance already has cut substantially, probably by several years, the time needed for the USSR to achieve practical results".
Source: JIC 317/10 RG 218 JCS CCS 471-9 [1/5/45] Sect. 3 1/5/45.
The Russians seized a 60 ton cyclotron and a plasma-ionic isotope separation installation at the workshop of Manfred von Ardenne. In Austria, the Russians acquired nearly 340 kg of metallic uranium.
From 1945 to 1950, Nikolaus Riehl was in charge of Uranium production in Russia.
In 1951, Peter Adolf Thiessen was awarded the Stalin Prize, First Class for his work in Uranium enrichment.
In 1953, Manfred von Ardenne was awarded the Stalin Prize, First Class for his work on the Russian atomic bomb.
Alsos was an effort at the end of World War II by the Allies [principally Britain and the United States], branched off from the Manhattan Project, to investigate the German nuclear energy project, seize German nuclear resources, materials and personnel to further American research and to prevent their capture by the Soviets, and to discern how far the Germans had gone towards creating an atomic bomb.
The personnel of the project followed close behind the front lines, first into Italy, and then into France and Germany, searching for personnel, records, material, and sites involved.
Nuclear intelligence teams moved quickly from Freudenstadt through Horb to Haigerloch in southwest Germany. Troops taking part in this operation [dubbed "Task Force A"] captured a German atomic pile at Haigerloch that only needed additional heavy water to become operational. Nearby at Hechingen they uncovered the heavy water plant shipped from Norway after the 'Operation Freshman' and 'Operation Gunnerside' attacks.
Alsos is sometimes mistakenly written ALSOS by sources including the U.S. Army, perhaps because it does not look like a usual English word and is thus falsely assumed to be an acronym. In fact, Alsos is Greek for "grove", and so this designation is a play on the name of Major General Leslie M. Groves, the military director of the Manhattan Engineer District [the Manhattan Project], the Allied wartime effort to develop an atomic bomb [which itself was sparked out of fears of a German weapon].
Groves was the major impetus behind the project, in part because of his desire to make sure that German technology and personnel did not fall into Soviet hands, so as to prolong the anticipated American monopoly on nuclear weapons as long as possible.
Establishment history teaches us, and correctly as far as it goes, that Heisenberg and the other highly visible Nobel-prize-winning German physicists did not have the resources in their heavy-water experiments to develop the bomb; Germany, it seems, did not have an adequate industrial base. However, this is a misleading half-truth, for Germany had developed the Bomb, as reported in an article that appeared in the "Evening Standard" on 7 August 1945, one day after the Little Boy atom bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, titled 'Germans Timed Atomic Bomb for October'. The article reads as follows:
"The Germans had an atom bomb which would have been ready by October. A colossal blast effect was claimed for the German bomb. It was said it would wipe out everything inside a radius of six miles, said B.U.P. to-day. The German atomic plans were uncovered four months ago, when an Allied search party walked into a small silk factory at Celle, north of Hanover. A laboratory of two rooms was buried away in the heart of the factory. A famous research scientist was still at work. He was flown to Britain the same day. This man, with others, had been working on the atom bomb for months. The Nazi Government poured out money on it. Apparently they did not expect immediate results".
The extent of damage, some 12 miles in diameter, is beyond the blast damage of a large atomic bomb or a comparable fuel-air bomb which the Nazis also had developed. This is the blast diameter of a hydrogen bomb.
It should be recalled that Dr. Edward Teller actually first thought of, and proposed to the Allies, the hydrogen bomb in 1944.
Samuel Goudsmit was the technical/scientific leader of Alsos, and Lt. Col. Boris Pash, a former Manhattan Project security officer, was its military leader. Major League baseball player, attorney, and linguist, Moe Berg contributed in various phases.
The project managed to find and remove many of the German research effort's personnel and a good bit of the surviving records and equipment. Most of the senior research personnel [including Werner Heisenberg, Otto Hahn, and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker] were sequestered at Farm Hall in England for several months. Their discussions were secretly taped, and transcripts of those tapes have been released.
In the end, Alsos concluded that the Allies had surpassed the German atomic bomb effort monumentally by 1942. Compared to the Manhattan Project, one of the largest scientific endeavors of all time, the German project was considerably underfunded and understaffed, and it is questionable whether Germany would have had the resources or isolation which were required for the Allies to produce such a weapon. Goudsmit, in a monograph published two years after the end of the war, further concluded that a principal reason for the failure of the German project was that science could not flourish under totalitarianism — an argument seemingly rebutted by the German advances on other technologies, such as world’s first jet fighter Messerschmitt Me 262, first stealth fighter-bomber Horten Ho 229, first ballistic missile V-2 and Soviet Union's development of a nuclear weapon by 1949.
German Digital Computers
Computers have the ability to make rapid mathematical calculations and to take mountains of raw data and organize it for us in ways which give us new insight into problems. This organizational ability was picked up on immediately by Dr. Kammler. Dr. Kammler had the benefit of knowledge, hardware and software that was developed by the computer pioneer, Dr. Konrad Zuse. 1
In spite of everything churned out by the computer industry and "history" as we know it, Dr. Zuse built the first digital computer in 19381 and the first programmable software language, "Plankaikuel" 2. He was also instrumental in developing magnetic tape as a computer storage medium 3.
By 1944 the Germans were using computers, the Zuse built Z-3, to plot the course of ballistic attack by the V-2 at Peenemünde and Nordhausen. 4.
After the assassination attempt on Hitler in July, 1944, power, on many levels of German cultural, technological and military life was transferred to the SS. Oldtime Nazi bosses such as the Minister of Armaments, Albert Speer, sat back and watched helplessly as most of his empire was usurped by Dr. Hans Kammler. This included Dr. Kammler taking over the most promising and most highly technical wartime projects. Dr. Kammler was able to assume this role in addition to his other responsibilities and to handle them all with the excellence for which he was known. There is no doubt that Kammler had a genius.
The Z4 Computer
The goal of the Z4, which was developed between 1942 and 1945, was to build the prototype for a machine that was intended to be produced in the thousands. Unfortunately, the war that hope It took more than four years to build the Z4, which ended up being much smaller than was originally planned. In the case of the Z4, Konrad Zuse wanted to implement a sub-program principle. For this reason he planned six punch tape readers and two punch tape writers. However, lack of materials, the almost daily air raids, and the increasing difficulty of living in Berlin [which worsened daily] made it impossible to finish the Z4 completely.
Perhaps we can imagine the Kammler Group Headquarters, somewhere in Czechoslovakia, probably underground and perhaps near Prague or Pilsen. There, behind a triple wall of security which the Allies never managed to break, Kammler's think-tank and laboratories selected and directed the production of weapons and secret technology for the Reich. One of Kammler's secrets was that his organization was completely computerized 4 ; Hollerith, Z-3, and Z-4 computers, software computer languages and magnetic tape storage devices made Kammler's headquarters look more late 1960s like than mid-19405. In fact, German computers were so advanced that the Allied scientists and technicians failed even to understand the future when it stared them in the face.
The citation comes from a British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee report:
"D. Calculating Machine of Dipl. Ing. K. Zuse Associated with Josef Ernst were a group of people headed by Dipl. Ing. K. Zuse, of the Zuse Apparatebau, Berlin, who had been evacuated to Hinterstein in the last days of the war. They claimed to have invented and developed a new and exceptionally versatile calculating machine, which had an application in the solving of, for example, aerodynamic, ballistic, and statistical calculations. The apparatus itself is at Hinterstein, but is not assembled. Another team of specialists led by Dr. Simms, of the Ministry of Supply, who were passing through the area at the time were consulted, and one of their members, who had considerable experience of calculating machines gave it as his opinion that the apparatus did not embody any special features which were in advance of Allied knowledge". 5.
The fact that Zuse and his computers were so advanced that the Allies didn't know what they were seeing, comes from the fact that they waited five years to approach Zuse, under Operation Paperclip, and offer him work in the United States. When they did realize their error, at least two government missions were sent to Germany, with the backing of the US computer firm Remington-Rand. Dr. Zuse resisted these advances since he had found work in Germany. In fact, he was directing his own computer company by this time and had found the funding to do so which was hard for that time and place. Eventually, a trip to the USA was planned but canceled. It is unknown if he ever gave the US computer maker the benefit of his knowledge. 6
Today Dr. Zuse is held in high esteem in Germany and any Internet search using the words "Konrad Zuse" produce a plethora of old pictures and documentation.
1. Georg, Friedrich, 2003, "Hitlers Siegeswaffen Band 2: Star Wars 1947 Teil A: Von der V-l bis zur A-9: unkonventionelle Kurz-und Mittelstreckenwaffen", Amun-Verlag, Schleusingen.
5. British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee report number 142, "Information Obtained From Targets Of Opportunity In The Southern Area", page 9, London
6. File of Konrad Zuse, Foreign Scientist Case Files, Record Group 330, box 186, [Paperclip Scientists], US National Records and Archives, College Park, MD. 23
-- Henry Stevens, "Hitler's Suppressed and Still-Secret Weapons, Science and Technology"
The Soviets, however, benefited from Stalin's extensive spy network, which included at least two well-informed scientists at Los Alamos, Klaus Fuchs and Theodore Hall. Both worked to prevent the United States from holding a nuclear monopoly over the world.
After President Harry S. Truman received word of the success of the Trinity test, his need for the help of the Soviet Union in the war against Japan was greatly diminished. The Soviet leader, Josef Stalin, had promised to join the war against Japan by 15 August 1945. Truman and his advisors now were not sure they wanted this help. If use of the atomic bomb made victory possible without an invasion, then accepting Soviet help would only invite them into the discussions regarding the postwar fate of Japan. During the second week of Allied deliberations at Potsdam, on the evening of 24 July 1945, Truman approached Stalin without an interpreter and, as casually as he could, told him that the United States had a "new weapon of unusual destructive force". Stalin showed little interest, replying only that he hoped the United States would make "good use of it against the Japanese". The reason for Stalin's composure became clear later: Soviet intelligence had been receiving information about the atomic bomb program since fall 1941.
On 6 August 1945, the B-29 'Enola Gay' delivered its payload and destroyed Hiroshima.
Japan’s leadership quickly sent a telegram to their ambassador in Moscow, hoping to appeal to Stalin for help.
Instead of offering aid, on 8 August, Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov read to Japan’s ambassador a declaration of war.
The Soviets invaded Japan-held Manchuria on 9 August. The same day, the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Nagasaki.
The Soviets continued fighting in the north through September, capturing territories and islands at Japan’s fringes. But the United States closed in quickly and occupied Japan’s main islands. There would be no German-style partition.
Historians would later argue that this had been America’s goal all along. However, declassified archives show a great deal of disagreement among U.S. officials over Soviet involvement in Japan.
Michael Kort, professor of social science at Boston University, contends U.S. President Harry S. Truman simply wanted the war over and viewed Soviet involvement as another way to achieve that.
"The documentary evidence is overwhelming that Truman wanted the Soviets to enter the war and that on 8 August, he was very pleased to learn that they had done so", Kort said.
As for the use of atomic bombs, opinion remains divided. A Pew Research Center poll released in April showed that 56 percent of Americans believe it was justified. Among Japanese, 79 percent said it was not.
Hasegawa lays the blame for the tragic atomic bombing and the Soviet invasion at the feet of Japan’s wartime government. However, his research ultimately changed his thinking on some aspects.
The bomb played a part in Japan’s surrender, but it may not have been necessary, Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, author of the 2005 book, "Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman and the Surrender of Japan", said.
Had the U.S. drawn Stalin into publicly supporting the Potsdam Declaration’s unconditional surrender demand, Japan might not have held out hope for a Soviet-brokered deal. Had it guaranteed the emperor’s position, Japan might have surrendered earlier, Hasegawa said, though this is yet another point that draws endless historical debate.
The Russian researcher of nuclear history Pavel Oleynikov in his article 'German Scientists in the Soviet Atomic Project', in 'The Non Proliferation Review", summer 2000, states that the Soviet equivalent of ALSOS discovered "more than" 100 tons of refined Nazi Uranium stored in barrels at Neustadt am Glewe.
In the same article Olynikov also comments that researchers Khariton and Kikoin discovered 100 tons of fairly pure Uranium in the bombed out remains of Oranienburg along with a huge collection of nuclear technical documents and specifications.
In Goudsmit's book "ALSOS - The Failure in German Science" (New York, 1947), there appears a sketch of the zenith of German scientists' achievement in the field. The same diagram appears in the book authoured by Lt. Leslie Groves, military chief of the Manhattan Project.
Both Goudsmit and Groves stated that the diagram and photos represent "the German Atom Bomb".
The bomb was an aluminium sphere, about the size of a medicine ball, and had a tall chimney. The latter enabled the radium-beryllium radio-active source to be introduced into the core of the reaction. Within the sphere was layered alternately natural uranium powder [551 kilos] and paraffin wax.
The Nobel Prize winner Professor Heisenberg was looked to as the pioneering genius of Germany's atomic project. This was outwardly aimed at building a working atomic pile, a target which had not been reached by the end of hostilities five years later.
The excuse offered was that there was not enough heavy water available for the final successful experiment. Since Heisenberg's assistant Dr Karl Wirtz stated in his 1987 book "Im Umkreis der Physik" that there was easily enough heavy water in aggregate to moderate a nuclear pile in 1944, and he could not understand the reluctance to go ahead and do so, our attentions are drawn to the possibility that the heavy water was needed in another area.
As he admitted, Heisenberg's experiments B-III and L-IV at Leipzig made calculations regarding the effectiveness of paraffin wax as a barrier and measured the capture of neutrons by U-238 uranium material after they had been emitted by the radioactive source and been slowed by passage through heavy water. Dr. Flannen, a US physicist, explained in an Internet article that these two experiments could only be explained if the aim was to design not a reactor, but a bomb.
By 1941 the Germans knew that isotopes of U-238 in capturing neutrons became transformed into isotopes of plutonium, and Heisenberg was measuring where most such transformations took place. This would not be of much interest for reactor technology, but would be vital if building a bomb. The paraffin wax would have a function as a bomb part in connection with a technical problem associated with plutonium isotopes.
In June 1942 at Leipzig, Heisenberg placed within an aluminium sphere about 750 kilos of natural uranium, placed a concentric sphere of heavy water at its centre, dropped the radioactive source down the chimney and sat back. Five weeks later there was a disastrous fire and the experiment was terminated. But - what was this experiment intended to prove?
The United States invested hundreds of millions of dollars into uranium enrichment plants and plutonium breeder reactors. Germany, under heavy aerial bombardment and on a tight budget, could never have competed. What was needed was a nuclear device of small magnitude which could be mass-produced at small cost.
When an aluminium sphere of natural uranium powder is left to breed in the manner of Heisenberg's device, within about two years the plutonium bred by U-238 capturing neutrons exceeds the figure of 7%. This is the magic figure for a nuclear explosion of some sort.
If several hundred such spheres were left to breed for two years in mid-1942, by late 1944 Germany would have had a small arsenal of little nuclear devices. All that was needed would be some means of setting them off.
It is thought likely that the store of spheres was kept underground in the Ohrdruf area and that the date for readiness would have been October or November 1945. This would explain Stauffenberg's visits to Ohrdruf in July 1944 (see Arnstadt municipal documents: deposition of Cläre Werner): he wanted to see whether there was any chance of Germany winning the war before he killed Hitler.
The payload of the V-2 rocket was one ton, Heisenberg's sphere was about that. A V-2 hit the ground at Mach-3, the impact velocity required to instantaneously assemble plutonium for the briefest nuclear explosion.
Here we have not only an explanation for the apparently pathetic V-2 program, but also an explanation of what Professor Heisenberg was secretly attempting, on Hitler's orders, at Leipzig.
From "Trotzdem" by Oberst Hans-Ulrich Rudel:
"On 29 March 1944 while at tea with Hitler, he made particular mention to me of the V-weapons, which we have just begun to deploy. People should not overestimate the effect of these weapons at the present time, said Hitler, because the accuracy of the missiles was still very poor. But, he went on, this would not always be the case, because at the moment all he wanted was to have rockets which were able to fly without any problem. Later, Hitler said, there would be an explosive which was like no normal explosive such as we know at the moment, but something entirely different, which would be powerful enough to effect a positive outcome to the war. He said that the development of this explosive was far advanced, and that it would soon go into production. For me, all this is completely new territory, and I can't imagine what he is talking about. Later, I hear that the explosive power of the new rocket will be based on atomic power".
Between August 1944 and March 1945 a total of 1,045 V-2 rockets fell on and around London. If every day ten rockets fell on London, each with a warhead which gave a small nuclear blast equivalent to 30 TNT plus radioactive fallout to last for a hundred years, Germany would have a weapon which might have convinced Britain it was no longer able to continue in the conflict.
If Britain could be forced out of the war, even in late 1944 there was still a slim chance of success for Germany.
How long could London have withstood even two or three such rockets fired on London every day? Each crater region would be unapproachable for years, maybe decades. The effect of the fallout need not be mentioned.
"In general, it may be said that the Germans were about 6 months too late in the development and mass production of new weapons".
-- James Forrestal, US Navy Secretary, "New York Times", 28 August 1945.
"The Germans were preparing rocket surprises for the whole world in general and England in particular which would have, it is believed, changed the course of the war if the invasion of Germany had been postponed for so short a time as half a year".
-- Col Donald L Putt, Deputy Cmmdg.Gen. USAAF Intelligence, from his article in "Harper's Magazine", October 1946.
"The V-2 rocket was just a toy compared to what the Germans had up their sleeve".
-- British Intelligence CIOS Report XXXII-125
The politically correct stance nowadays is that there were no miracle weapons in the Nazi pipeline and Hitler was all bluff. The three quotes above made immediately after the war suggest that it is the modern West which is bluffing by postulating it as an historical fact that Hitler had no miracle weapons.
The first two quotes above put Hitler six months short of victory, or a negotiated peace, and from Colonel Putt's observation we see that the miracle explosive was rocket-borne. The technology of the time rules out a nuclear warhead. It had to be something conventional, or quasi-conventional.
The range of a V-2 was 200 miles. In June 1944, London was in range from anywhere along the French and Belgian coasts. Six months after the invasion - December 1944 - the German front line was far back from this 200 mile point.
The A9 was a winged version of the Peenemünde-designed A4 [V-2] missile. The V-2 would fly a simple ballistic trajectory after its fuel was expended, essentially like a giant artillery shell, falling on a target some 200 miles away at about three times the speed of sound (2,000 mph). Although this tremendous speed added greatly to the destructive power of the missile, there was another way it could be used.
By adding wings to the missile and modifying the guidance system, the designers redirected the kinetic energy of the falling projectile into extra range. As the rocket encountered thicker air on its descent, it would execute a high-g pullout and enter a shallow glide. In this way, speed could be traded for distance. While the rocket would reach its target at subsonic speed, and might therefore be vulnerable to defenses, it would be able to strike a target some 400 miles away only seventeen minutes after launch. Design studies began as early as 1940. In addition to the wing modifications, the A9 would have been somewhat larger than the V-2 and its engine would have produced about thirty percent more thrust.
Development was suspended around 1941, but several V-2s were hastily modified in late 1944 to approximately the A9 configuration under the designation A4b. [Loss of the V-2 launch sites in France and the Low Countries after the D-Day invasion made it necessary to consider ways to continue V-2 attacks on England from sites in Germany]. The first A4b launch on 8 January 1945 was unsuccessful, but a second, on 25 January, went better. The missile was fired vertically and reached an altitude of 50 miles and a speed of about Mach 4 -- 2,700 mph -- becoming the world's first winged supersonic guided missile. One of the wings failed on the descent and the glide portion of the trajectory was not accomplished. Apparently no further launches of the A4b were conducted.
The Germans had no intermediate rocket to hit London from Germany - the critical failure of German science. Hence the need for the Ardennes Campaign [Battle of the Bulge] to recapture Antwerp which is 200 miles from London..
The movie, "The Battle of the Bulge" implies that the Germans were on the verge of developing a whole range of incredible new aerial weapons, and needed to prolong the war for a few more months in order to get their new jets, etc., into production, and the Battle of the Bulge was a part of this plan. However just as these new weapons were about to go into mass production the German military failed to fully succeed in their battle plans to buy more time and prolong the war for a few more months, and the Allied invasion of Germany began. That particular victory may have been closer than most of us would dare to believe.
George Patton in an interview with "Time Magazine" on 27 August 1945, stated:
“Several times during the European phase of this war, victory was almost within Germany’s grasp […] Especially in the last months of the war, our margin of safety was slimmer than most of us suspected. The situation is known best to certain American military experts who have since inspected some of Germany’s underground research laboratories and war plants. Here they saw secret weapons […] Weapons which might conceivably have turned the trick for the Nazis if they could have used them boldly in a last desperate gamble. Some of these things can be revealed. Others cannot....yet".
Unfortunately he died a few months later.
In November 1944, according to Otto Skorzeny, all the talk was of "a dreadful weapon based on artificially bred radioactivity". [Otto Skorzeny, "Meine Kommandountertehmen", Universitas, 1993] Such talk stemmed from among his own SS colleagues. But it was just talk. The budgetary restrictions, the diversification and experimentation into other interesting rockets and guided missiles, the invasion of Normandy and the time required to mass-produce a huge stock of the V-4 atomic explosives ensured that nothing would come of the weapon for American on which Hitler was basing all his hopes. By the time they were finally ready even London was out of range.
At first, the men on the submarine thought it was a trick. The radio message from the German High Command told them the war was over; they were to surrender to the nearest Allied authorities.
The U-234, 294 feet long and 22,000 tons fully loaded, was one of the titans of the German undersea fleet; it had surfaced briefly somewhere in the mid Atlantic at this pivotal moment in its history -10 May 1945- to receive radio messages and find out what was happening in the European war.
No trick: The war in Europe was over
The mystery of U-234 and its cargo had just begun, however. The boat was en-route to Japan on a secret mission, carrying enough Uranium to make two atomic bombs. She would end her journey at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard instead.
The radio message was so stark, so shocking, Lt. Johann Heinrich Fehler, captain of U-234, wasn't about to take it on face value. He would have to test it out, make sure it was authentic, before deciding what his response would be.
The message, issued under the auspices of Admiral Karl Dönitz, former German U-boat chief elevated to supreme commander after the death of Adolf Hitler, praised all U-boat crews for "fighting like lions" for more than six years and then informed them that the enemy's material superiority had driven Germany to defeat.
"We proudly remember our fallen comrades," Dönitz consoled. "Long live Germany!" He ordered surrender.
U-234 immediately submerged. "They are trying to trick us," Fehler speculated, "they" being the enemy -- Britain, Canada, the United States.
Fehler knew all about tricks. As an officer aboard the German raider 'Atlantis', he'd become familiar with the ship's somewhat infamous means of surface deception. The 'Atlantis' would disguise itself as a friendly ship and lure enemy ships to within range of its camouflaged guns before opening fire. The 'Atlantis' had thus bagged 22 Allied ships before it was sunk by the British cruiser, 'Devonshire'; in November 1941.
U-234 sent out a message of its own to a nearby U-boat, in a special code that only captains could send and decipher.
"We have received a very funny message," Fehler radioed. "Have we surrendered? Is it true?"
The reply convinced him the message was no trick. His orders were to surface, to hoist a black flag on U-234's periscope, and to report his position to the Allies.
Fehler was a German officer which meant when he gave orders everybody snapped to But, for whatever reasons, the man who had earned the nick name 'Dynamite' for his job of scuttling captured vessels decided to exercise some democracy that day.
He asked for opinions from some of his colleagues in the converted minelayer whose cargo contained enough Uranium oxide to blow up two American cities - 1,235 pounds of it, possibly destined for a Japanese atomic bomb program. But it is likely that nobody knew about the cargo except Fehler. The officers and crew therefore were not thinking of uranium when they replied. "We have enough food to last us for years," remarked the boyish second officer, Lt. Karl Ernst Pfaff. "I think we should go to the South Sea and find a deserted island with beautiful girls".
It had momentarily slipped Pfaff’s mind that he was engaged to Fehler's sister-in-law. Fehler laughed. "That is wishful thinking," he told the 22-year-old Berliner who would never be his brother-in-law.
A pattern of responses emerged, the younger men tending to share Pfaff’s compulsion to run from it all while the older ones just wanted to go home to their families and forget the war.
Geography was a major factor in that U-234's position lay at the convergence of four Allied zones established for U-boat surrenders. Fehler could have surrendered to the enemy port of his choice. Britain, Gibraltar, Canada or the United States; or he could have attempted to return to Germany.
The latter would have been risky, Fehler knew, because the Russians -- no admirers of Hitlerite fighting men -- had been expanding naval operations in German waters. Neither he nor anybody on board wished to become a Soviet prisoner.
Fehler surmised that if they surrendered to Canada or Great Britain, they would be taken prisoner, first in Canada, then England and eventually France and it could be many years before the men returned to their homes.
Fehler perceived Americans as "not war faring people, not very military". At worst, he predicted they could be paraded through the streets, showcased so to speak as proof that real, live U boat crew members had been captured , and then sent home.
Fehler decided to turn U-234 into the gentle Americans. But he had to make sure the Canadians didn't get to him first.
U-234 radioed authorities in Halifax, Nova Scotia, that it was headed northwest, toward Halifax, at 8 knots (8 nautical miles an hour). In reality, U-234 was barreling across the Atlantic at 16 knots on a more or less southwest course, to the port of Newport News, Va.
The depressed atmosphere inside the black-flag-flying U-boat was disrupted by an incident involving two passengers, Imperial Japanese Navy Lieutenant Commander Hideo Tomonaga, a leading Japanese submarine designer, and Lieutenant Commander Genzo Shoji, an aircraft expert, who had come along to study German weaponry. [Whether they also knew of the atomic cargo remains one of the unsolved mysteries of U-234].
Fehler explained to the Japanese that he had to surrender because he had to obey his high command just as they would have to follow theirs.
An officer later recalled: "They returned to their bunks where they took Luminol, a very powerful barbiturate, lay down and pulled the curtains and we knew they were killing themselves, and that was their right. They took more than 36 hours to die. Then we buried them at sea, as we would do for any one of our own".
The passenger list also included German Luftwaffe Lieutenant General Ulrich Kessler, former commander of special bombing and attack wings based in Norway. He was returning to active duty as Chief of the Luftwaffe-Liaison-Staff Tokyo and Air-Attache at the German Embassy in Tokyo. Submarine officers may not have become familiar with him on the trip as he and they had little in common.
Kessler, with a monocle over one eye and a perpetual air of arrogance, passed his time reading books and, upon arrival in Portsmouth, would surrender with a smart salute to the highest-ranking U.S. officer on hand.
The U-234 arrived at the lower harbor or Portsmouth at 7:30 in the morning. Ulrich Kessler was described as "a typical Hollywood version of a German general".
"He wore a long leather greatcoat," the WHEB evening news report continued, "which reached to his ankles, highly polished leather boots and an Iron Cross [a Knight's Cross, actually] which hung tightly about his neck. He posed for newsreel cameramen and seemed to be enjoying the publicity he was receiving. He was tall and wore white gloves".
He later bragged to reporters that he'd learned how to accept defeat in style after World War I and expected he might have to do so even a third time.
But, displaying another, more practical side, Kessler admitted during interrogation that he had intended all along to get off the sub at Argentina -- not an unbelievable story in light of the fact that many top-ranking Germans already had fled to that South American country.
Whether Kessler knew of the atomic cargo remains a mystery today. Researchers find it more likely Kessler, knowing the war was about to be lost, had boarded the sub as a means of escape.
The discrepancy between Fehler's reported and actual course was soon recognized by U.S. authorities who dispatched two destroyers to intercept U-234, wherever it was.
One evening as it plowed the seas south of Newfoundland Banks, U-234 spotted a huge searchlight on the horizon. The destroyer 'Sutton' approached and asked U-234 to identify itself. Crew members of the Sutton boarded and took charge, redirecting it to the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard where three other U-boats, U-805, U-873 and U-1228, had surrendered within the last few days.
News of the surrender of the giant sub with its high-ranking Luftwaffe passengers turned the surrender into a major news event. Reporters swarmed over the Navy Yard and went to sea in a small boat for an earlier view of the prize.
But the big story -- the more than half a ton of Uuranium oxide on board -- was promptly covered up.
"Germany's largest U-Boat, the 1,700 ton Type XB minelayer U-234, was at sea when the war ended, and surrendered in mid-ocean to an American destroyer escort. Her original destination had been Japan; her cargo included two complete ME-262 jet fighters [disassembled in crates, but with complete technical data] and 550 kilograms of Uranium 235 [or Uranium oxide -- sources differ], packed in lead containers. The reason the Uranium was being sent to Japan has never been determined – or, at least, revealed".
-- Captain Brayton Harris, USN [Retired]
Author, "The Navy Times Book of Submarines: A Political, Social and Military History"
The United States military, in collaboration with worried officials of the top-secret Manhattan Project, had its own atomic program that would culminate in the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August.
Even after the war ended, documents reporting the uranium cargo on U-234 remained classified for the duration of the Cold War as America guarded all its atomic secrets from the new enemy: The Soviet Union.
Velma Hunt, a retired Penn State University environmental health professor who has spent years researching health issues as they pertain to uranium and tracking uranium shipments during the 1940s, and assisted in the investigation of the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear disaster, is writing a book.
She is fascinated with the U-234. Uranium taken by U.S. authorities from a German U-boat at the Portsmouth Naval Yard in 1945.
Hunt says she does not rule out the possibility that the uranium wound up in one of the bombs that landed on Nagasaki or Hiroshima but doubts that could have happened because of the time that would have been required to move the material through the very complex atomic manufacturing process.
Her attempts over the years to find out what happened to U-234's nuclear cargo led to no definitive answers.
"If it did not get into the August bombs it was certainly used in the subsequent bombs," Hunt said in an interview. "There is no question that it was used and put into subsequent devices that we continued to use for testing, possibly at the Bikini Atoll or in Nevada".
That captured German Uranium taken from U-Boat 134 in May of 1945 ended up in the 'Little Boy' bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima is contradicted by General Leslie R. Groves' Appointment Book of 13 August 1945 [a week after Hiroshima] where in a telephone call a Navy admiral asks if the material from the German submarine was of any use to the program. General Groves "advised it wasn't as yet but it will be utilized".
John Lansdale Jr., was the head of security for the Manhattan Project who helped lead American forces to Germany's atomic bomb project before Soviet forces could reach it.
In 1995, Mr. Lansdale added a surprising twist to the surrender of the Nazi submarine U-234 to American forces in May 1945. Bound for Tokyo, the submarine was carrying 10 containers filled with Uranium oxide. For years, historians had wondered what the American military did with it.
In an interview with "The New York Times" in 1995, Mr. Lansdale said the material, originally intended for Japan's atomic program, instead ended up in the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
"It went to the Manhattan District," he said. "It certainly went into the Manhattan District supply of Uranium".
Hunt's interest in U-234 was piqued by a number of still unanswered questions in addition to the mystery of the missing Uranium:
How did the Uranium on U-234 escape the uranium investigative activity of U.S. Gen. Leslie Groves' "Alsos" teams which probed uranium movements in Europe and Asia during World War II?
What part of the German military establishment had the knowledge, power and administrative clout to completely refit a submarine [from minelayer to giant underwater cargo vessel] and fill it with Uranium and advanced weapons technology?
The Uranium would have come from the Belgian Congo, Hunt believes. But by what paths did the Uranium move from there to the sub which was carrying it when it slid into the Baltic Sea on 25 March 1945?
What was the connection, if any, between the high-ranking Luftwaffe Gen. Ulrich Kessler on board U-234, and the Uranium oxide cargo? When he told U.S. interrogators he had planned all along to leave the ship in Argentina, was it also his plan to take the Uranium ashore with him and use it as a bargaining chip with the Argentineans? Or was he unaware of the Uranium?
Her main question was, and still is, how did U.S. authorities manage to keep the Uranium a secret for so many years?
The cargo was not officially revealed. But even if it had been, few Americans would have understood its significance.
This was three months before the United States would drop the world's first two atomic bombs, unlocking the secrets of atomic fission to an incredulous world.
Wilcox cited the story of the U-234 as evidence that the Japanese may have been close to developing their own atom bomb and would not have hesitated to use it.
Another researcher and author, Robert K. Wilcox, who has written about World War II, Vietnam and the Persian Gulf War, believes the uranium was snapped up by the Manhattan project [the top-secret American effort that concluded in the development of the atom bomb] but hasn't a clue to its ultimate use.
Wilcox wrote that the listing of 560 kilograms of uranium oxide for the "Jap Army" on U-234's manifest had elicited such concern with the War Department that it was kept from the public and subsequently became a classified document.
The submarine, U-234, was en-route to Japan with its cargo of uranium oxide -- enough, he says, to fuel two Japanese atom bomb attacks on the United States -- when it surrendered on 19 May 1945.
Wilcox believes Japan had its own secret atom bomb project and cites evidence that Japan may even have exploded a test device in northern Korea.
In his book, Wilcox argues that had Germany not surrendered on 6 May, ordering its ships and submarines to turn themselves in to the Allies, the first cities to be destroyed by atomic bombs could have been American. Rather than Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan, which were bombed by the United States in August of that year. That is, if the Japanese had time to assemble them, he says.
In any event, Wilcox claims, the Japanese were closer to achieving the bomb than the American people knew - or American authorities since may have wanted them to know.
Wilcox is in the process of updating his 1985 book for a reprinting in August by Marlowe & Company [New York].
The capture of U-234, one of the biggest U-Boats of the Third Reich fleet, and its illustrious passengers -- German scientists and high Luftwaffe officers -- made vivid headlines, but not a word of the secret Uranium leaked out, Wilcox notes.
Official papers documenting the existence of the Uranium were not declassified for many years, and when Wilcox drew attention to the Uranium cargo in his book, in the context of Japan's effort to build its own atomic bomb in World War II, nobody seemed to take much notice either.
Perhaps Americans didn't find credible his reports that Japan had relocated atomic bomb production facilities to Japanese occupied North Korea in 1945, Wilcox suggests.
But now, with growing U.S. anxiety over the nuclear weapons development program in communist North Korea, Americans may be more willing to take his earlier revelations seriously, he says.
In his book Wilcox traces Japan's determined development effort from its earliest days through possible testing. Wilcox speaks of a network of Spanish spies working in North America, U-234's aborted attempt to deliver 1,235 pounds of valuable, 77 percent pure Uranium oxide to Japan, and atomic research centers operating in North Korea.
Wilcox, said in an interview that his book was ahead of its time. "In 1985 the country wasn't ready for the story".
"Japan has always been looked at as the victim of the bomb. And so a lot of people didn't like the book. To be very base about it, there is a whole liberal element that does not want Japan to look like anything but the victim. But the fact is the Japanese tried very hard to make the bomb and would have dropped it".
The main thrust of the book is the Japanese did have an atomic bomb program, Wilcox said.
The Japanese knew an atomic bomb was feasible but their problem was Uranium.
In his reprinted book, WiIcox will introduce information that Japan near the very end of the war appropriated 25 million yen [about $100 million on today's scale] to find uranium. Much of the money was spent buying up all the uranium in Shanghai and around Japanese-occupied China in factories where it had been used for years in pottery-making.
"Their program did not get going until the end of the war," Wilcox said, "when they were searching for a miracle weapon. We were getting ready to invade Japan, they knew that, and they were going to do all they could to stop it.
"They would have dropped it on us if they had been able to," Wilcox said. "U-234 was one of their last-ditch attempts to get the uranium they needed, although I don't think it would have made that much difference because they had already found it in Shanghai".
U-234 and U235
"The traditional history denies, however, that the uranium on board U-234 was enriched and therefore easily usable in an atomic bomb. The accepted theory asserts there is no evidence that the uranium stocks of U-234 were transferred into the Manhattan Project... And the traditional history asserts that the bomb components on board [the] U-234 arrived too late to be included in the atomic bombs that were dropped on Jepan.
"The documentation indicates quite differently on all accounts".
-- Carter Hydrick, "Critical Mass: the Real Story of the Atomic Bomb and the Birth of the Nuclear Age"
In December of 1944, an unhappy report is made to some unhappy people:
"A study of the shipment of [bomb grade Uranium] for the past three months shows the following....: At present rate we will have 10 kilos about 7 February and 15 kilos about 1 May".
This was bad news indeed, for a Uranium based atom bomb required between 10-100 kilograms by the earliest estimates [ca. 1942], and, by the time this memo was written, about 50 kilos, the more accurate calculation of critical mass needed to make an atom bomb from uranium.
One may imagine the consternation this memo must have caused at headquarters. The was, perhaps, a considerable degree of yelling and screaming and finger pointing and other histrionics, interlarded with desperate orders to re-double efforts amid the fire-tinged skies of the war's Wagnerian Gotterdämmerung.
The problem, however, is that the memo is not German at all. It originates within the Manhattan Project on 28 December 1944 from Eric Jette, the chief metallurgist at Los Alamos. One may imagine the desperation it must have triggered, however, since the Manhattan Project had consumed two billion dollars all in the pursuit of plutonium and uranium atom bombs. By this time it was of course apparent that there were significant and seemingly insurmountable problems in designing a plutonium bomb, for the fuses available to the Allies were simply far too slow to achieve the uniform compression of a plutonium core within the very short span of time needed to initiate uncontrolled nuclear fission.
That left the uranium bomb as the more immediately feasible alternative - as the Germans had discovered years earlier - to the acquisition of a functioning weapon within the projected span of the war. Yet, after a veritable hemorrhage of dollars in pursuit of the latter objective, the Manhattan Project was far short of the necessary critical mass for a Uranium bomb. And with the inevitability of an invasion of Japan looming, the pressure on General Leslie Groves to produce results was immense.
The lack of a sufficient stockpile, after years of concentrated all-out effort, was in part explainable, for two years earlier Fermi had been successful in construction of the first functioning atomic reactor. That success had spurred the American project to commit more seriously to the pursuit of a plutonium bomb. Accordingly, some of the precious and scarce refined and enriched uranium 235 coming out of Oak Ridge and Lawrence's beta calutrons was being siphoned off as feedstock for enrichment and transmutation into plutonium in the breeder reactors constructed at Handford, Washington for the purpose. Thus, some of the fissionable uranium stockpile had been deliberately diverted for plutonium production. The decision was a logical one and the Manhattan Project decision-makers cannot be faulted to taking it. The reason is simple. Pound for weapons grade pound, a pound of plutonium will produce more bombs than a pound of uranium. It thus made economic sense to convert enriched uranium to plutonium, for more bombs would be possible with the same amount of material.
But in December of 1944, having pursued both options, General Leslie Groves now stood on the verge of losing both gambles. And let us not forget what had just happened in Europe to sour the mood of "those in the know" in the United States even further. There, six months after the Allied landings in Normandy and the headlong dash across France, Allied armies had stalled on the borders of the Reich. Allied intelligence analysts confidently reassured the generals that no further significant German military offensive was possible, and their optimism was reflected in the general mood of the citizenry in France, Britain, and the United States. The mood was brutally shattered when, on 16 December 1944, the German Army and Luftwaffe mounted one last, desperate offensive with secretly husbanded reserves in the Ardennes forest, scene of their 1940 triumph against France. Within a matter of hours, the offensive had broken through American lines, surrounded, captured, or otherwise decimated the entire 116th American infantry division, and days later, surrounded the 101st Airborne division at Bastogne, and appeared well on the way to crossing the Meuse River at Namur. On 28 December 1944, when the memo was written, the German offensive had been stalled, but not stopped.
For the Allied officers privy to intelligence reports and "in the loop" on the Manhattan Project, the offensive was possibly seen as confirmation of their worst fears: the Germans were close to a bomb, and were trying to buy time. The horrible thought in the back of every Allied scientist's and engineer's head must have been that after all the Allied military successes of the previous years, the race for the bomb could still be won by the Germans. And if they were able to produce enough of them to put unbearable pressure on any one of the Western Allies, the outcome of the war itself was still in doubt. If, for example, the Germans had A-bombed British and French cities, it is unlikely that a continuance of the would have been politically feasible for Churchill's wartime coalition government. In all likelihood it would have collapsed. A similar result would have likely occurred in France. And without British and French bases available for supply and forward deployment, the American military situation on the continent would have become untenable, if not disastrous.
In any case, word of the Manhattan Project's difficulties apparently leaked in the Washington DC political community, for United States Senator James F. Byrnes got in on the act, writing a memorandum to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and confirming that the Manhattan Project was perceived - at least by some in the know - as being in danger of failure:
SECRET March 3, 1945
MEMORANDUM FOR THE PRESIDENT
FROM: JAMES F. BYRNES
I understand that the expenditures for the Manhattan project are approaching 2 billion dollars with no definite assurance yet of production.
We have succeeded to date in obtaining the cooperation of Congressional Committees in secret meetings. Perhaps we can continue to do so while the war lasts.
However, if the project proves a failure, it will be subjected to relentless criticism.
-- Memorandum of US Senator James F. Byrnes to President Frankliin D. Roosevelt, 3 March 1945 cited in Harald Fath, "Geheime Kommandosache - S III Jonastal und die Siegeswaffenproduktion: Weitere Spurensuche nach Thüringens Manhattan Project" [Schleusingen: Amun Verlag, 2000]
Senator Brynes' memorandum highlights the real problem in the Manhattan Project, and the real, though certainly not publicly known, military situation of the Allies ca. late 1944 and early 1945: that in spite of tremendous conventional military success against the Third Reich, the Western Allies and Soviet Russia could conceivably still be forced to a "draw" if Germany deployed and used atom bombs in sufficient numbers to affect the political situation of the Western Allies. With its stockpile of enriched uranium already depleted by the decision to develop more plutonium for a bomb [which as it turned out was undetonatable with existing British and American fuse technology anyway] and far below that needed for a Uranium-based atom bomb, "the entire enterprise appeared destined for defeat." Not only defeat, but for "those in the know" in late 1944 and early 1945, the possibility was one of ignominious defeat and horrible carnage.
If the stocks of weapons grade uranium ca. late 1944 - early 1945 were about half of what they needed to be after two years of research and production, and if this in turn was the cause of Senator Byrnes' concern, how then did the Manhattan Project acquire the large remaining amount or uranium 235 needed in the few months from March to the dropping of the 'Little Boy' bomb on Hiroshima in August, only five months away? How did it accomplish this feat, if in fact, after some three years of production it had only produced less than half of the needed supply of critical mass weapons grade uranium? Where did its missing uranium 235 come from? And how did it solve the pressing problem of the fuses for a plutonium bomb?
Of course the answer if that if the Manhattan Project was incapable of producing enough enriched uranium in that short amount of time - months rather than years - then its stocks had to have been supplemented from external sources, and there is only one viable place with the necessary technology to enrich uranium on that scale, as seen in the previous chapter. That source was Nazi Germany. But the Manhattan Project is not the only atom bomb project with some missing uranium.
Germany too appears to have suffered the "missing Uranium syndrome" in the final days prior to and immediately after the end of the war. But the problem in Germany's case is that the missing uranium it not a few tens of kilos, but several hundred tons. At this juncture, it is worth citing Carter Hydrick's excellent research at length, in order to exhibit the full ramifications of this problem:
"From June of 1940 to the end of the war, Germany seized 3,500 tons of Uranium compounds from Belgium - almost three times the amount Groves had purchased.... and stored it in salt mines in Strassfurt, Germany. Groves brags that on 17 April 1945, as the war was winding down, Alsos recovered some 1,100 tons of uranium ore from Strassfurt and an additional 31 tons in Toulouse, France ..... And he claims that the amount recovered was all that Germany had ever held, asserting, therefore, that Germany had never had enough raw material to process the uranium either for a plutonium reactor pile or through magnetic separation techniques.
"Obviously, if Strassfurt once held 3,500 tons and only 1,130 were recovered, some 2,370 tons of Uranium ore was unaccounted for - still twice the amount the Manhattan Project possessed and is assumed to have used throughout its entire wartime effort.... The material has not been accounted for to this day...."
As early as the summer of 1941, according to historian Margaret Gowing, Germany had already refined 600 tons of uranium to its oxide form, the form required for ionizing the material into a gas, in which form the uranium isotopes could then be magnetically or thermally separated or the oxide could be reduced to a metal for a reactor pile. In fact, Professor Dr. Riehl, who was responsible for all uranium throughout Germany during the course of the war, says the figure was actually much higher....
To create either a Uranium or plutonium bomb, at some point Uranium must be reduced to metal. In the case of plutonium, U238 is metalicized; for a uranium bomb, U235. Because of uranium's difficult characteristics, however, this metallurgical process is a tricky one. The United States struggled with the problem early and still was not successful reducing uranium to its metallic form in large production wuantities until late in 1942. The German technicians, however,... by the end of 1940, had already processed 280.6 kilograms into metal, over a quarter of a ton.
These observations require some additional commentary.
First, it is to be noted that Nazi Germany, by the best available evidence, was missing approximately two thousand tons of unrefined uranium ore by the war's end. Where did this ore go?
Second, it is clear that Nazi Germany was enriching uranium on a massive scale, having refined 600 tons to oxide form for potential metalicization as early as 1940. This would require a large and dedicated effort, with thousands of technicians, and a commensurately large facility or facilities to accomplish the enrichment. The figures, in other words, tend to corroborate the hypothesis that the I.G. Farben 'Buna' factory at Auschwitz was not a Buna factory at all, but a huge uranium enrichment facility. However, the date would imply another such facility, located elsewhere, since the Auschwitz facility did not really begin production until sometime in 1942.
Finally, it also seems clear that the Germans possessed an enormous stock of metallic uranium. But what was the isotope? Was it U238 for further enrichment and separation into U235, was it intended perhaps as feedstock for a reactor to be transmuted into plutonium, or was it already U235, the necessary material for a uranium atom bomb? .
In any case, these figures strongly suggest that the Germans, ca. 1940-1942 were significantly ahead of the Allies in one very important aspect of atom bomb production: the enrichment of uranium, and therefore, this suggests also that they were demonstrably ahead in the race for an actual functioning atom bomb during this period. But the figures also raise another disturbing question: where did this uranium go?
One answer lies in the mysterious case of a U-boat, the U-234, captured by the Americans in 1945.
Los Alamos laboratory indicates the stock of fissile U235 is far short of the needed critical mass, and would remain so for several months.
The conclusion is therefore simple, but frightening: the missing uranium used in the Manhattan Project was German, and that means that Nazi Germany's atom bomb project was much further along that the post-war Allied Legend would have us believe.
But what of the other two items in the U-234's strange cargo manifest, the fuses and their inventor, Dr. Heinz Schlicke? We have already noted that by late 1944 and early 1945, the American plutonium bomb project had run afoul of some nasty mathematics: the critical mass of a plutonium bomb, "imploded" or compressed by surrounding conventional explosives, would have to be assembled within 1/3000th of a second, otherwise the bomb would fail, and only produce a kind of "atomic fizzling firecracker", a "radiological" bomb producing very little explosion but a great deal of deadly radiation. This was a speed far in excess of the capabilities of conventional wire cabling and the ordinary fuses available to the Allied engineers.
It is known that late in the timetable of events leading to the Trinity test of the plutonium bomb in New Mexico that a design modification was introduced to the implosion device that incorporated "radiation venting channels", allowing radiation from the plutonium core to escape and reflect off the surrounding reflectors as the detonator was fired, within billionths of a second after the beginning of compression. There is no possible way to explain this modification other than by the incorporation of Dr. Schlicke's infrared proximity fuses into the final design of the American bomb, since they enabled the fuses to react and fire are the speed of light.
In support of this historical reconstruction, there is a communication from 25 May 1945 from the chief of Naval Operations, to Portsmouth where the U-234 was brought after its surrender, indicating that Dr. Schlicke, now a prisoner of war, would be accompanied by three naval officers, to secure the fuses and bring them to Washington. There Dr. Schlicke was apparently to give a lecture on the fuses under the auspices of a "Mr. Alvarez," who would appear to be none other than well-known Manhattan Project scientist Dr. Luis Alvarez, the very man who, according to the Allied Legend, "solved" the fusing problem for the plutonium bomb!
So it would appear that the surrender of the U-234 to the Americans in 1945 solved the Manhattan Project's two biggest outstanding problems: lack of sufficient supplies of weapons grade uranium, and lack of adequate fusing technology to make a plutonium bomb work. And this means that in the final analysis the Allied Legend about the Germans having been "far behind" the Allies in the race for the atom bomb is simply a incorrect in the extreme in the best case, or a deliberate lie in the worst. But the fuses raise another frightening specter: What were the Germans developing such highly sophisticated fuses for? Infrared heat-seeking rockets, which they had developed, would be one answer.
Dr. Luis Alvarez also had some other strange distinctions to his credit, being one of the scientists allegedly involved with the alleged Roswell "UFO" crash, the CIA’s subsequent 'Robertson Panel' in the 1950s on UFOs and government policy, and subsequent cosmic ray experiments inside the 2nd Pyramid at Giza and of course an implosion device to compress critical mass would be another.
But what about the other missing German uranium mentioned previously? The mission of the U-234 and its precious cargo thus raises certain other questions, and highlights other possibilities in this regard. It is a fact that throughout the war Germany and Japan both conducted long-range exchanges of officers and technology via aircraft and submarine - the exchange of technology being mostly a one-sided affair from Germany to Japan. It is conceivable that many of these voyages - just as with the U-234 - would have included similar transfers of uranium stocks and high technology to Japan. Some of the missing uranium must therefore surely be looked for in the Far East, in the Japanese atom bomb program.
Robert Wilcox in his "Japan's Secret War", presents evidence that the Japanese successfully tested a bomb shortly after the bombing of Nagasaki. An infusion of actual bomb designs to the Japanese by the Germans late in the war might account for their relatively quick ability to develop and test a weapon under such difficult circumstances as the Japanese economy and military were in at the end of the war. However, it should also be noted that the Japanese had independently designed their own workable bomb along similar lines as existing German designs, as well as along the lines employed in the "Little Boy" Hiroshima bomb.
On 3 October 1946 the "Atlanta Constitution" published a story by reporter David Snell, who had been an investigator with the 24th Criminal Investigation Detachment in Korea after the war, which alleged that the Japanese had successfully tested a nuclear weapon near Hungnam [Konan] before being captured by the Soviets. He said that he had received his information at Seoul in September 1945 from a Japanese officer to whom he gave the pseudonym of Captain Wakabayashi, who had been in charge of counter-Intelligence at Hungnam. SCAP officials, who were responsible for strict censorship of all information about Japan's wartime interest in nuclear physics, were dismissive of Snell's report.
Actual Test was a Success
Japan developed and successfully tested an atomic bomb three days prior to the end of the war.
She destroyed unfinished atomic bombs, secret papers and her atomic bomb plans only hours before the advance units of the Russian Army moved into Konan, Korea, site of the project.
Japanese scientists who developed the bomb are now in Moscow, prisoners of the Russians. They were tortured by their captors seeking atomic "know-how".
The Konan area is under rigid Russian control. They permit no American to visit the area. Once, even after the war, an American B-29 Superfortress en route to Konan was shot down by four Russian Yak fighters from nearby Hammung Airfield.
I learned this information from a Japanese officer, who said he was in charge of counter Intelligence at the Konan project before the fall of Japan. He gave names, dates, facts and figures on the Japanese atomic project, which I submitted to United States Army Intelligence in Seoul. The War Department is withholding much of the information. To protect the man that told me this story, and at the request of the Army, he is here given a pseudonym, Capt. Tsetusuo Wakabayashi.
The story may throw light on Stalin's recent statement that America will not long have a monopoly on atomic weapons. Possibly also helps explains the stand taken by Henry A. Wallace. Perhaps also, it will help explain the heretofore unaccountable stalling of the Japanese in accepting our surrender terms as the Allies agreed to allow Hirohito to continue as puppet emperor.
Robin Pekelney Shwetzer
World War II, Jul/Aug2006, Vol. 21, Issue 4
In the final year of the Pacific War, the Japanese worked undetected on a massive underground fortification project that might have convinced Emperor Hirohito to fight on--even after the atomic bombs were dropped.
A mushroom cloud billowing up toward the heavens is fixed in our imaginations as a symbol of ultimate destruction. With two blasts, the United States brought its bitterest opponent to its knees after years of brutal combat and added a measure of human reality to the Atomic Age, which had begun in a lab in 1942. In the first, on August 6, 1945, 60 percent of Hiroshima and an estimated 130,000 of its inhabitants were incinerated in a flash. A second detonation at Nagasaki three days later leveled a third of the city and caused another 75,000 casualties. The devastation wrought on Hiroshima and Nagasaki was significant, but it was not total.
Deep beneath the hills of Nagasaki, a tunnel complex shielded 2,500 Mitsubishi factory workers from the bomb's catastrophic effects. Buildings directly outside the tunnel entrances and a nearby aboveground plant were destroyed with high loss of life, but those toiling away deep inside the earth remained unscathed, the only damage being tunnel entrances partially pushed in and some exterior doors shattered by the blast. Other underground factories in Nagasaki also withstood the bombing.
While the Japanese government had not designed those facilities to withstand an atomic bomb, their survival was a testament to a hastily planned yet ambitiously pursued underground construction program that--given more time--could have profoundly affected Japanese confidence and influenced Emperor Hirohito's decision to agree to the unthinkable and sue for peace. Considering Allied ignorance of the extent of the Japanese underground effort, had the planned invasion of the Home Islands--Operation Olympic-actually occurred, estimates of expected casualties into the millions might have seemed paltry. In the end, the bunkers had little impact on the ultimate outcome of the war, but their story says a great deal about Japan's determination to resist and the potential costs of incomplete intelligence.
The scope and strength of German fortifications--the West Wall, Siegfried Line and Adolf Hitler's Berlin Bunker--are well ensconced in popular imagination, as are the less substantial cave, coral and coconut log fortifications used by the emperor's soldiers on Tarawa, Peleliu, Iwo Jima, Okinawa and other remote but fiercely contested Pacific islands. But that is only half the story. By mid-1944 the Japanese government was implementing a strategic underground facility program nearly rivaling Nazi Germany's and likely surpassing a similar program in the Soviet Union.
The paper trail on the Japanese effort is long and thorough. U.S. Intelligence reports declassified later and high-level Japanese documents that survived the war reveal that the Japanese government, with Hirohito's approval, designed an extensive underground program that was intended to protect the emperor, his family and staff, top-level civilian and military leaders, military industry, fleet and army command posts, and communications centers. Other sources also point to the program's use to protect underground biological weapons laboratories in Manchuria. In fact, by August 1945 more than 200 strategic underground facilities of substantial size and scope were either planned, under construction or operational. As thorough as their intelligence was, the Allies had no idea of the extent of these facilities until after Imperial Japan's final defeat.
Strategic deep-underground facilities were built within the Home Islands between the late 1930s and 1943, but it was not until mid-1944 as the war situation worsened that the government decided to build underground facilities for virtually every government agency and military entity. On July 10, 1944, the Japanese cabinet approved a proposal to create an emergency construction corps within the underground construction unit of the Railways Secretariat. Prime Minister Hideki Tojo, just a week before his resignation, agreed and signed the order for the minister of transportation and communications to recruit workers from railroad companies to build these underground structures. Railroad workers were likely chosen because they had experience tunneling through mountains. Even with the Japanese war machine working at maximum effort, special provisions ensured that labor and materials were available for the organization and operation of this new corps.
Construction of the Bunkers was prioritized to maintain the "functionality of domestically important facilities". At the top were the army, navy, Ministry of Home Affairs and Ministry of Munitions. The order may have also supported underground tactical military sites, like those built to repel an expected ground attack on Kyushu.
Japan's military leadership was astute in constructing such facilities deep underground; it made them impervious to conventional aerial bombing and, although they could not know this, nuclear weapons--unless attacked directly. The nuclear survivability of the tunnels was highlighted in a postwar study by the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey [USSBS] on the "Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki," whose inspectors discovered the existence of many of the Bunkers while preparing their study.
When the cabinet order on underground construction was first signed in July 1944, a plan was also approved to relocate key government and military facilities from vulnerable spots, such as Tokyo, to the town of Matsushiro, about 110 miles northwest of Tokyo and five miles south of Nagano. "Temporary" command facilities would be built there. This enormous project entailed three large tunnel systems about 100 feet beneath Mount Minakamiyama, Mount Zozan, and Mount Maizuruyama. The emperor, his family, government agencies and the Imperial General Headquarters would all move to this huge subterranean complex. Military communications units, the central telephone office and the NHK [Japanese Broadcasting Office] would also have space. To ensure secrecy, laborers recruited for the project were told they were building an underground warehouse for the army.
In November 1944, excavation commenced on the imperial headquarters at Mount Maizuruyama. The emperor's temporary space was opulent and lined with beautiful cypress wood. An order was also issued to build an underground chamber at Matsushiro to protect the imperial regalia--the curved jewel, the sacred mirror and the sacred sword--which symbolized the imperial house's legitimacy. Construction was almost complete by August 1945, but it was never occupied by the intended tenant.
The tunnel complexes in Matsushiro were designed by engineers at the Department of the Army. The Ministry of Transportation and Communications' Underground Construction Unit managed the enormous project. When sufficient domestic labor could not be found, several thousand Korean laborers were conscripted to dig more than seven miles of tunnels at Matsushiro. Other laborers eventually joined the project, including soldiers of the Eastern Division and Construction battalions, the Industrial Reserve Army, the Labor Service Corps, and finally students from the railroad school and local public schools. Conditions during construction were horrendous, particularly for the Korean workers: Estimates of the total number of deaths range from a few hundred to 1,000.
After the war, Hirohito's adviser, Lord Privy Seal Koichi Kido, stated that the emperor never dreamed of fleeing "to commit suicide in a cave" while the people fought and died to repel the invaders. The construction of the facilities around Matsushiro and the resources put at the builders' disposal, however, strongly suggest otherwise. Evidence also suggests that Hirohito decided on 31 July 1945, to move to Matsushiro--and to bring along his three essential items of regalia.
And perhaps it will throw light new light on the shooting down by the Russians of our B-29 on 29 August 1945, in the Konan area.
When told this story, I was an agent with the Twenty-Fourth Criminal Investigation Department, operating in Korea. I was able to interview Capt. Wakabayashi, not as an investigator or as a member of the armed forces, but as a newspaperman. He was advised and understood thoroughly, that he was speaking for publication.
He was in Seoul, en route to Japan as a repatriate. The interview took place in a former Shinto temple on a mount overlooking Korea's capital city. The shrine had been converted into an hotel for transient Japanese en route to their homeland.
Since V-J Day wisps of information have drifted into the hands of U.S. Army Intelligence of the existence of a gigantic and mystery-shrouded industrial project operated during the closing months of the war in a mountain vastness near the Northern Korean coastal city of Konan. It was near here that Japan's Uranium supply was said to exist.
This, the most complete account of activities at Konan to reach American ears, is believed to be the first time Japanese silence has been broken on the subject.
In a cave in a mountain near Konan, men worked against time, in final assembly of "Genzai Bakuden", Japan's name for the atomic bomb. It was 10 August 1945 [Japanese time], only four days after an atomic bomb flashed in the sky over Hiroshima, and five days before Japan surrendered.
To the north, Russian hordes were spilling into Manchuria.
Shortly after midnight of that day a convey of Japanese trucks moved from the mouth of the cave, past watchful sentries. The trucks wound through valleys, past sleeping farm villages. It was August, and frogs in the mud of terraced rice paddies sang in a still night. In the cool predawn Japanese scientists and engineers loaded genzai bakudan aboard a ship in Konan.
Off the coast near an inlet in the Sea of Japan more frantic preparations were under way. All that day and night ancient ships, junks and fishing vessels moved into the anchorage.
Before dawn on 12 August a robot launch chugged through the ships at anchor and beached itself on the inlet. Its passenger was genzai bakudan. A clock ticked.
The observers were 20 miles away. This waiting was difficult and strange to men who had worked relentlessly so long who knew their job had been completed too late.
Observers Blind by Flash
The light in the east where Japan lay grew brighter. The moment the sun peeped over the sea there was a burst of light at the anchorage blinding the observers who wore welders' glasses. The ball of fire was estimated to be 1,000 yards in diameter. A multicolored cloud of vapors boiled toward the heavens then mushroomed in the stratosphere.
The churn of water and vapor obscured the vessels directly under the burst. Ships and junks on the fringe burned fiercely at anchor. When the atmosphere cleared slightly the observers could detect several vessels had vanished.
Genzai bakudun in that moment had matched the brilliance of the rising sun in the east.
Japan had perfected and successfully tested an atomic bomb as cataclysmic as those that withered Hiroshimo and Nagasaki.
The time was short. The war was roaring to its climax. The advancing Russians would arrive at Konan before the weapon could be mounted in the ready Kamikaze planes to be thrown against any attempted landing by American troops on Japan's shores.
It was a difficult decision. But it had to be made.
The observers sped across the water, back to Konan. With the advance units of the Russian Army only hours away, the final scene of this Gotterdämmerung began. The scientists and engineers smashed machines, and destroyed partially completed genzai bakudans.
Before Russian columns reached Konan, dynamite sealed the secrets of the cave. But the Russians had come so quickly that the scientists could not escape.
This is the story told me by Capt. Wakabayashi.
Japan's struggle to produce and atomic weapon began in 1938, when German and Japanese scientists met to discuss a possible military use of energy locked in the atom.
No technical information was exchanged, only theories.
In 1940 the Nisina Laboratory of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in Tokyo had built one of the largest cyclotrons in the world. [Cyclotrons found in Tokyo by the invading Yanks were destroyed].
Thought Arom Bomb Risky
The scientists continued to study atomic theory during the early days of the war, but it was not until the Unites States began to carry the war to Japan that they were able to interest the Government in a full-scale atomic project. Heretofore, the Government had considered such a venture too risky and too expensive. During the years following Pearl Harbor, Japan's militarists believed the Unites States could be defeated without the use of atomic weapons.
When task forces and invasion spearheads brought the war ever closer to the Japanese mainland, the Japanese Navy undertook the production of the atomic bomb as defense against amphibious operations. Atomic bombs were to be flown against Allied ships in Kamikaze suicide planes.
Fictional aircraft by Keith Thompson
After receiving V2 rocket plans from Germany,the Imperial Japanese applied their new technology to the pre-existing Cherry Blossom Kamikaze plane. This new jet was to function as a human piloted atomic bomb to be deployed from bombers during the defense of Japan.
Large detonation hammer ensures the bomb explodes upon impact in case the air burst mechanisms fail.
40mm guns fixed to main fuselage after brave Allied pilots began trying to detonate the Blossoms prior to their goal by flying
their planes straight into the Blossom's path.
Rotationally adjustable vents allow the plane a slight degree of directional correction after being launched from a heavy bomber.
The canopy and tail are the only recognizable parts left of the Blossom's fuselage which has been adapted from the Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter aircraft.
The canopy is welded shut after the pilot has entered the cockpit.
Capt. Wakabayashi estimated the area of total destruction of the bomb at one square mile.
The project was started at Nagoya, but its removal to Korea was necessitated when the B-29's began to lash industrial cities on the mainland of Japan.
"I consider the B-29 the primary weapon in the defeat of Japan" Capt. Wakabayashi declared. "The B-29 caused our project to be moved to Korea. We lost three months in the transfer. We would have had genza bakudan three months earlier if it had not been for the B-29".
The Boeing B-29 Superfortress is a four-engine propeller-driven heavy bomber designed by Boeing which
was flown primarily by the United States during World War II and the Korean War. It was one of the
largest aircraft operational during World War II and featured state of the art technology. It was the single most expensive weapons project undertaken by the United States in World War II, exceeding the cost
of the Manhattan Project by between 1 and 1.7 Billion dollars. Innovations introduced included a
pressurized cabin, dual-wheeled, tricycle landing gear, and a remote, computer-controlled fire-control system that directed four machine gun turrets that could be operated by a single gunner and a fire-control officer. A manned tail gun installation was semi-remote. The name 'Superfortress' continued the pattern Boeing started with its well-known predecessor, the B-17 'Flying Fortress'. Designed for the high-altitude strategic bomber role, the B-29 also excelled in low-altitude nighttime incendiary bombing missions.
One of the B-29's final roles during World War II was carrying out the atomic bomb attacks on
Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The Korean project was staffed by about 40,000 Japanese workers, of whom approximately 25,000 were trained engineers and scientists. The organization of the plant was set up so that the workers were restricted to their areas. The inner sanctum of the plant was deep in a cave. Here only 400 specialists worked.
Kept in Dark on Each Other's Fate
One scientist was master director of the entire project. Six others, all eminent Japanese scientists were in charge of six phases of the bomb's production. Each of these six men were kept in ignorance of the work of the other five. [Names of these scientists are withheld by Army censorship].
The Russian's took most of the trained personnel prisoner, including the seven key men. One of the seven escaped in June, 1946, and fled to the American zone of occupation in Korea. U.S. Army Intelligence interrogated this man. Capt. Wakabayashi talked to him in Seoul. The scientist told of having been tortured by the Russians. He said all seven were tortured.
Capt. Wakabayashi said he learned from this scientist that the other six had been removed to Moscow.
"The Russians thrust burning splinters under the fingertips of these men. They poured water into their nasal passages. Our Japanese scientists will suffer death before they disclose their secrets to the Russians," he declared.
Capt. Wakabayashi said the Russians are making and extensive study of the Konan region.
When Edwin Pauley of the War Reparations Committee, inspected Northern Korea, he was allowed to see only certain areas, and was kept under rigid Russian supervision.
On 29 August 1945, an American B-29 headed for Konan with a cargo of food and medical supplies, to be dropped over an Allied prisoner of war camp there. Four Russian Yak fighters from nearby Hammung Airfield circled the B-29 and signaled the pilot to land on the Hammung strip.
Pilot Refuses: Reds Fire
Lt. Jose H. Queen of Ashland, KY., pilot, refused to do so because the field was small, and headed back toward the Saipon base, to return "when things got straightened out with the Russians". Ten miles off the coast the Yak fighters opened fire and shot the B-29 down. None of the crew of 12 men were injured, although a Russian fighter strafed but missed Radio Operator Douglas Arthur.
The Russian later told Lt. Queen they saw the American markings but "weren't sure" because sometimes the Germans used American markings and they thought the Japs might too. This was nearly two weeks after the war ended.
Capt. Wakabayashi said the Japanese Counter Intelligence Corps at least a year before the atom bombing of Hiroshima learned there was a vast and mysterious project in the mountains of the eastern part of the United States. [Presumably the Manhattan project at Oak Ridge, Tenn] They believed, but were not sure, that atomic weapons were being produced there.
On the hand, he said, Allied Intelligence must have know of the atomic project at Konan, because of the perfect timing of the Hiroshimo bombing only six days before the long-scheduled Japanese naval test.
Perhaps here is the answer to moralists who question the decision of the United States to drop an atomic bomb.
The Japanese office, the interpreter and I sipped aromatic green tea as Capt. Wakabayashi unfolded his great and perhaps world-shaking story. His eyes flashed with pride behind the black-rimmed glassed. When the interview ended, he ushered us to the door and bowed very low.
-- David Snell
Under the 1947-48 investigation, comments were sought from Japanese scientists who would or should have known about such a project. Further doubt is cast on Snell's story by the lack of evidence of large numbers of Japanese scientists leaving Japan for Korea and never returning. Snell's statements were repeated by Robert K. Wilcox in his 1985 book "Japan's Secret War: Japan's Race Against Time to Build Its Own Atomic Bomb". The book also included what Wilcox stated was new evidence from Intelligence material which indicated the Japanese might have had an atomic program at Hungnam. These specific reports were dismissed in a review of the book by Department of Energy employee Roger M. Anders which was published in the journal "Military Affairs", an article written by two historians of science in the journal "Isis" and another article in the journal "Intelligence and National Security".
During the war both Germany and Italy undertook long-range flights to Japan, the Germans using their special long-range heavy lift transport aircraft such as the Ju-290 for polar flights. It is conceivable that these flights and their Italian counterparts also involved the exchange of officers and technology, if not a small amount of raw material as well. Some of the missing Uranium probably also fell into the hands of the Soviets as the Russian armies steamrollered into Eastern Europe and finally into what would become the Soviet "Eastern" zone of occupation in Germany.
But why, after traveling under radio silence from Germany, did the U-234 finally surrender its precious uranium, fuses, and military materiel cargo, when its obvious destination was Japan? This is an intriguing question, and one that unfortunately cannot be answered here except briefly.
Carter Hydrick's superb research ["How Germany Surrendered Enriched Uranium for the United States' Atomic Bomb"] elaborates one highly probable hypothesis: The surrender of the U-234 and its precious cargo of enriched Uranium and infrared proximity fuses to the United States was on the orders of none other than Martin Bormann, in a maneuver designed to secure his and others' freedom after the war, and as part of a deliberate plan to continue Nazism and its agendas and research underground. It is thus, the first visible, and crucial, element of the emerging Operation Paperclip, the transfer of technology and scientists from the collapsing Third Reich to the United States. There, the German scientists and engineers could, would, and did continue their lines of esoteric research and development of high technology and sophisticated weaponry, with a similar moral and ideological effect on the culture at large as occurred in Nazi Germany.
It was evident to Bormann, as other high-ranking Nazis, after the disaster of Stalingrad in early 1943, it was only a matter of time before the military collapse of the Reich if its secret weapons projects did not bear fruit in time. Bormann and other top Nazis, representatives from the agencies of armaments of the Reich, from industry, and of course, from the SS gathered in secret meetings to establish the pipelines for the transference out of Germany of enormous amounts of liquid assets, personnel skilled in scientific research or covert intelligence operations, and of blueprints of weapons and other technologies.
As regards scientific matters, there is an interesting fact presented in Linda Hunt’s book "The United States Government, Nazi Scientists, and Project Paperclip, 1945 to 1990" [New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991] .
In that book, Hunt gives the following account of how the United States was so quickly able to find and acquire the German scientists and technologies it sought in connection with 'Project Paperclip':
"One of Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency [JIOA] Director Colonel E. W. Gruhn’s first actions as overall administrator of the project was to compile a hiring list of the best qualified German and Austrian scientists that was used by both the United States and Great Britain as a recruitment tool for decades. Although this list has been mentioned in the past by journalists and historians, no one ever noted that it was partially compiled by Werner Osenberg, the notorious wartime commander of the Gestapo’s scientific section. The decision to use Osenberg was made by U.S. Navy Captain Ransom Davis after consultation with the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
"During the war, Osenberg was in charge of a special SS research council directly subordinate to Reichsmarschal Herman Göring. Osenberg sent his Gestapo agents to investigate work in progress at scientific institutes and report back on each scientist’s political reliability. From those reports and the Gestapo’s files, Osenberg compiled a list of fifteen thousand names of scientists in the Third Reich. He wrote comments next to the scientists’ names regarding their political affiliations, such as SS membership, and his opinion of their scientific abilities. Of course, those scientists who held fanatic Nazi views and SS membership were also those whom Osenberg considered best qualified.
"Osenberg had been captured in 1945 by the Alsos team and interned in a camp in Germany. Soon after the JIOA expressed an interest in him, intelligence officers whisked him out of Germany to Versailles, France, where he set up business as usual, sifting through his files to suggest names of those he considered the best scientists in the Third Reich".
As a member of the Gestapo and SS, Osenberg’s files, via Heinrich "Gestapo" Müller, would have surely been known to Bormann, thus giving Bormann extensive knowledge not only over what was being researched, but who was doing it. Thus, while Himmler may have, at one time, tried to keep Bormann out of the loop on the extent of Nazi secret weapons research being conducted by the SS, he would have known about it via other private channels available to him. Bormann was thus faultlessly well-informed not only of the state and extent of these projects — and therefore, not only knew of Germany’s atom bomb project and its actual state, but of the more exotic areas of research represented by the Bell — but also of the political reliability of the scientists conducting the research. With such a list in hand, Bormann and his allies in the strategic evacuation operation would have known exactly who, and what, was to go where, and, via their knowledge of each individual person’s political views and loyalty, could have limited the risks to any planned continued independent development of the projects already begun, as well as of any planned infiltration of any host country’s military and intelligence agencies. With such a list in hand, they could have ensured at least a partial continuance of these projects, provided a network of co-ordination could be established to do so. Establishment of co-ordination would have taken advantage of each host country’s own "compartmentalization" of security and research, exercising a hidden center of direction. The "Network" in question most likely would have included, but was not limited to, General Reinhard Gehlen’s organization or SS Major Otto Skorzeny’s "Fascista Internacionale". Finally, the Osenberg list and evident American interest in it seems to corroborate another speculation, namely, that American knowledge and the nature of its specificity, as reflected in General Patton’s unerring military drives to the nerve centers of Kammler’s secret research departments, could only have come from inside Nazi Germany itself. Since Carter Hydrick has argued a convincing case that it was Bormann himself who directed the surrender of Germany’s atom bomb secrets to the United States, it may be reasonably asserted that it was Bormann ultimately coordinating the flow of other sensitive information concerning the Kammlerstab to American intelligence, since he, clearly, is in the position to be the best informed about the nature, extent, and personnel involved with all of Germany’s black projects. With this knowledge at his disposal, the thesis of Carter Hydrick, that Bormann helped engineer not only the transference of the enriched uranium of the U-boat 234 to the United States, but also that he may have engineered the transference of a functioning bomb to the United States as well, gains credibility.
The Kammler Group or Kammler Staff owes its name to Hans Kammler, who was a Doctor of Engineering, and specialized in the very rapid construction of bombproof underground facilities. His ability to work ahead of schedule impressed all those around him and caused his rapid rise within the military-engineering world and from the Luftwaffe to the SS.
Parallelling Kammler's meteoric rise was the rise of the SS itself. The SS increasingly usurped power from the military but it also usurped industrial and scientific research and development, as well as economic functions which had previously been in civilian hands. This transfer of power exploded following the August, 1944 attempted assassination of Hitler. From that moment on, Hitler seems to have relied on the SS primarily. Meanwhile, Kammler's SS Works Division C was busy burrowing into German soil and burying and hiding its industry there. He built countless underground installations, some of which remain unknown and unexplored today. To do this, Kammler had at his disposal, a slave-labor force which could have been as high as 14 million. Eventually, Kammler became the number three man in the SS, behind Heinreich Himmler and SS General Oswald Pohl.
Besides overseeing construction projects Kammler was also given responsibility for missile production in Germany as well as jet aircraft production. At this point Kammler began sucking in projects and responsibility far beyond the alleged scope of his duties. Eventually, virtually every priority or secret technology and weapons system fell under his control. This was a big responsibility, even for Kammler, but Kammler solved or perhaps controlled this problem as he had solved all his other challenges, by organization. Kammler put together a think-tank. This involved finding and organizing a technical staff who could take potential war-winning ideas and research these ideas, develop them to the point of practicality, coordinate their production with an appropriate industrial firm, and deliver them to the field, usually to the Reich's soldiers of choice, the Waffen SS. This means that by war's end, the Kammler Group ending up sitting on a huge library: a nest-egg of German research secrets.
The Kammler Group needed a secure home in which to operate. They needed the use of technical laboratories and machine tools. Kammler found the environment he was looking for in the Skoda Works at Pilsen in what is now the Czech Republic. During World War Two, this region had been annexed by Germany and was part of the Greater German Reich. For a period of time Reinhard Heydrich administered the region with an iron fist resulting in a relatively stable occupied population. The population contained Czechs and also Germans. The Skoda Works relied on German supervisors or German-trained Czech supervisors and a skilled work force of Czechs. Skoda did many things and must be thought of like one of the major technical industrial manufacturing firms in the USA today. Examples of these are Boeing, General Dynamics, General Electric, Lochkeed or perhaps even General Motors. Skoda was not, however, considered as a core "German" company by the German military since it was outside Germany proper and had a history going back to Austro-Hungarian times. This was perfect for Kammler. Kammler spoke Czech.
Skoda had countless sub-facilities in the area. Skoda, technically, had everything Kammler needed. Security was the last piece in the puzzle. It is a puzzle today because Kammler's security was never breached. It was not breached by the U.S., British Intelligence or even Soviet Intelligence which thought they knew everything. Kammler was able to pull Albrich's Cloak of Obscurity over himself and his staff using a triple wall of counter-Intelligence. There were three counterintelligence divisions at work in the Kammler Group. These were the military counterintelligence unit, the political counterintelligence unit and the industrial counte-Intelligence unit. This security arrangement was so successful that when the Allies began advancing into Germany in the early spring of 1945, nobody asked the local population anything about Kammler or the Kammler Group. Neither side knew anything about it. By the time the "boots on the ground" realized who Dr. Kammler and his organization really were, his very name became a forbidden subject. This was probably so lest the other Allied Powers, especially the Soviets, learn of any potential treasure-trove of scientific secrets. Remember, Kammler administrated up to 14 million slave-laborers. I think we can all agree that this was probably illegal and this led to the deaths of some, if not many, conscripts. Yet Kammler was not charged with war crimes at the Nuremberg hearings. Kammler's name only came up twice and nobody, none of the Allied Powers conducting these hearings, bothered with follow-up questions about Kammler. What is going on here?
Source: Agoston, Tom, "Blunder How the U.S. Gave Away Nazi Supersecrets to Russia", Dodd, Mead and Company, New York 1985
These are two statements made by Professor Osenberg in a Combined Intellegence Objectives sub-Committee
report, number 51, dated 2 June 1945. Osenberg was head of the Reichs Research Council. Professor Osenberg
was a very influential scientist and one who steered the course of scientific research and development within
Nazi Germany. In this report, Osenberg actually says the name 'Kammler',
which is one of the very few times Kammler's name was allowed to be reproduced in official documentation.
Recent research by Nick Cook would tend to corroborate Bormann's role in, and therefore probable accurate knowledge of, the full scope and extent of Kammler's secret black projects empire. Bormann's position as controller of Nazi Party finances as well as of Hitler 's estate would have given him control over a source of funding for these projects, a source completely independent of the state.
Bormann's 1945 establishment of a special SS evacuation Kommando, was an act that placed jurisdiction over the Ju 290 four engine and Ju 390 six engine heavy-lift ultra long range air transport of Luftwaffe Kampfgeschwader 200 under the direct control of none other than SS General Hans Kammler. The intention is clear: as much of the actual research files and equipment of the Kammlerstab as could be evacuated from Germany for destinations unknown was to be handled by Kammler personally. This special evacuation command held these aircraft in readiness near Lower Silesia in late 1945. By this point, Kammler's power, backed by the Reichsleiter himself, was so great that he could refuse a request by Reichsführer SS Himmler for the use of one of these aircraft.
Kammler, "with such aircraft at his disposal" would have been able to fly a large cargo of "documents, personnel and technology pretty much anywhere" that he wanted to. Spain, South America - Argentina even -would have represented no problem to such a long-range platform".
Cook himself quips, "What was the point of chasing Kammler, if he'd already shipped everything out?"
Clearly, Bormann meant to preserve and continue the research already under way in the Reich by transplanting the technology and continuing its development elsewhere, under independent Nazi control - as the various 'survival' myths maintain.
If Carter Hydrick is correct that it was Bormann's intention to surrender the bulk of this technology to the United States this puts Himmler's last ditch and clumsy efforts to negotiate a separate peace with the Western Allies via Sweden into a new light. Himmler was perhaps offering them the vast cache of secrets he thought he controlled through Kammler's 'think tank'. It is very possible that the American intelligence community already knew of this treasure trove via their SS contacts through Allen Dulles and SS General Wolff, and had made 'other arrangements' that included neither Himmler nor the British. Thus, by the time of Kammler's refusal to his SS boss to allow him the use of a Ju 290 or Ju 390, effective control and disposition of the SS black projects had slipped from Himmler's hands and into Bormann's. Himmler could neither surrender nor even barter for his life, because he had nothing left with which to bargain. Kammler, and Bormann, however, had a great deal to offer the Americans in exchange for their lives.
According to Nick Cook, 'Operation Paperclip', the covert project to bring former Nazi scientists and engineers to the United States to work on America's own aerospace and military black projects after the war, was the primary beneficiary of the Kammlerstab's think tank secrets, blueprints, and patents. "The state within a state had been transported four thousand miles".
Operation Paperclip [1949–1990] was the Office of Strategic Services [OSS] program in which more than 1,500 German scientists, engineers, and technicians were brought to the United States from Nazi Germany and other countries for employment in the aftermath of World War II. It was conducted by the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency [JIOA] and in the context of the burgeoning Cold War. One purpose of Operation Paperclip was to deny German scientific expertise and knowledge to the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom, as well as to inhibit post-war Germany from redeveloping its military research capabilities. The Soviet Union had competing extraction programs known as 'trophy brigades' and 'Operation Osoaviakhim'.
The JIOA's recruitment of German scientists began after the Allied victory in Europe on 8 May 1945, but U.S. President Harry Truman did not formally order the execution of Operation Paperclip until August 1945. Truman's order expressly excluded anyone found "to have been a member of the Nazi Party, and more than a nominal participant in its activities, or an active supporter of Nazi militarism." However, those restrictions would have rendered ineligible most of the leading scientists whom the JIOA had identified for recruitment, among them rocket scientists Wernher von Braun, Kurt H. Debus, and Arthur Rudolph, as well as physician Hubertus Strughold, each earlier classified as a "menace to the security of the Allied Forces".
The JIOA worked independently to circumvent President Truman's anti-Nazi order and the Allied Potsdam and Yalta agreements, creating false employment and political biographies for the scientists. The JIOA also expunged the scientists' Nazi Party memberships and regime affiliations from the public record. Once "bleached" of their Nazism, the scientists were granted security clearances by the U.S. government to work in the United States. The project's operational name of Paperclip was derived from the paperclips used to attach the scientists' new political personae to their "US Government Scientist" JIOA personnel files.
Nazi Germany found itself at a logistical disadvantage, having failed to conquer the USSR with 'Operation Barbarossa' [June–December 1941], the Siege of Leningrad [September 1941 – January 1944], 'Operation Nordlicht' [Northern Light, August–October 1942], and the Battle of Stalingrad [July 1942 – February 1943]. The failed conquest had depleted German resources, and its military-industrial complex was unprepared to defend the Großdeutsches Reich [Greater German Reich] against the Red Army's westward counterattack. By early 1943, the German government began recalling from combat a number of scientists, engineers, and technicians; they returned to work in research and development to bolster German defense for a protracted war with the USSR. The recall from frontline combat included 4,000 rocketeers returned to Peenemünde, in northeast coastal Germany.
"Overnight, Ph.D.s were liberated from KP duty, masters of science were recalled from orderly service, mathematicians were hauled out of bakeries, and precision mechanics ceased to be truck drivers".
— Dieter K. Huzel, "Peenemünde to Canaveral"
The Nazi government's recall of their now-useful intellectuals for scientific work first required identifying and locating the scientists, engineers, and technicians, then ascertaining their political and ideological reliability. Werner Osenberg, the engineer-scientist heading the "Wehrforschungsgemeinschaft" [Military Research Association], recorded the names of the politically cleared men to the Osenberg List, thus reinstating them to scientific work.
In March 1945, at Bonn University, a Polish laboratory technician found pieces of the Osenberg List stuffed in a toilet; the list subsequently reached MI6, who transmitted it to U.S. Intelligence. Then U.S. Army Major Robert B. Staver, Chief of the Jet Propulsion Section of the Research and Intelligence Branch of the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps, used the Osenberg List to compile his list of German scientists to be captured and interrogated; Wernher von Braun, Nazi Germany's premier rocket scientist, headed Major Staver's list.
In "Operation Overcast", Major Staver's original intent was only to interview the scientists, but what he learned changed the operation's purpose. On 22 May 1945, he transmitted to U.S. Pentagon headquarters Colonel Joel Holmes's telegram urging the evacuation of German scientists and their families, as most "important for [the] Pacific war" effort. Most of the Osenberg List engineers worked at the Baltic coast German Army Research Center Peenemünde, developing the V-2 rocket. After capturing them, the Allies initially housed them and their families in Landshut, Bavaria, in southern Germany.
Beginning on 19 July 1945, the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff [JCS] managed the captured ARC rocketeers under Operation Overcast. However, when the Camp Overcast name of the scientists' quarters became locally-known, the program was renamed "Operation Paperclip" in November 1945. Despite these attempts at secrecy, later that year the press interviewed several of the scientists.
Regarding "Operation Alsos", Allied Intelligence described nuclear physicist Werner Heisenberg, the German nuclear energy project principal, as "worth more to us than ten divisions of Germans." In addition to rocketeers and nuclear physicists, the Allies also sought chemists, physicians, and naval weaponeers.
Meanwhile, the Technical Director of the German Army Rocket Center, Wernher von Braun, was jailed at P.O. Box 1142, a military-intelligence black site in Fort Hunt, Virginia, in the United States. Since the prison was unknown to the international community, its operation by the US was in violation of the Geneva Convention of 1929, which the United States had ratified. Although von Braun's interrogators pressured him, he was not tortured.
Capture and detention
Early on, the United States created the Combined Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee [CIOS]. This provided the information on targets for the T-Forces that went in and targeted scientific, military and industrial installations [and their employees] for their know-how. Initial priorities were advanced technology, such as infrared, that could be used in the war against Japan; finding out what technology had been passed on to Japan; and finally to halt the research. A project to halt the research was codenamed 'Project Safehaven', and it was not initially targeted against the Soviet Union; rather the concern was that German scientists might emigrate and continue their research in countries such as Spain, Argentina or Egypt, all of which had sympathized with Nazi Germany. In order to avoid the complications involved with the emigration of German scientists, the CIOS was responsible for scouting and kidnapping high profile individuals for the deprivation of technological advancements in nations outside of the US.
Much U.S. effort was focused on Saxony and Thuringia, which by 1 July 1945, would become part of the Soviet Occupation zone. Many German research facilities and personnel had been evacuated to these states, particularly from the Berlin area. Fearing that the Soviet takeover would limit U.S. ability to exploit German scientific and technical expertise, and not wanting the Soviet Union to benefit from said expertise, the United States instigated an "evacuation operation" of scientific personnel from Saxony and Thuringia, issuing orders such as:
"On orders of Military Government you are to report with your family and baggage as much as you can carry tomorrow noon at 1300 hours [Friday, 22 June 1945] at the town square in Bitterfeld. There is no need to bring winter clothing. Easily carried possessions, such as family documents, jewelry, and the like should be taken along. You will be transported by motor vehicle to the nearest railway station. From there you will travel on to the West. Please tell the bearer of this letter how large your family is".
By 1947 this evacuation operation had netted an estimated 1,800 technicians and scientists, along with 3,700 family members. Those with special skills or knowledge were taken to detention and interrogation centers, such as one code-named 'Dustbin' to be held and interrogated, in some cases for months.
A few of the scientists were gathered up in 'Operation Overcast', but most were transported to villages in the countryside where there were neither research facilities nor work; they were provided stipends and forced to report twice weekly to police headquarters to prevent them from leaving. The Joint Chiefs of Staff directive on research and teaching stated that technicians and scientists should be released "only after all interested agencies were satisfied that all desired intelligence information had been obtained from them".
On 5 November 1947, the Office of Military Government of the United States [OMGUS], which had jurisdiction over the western part of occupied Germany, held a conference to consider the status of the evacuees, the monetary claims that the evacuees had filed against the United States, and the "possible violation by the US of laws of war or Rules of Land Warfare". The OMGUS director of Intelligence R. L. Walsh initiated a program to resettle the evacuees in the Third World, which the Germans referred to as General Walsh's 'Urwald-Programm' [jungle program], however this program never matured. In 1948, the evacuees received settlements of 69.5 million Reichsmarks from the U.S., a settlement that soon became severely devalued during the currency reform that introduced the Deutsche Mark as the official currency of western Germany.
John Gimbel concludes that the United States put some of Germany's best minds on ice for three years, therefore depriving the German recovery of their expertise.
In May 1945, the U.S. Navy "received in custody" Dr. Herbert A. Wagner, the inventor of the Hs 293 missile; for two years, he first worked at the Special Devices Center, at Castle Gould and at Hempstead House, Long Island, New York; in 1947, he moved to the Naval Air Station Point Mugu.
In August 1945, Colonel Holger Toftoy, head of the Rocket Branch of the Research and Development Division of the U.S. Army's Ordnance Corps, offered initial one-year contracts to the rocket scientists; 127 of them accepted. In September 1945, the first group of seven rocket scientists [aerospace engineers] arrived at Fort Strong, located on Long Island in Boston harbor: Wernher von Braun, Erich W. Neubert, Theodor A. Poppel, August Schulze, Eberhard Rees, Wilhelm Jungert, and Walter Schwidetzky.
Beginning in late 1945, three rocket-scientist groups arrived in the United States for duty at Fort Bliss, Texas, and at White Sands Proving Grounds, New Mexico, as "War Department Special Employees".
In 1946, the United States Bureau of Mines employed seven German synthetic fuel scientists at a Fischer-Tropsch chemical plant in Louisiana, Missouri.
In early 1950, legal U.S. residency for some of the 'Project Paperclip' specialists was effected through the U.S. consulate in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico; thus, Nazi scientists legally entered the United States from Latin America.
Eighty-six aeronautical engineers were transferred to Wright Field, where the United States had Luftwaffe aircraft and equipment captured under 'Operation Lusty' [Luftwaffe Secret Technology].
The United States Army Signal Corps employed 24 specialists – including the physicists Georg Goubau, Gunter Guttwein, Georg Hass, Horst Kedesdy, and Kurt Lehovec; the physical chemists Rudolf Brill, Ernst Baars, and Eberhard Both; the geophysicist Helmut Weickmann; the optician Gerhard Schwesinger; and the engineers Eduard Gerber, Richard Günther, and Hans Ziegler.
In 1959, 94 'Operation Paperclip' men went to the United States, including Friedwardt Winterberg and Friedrich Wigand. Throughout its operations to 1990, 'Operation Paperclip' imported 1,600 men, as part of the intellectual reparations owed to the United States and the UK, some $10 billion in patents and industrial processes.
During the decades after they were included in 'Operation Paperclip', some scientists were investigated because of their activities during World War II. Arthur Rudolph was deported in 1984, but not prosecuted, and West Germany granted him citizenship. Similarly, Georg Rickhey, who came to the United States under 'Operation Paperclip' in 1946, was returned to Germany to stand trial at the Dora Trial in 1947; he was acquitted, and returned to the United States in 1948, eventually becoming a U.S. citizen. The aeromedical library at Brooks Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, had been named after Hubertus Strughold in 1977. However, it was later renamed because documents from the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal linked Strughold to medical experiments in which inmates from Dachau were tortured and killed.
Rocketry: Rudi Beichel, Magnus von Braun, Wernher von Braun, Werner Dahm, Konrad Dannenberg, Kurt H. Debus, Walter Dornberger, Ernst R. G. Eckert, Krafft Arnold Ehricke, Otto Hirschler, Hermann H. Kurzweg, Fritz Müller, Eberhard Rees, Gerhard Reisig, Georg Rickhey, Werner Rosinski, Ludwig Roth, Arthur Rudolph, Ernst Steinhoff, Ernst Stuhlinger, Bernhard Tessmann, and Georg von Tiesenhausen Aeronautics: Sighard F. Hoerner, Siegfried Knemeyer, Alexander Martin Lippisch, Hans Multhopp, Hans von Ohain, and Kurt Tank
Medicine – biological weapons, chemical weapons, human experimentation, human factors in space medicine: Hans Amtmann, Kurt Blome, Erich Traub, Walter Schreiber, Richard Lindenberg and Hubertus Strughold
Electronics: Hans Hollmann, Kurt Lehovec, Johannes Plendl, Heinz Schlicke and Hans K. Ziegler
Intelligence: Reinhard Gehlen, Otto von Bolschwing
The United States was in a unique position among all the powers involved in World War Two. For the last time in its history, it was able to undertake military operations on a global scale relatively free of the fear of enemy reprisal. Its cities and factories were beyond the reach of any known enemy bomber. Moreover, much of its industrial capacity was located in its interior, far from the northeastern Atlantic States or the Pacific coast.
According to conventional wisdom that has been reiterated countless times in numerous standard histories of the war, there was absolutely nothing the United States had to fear from Nazi Germany with its "tactical mission-oriented Luftwaffe" or its puny navy. Germany had no aircraft even capable of reaching the United States and returning to Europe, much less of carrying a heavy enough payload, or being available in sufficient numbers, to be of any military significance.
The minimum range from German occupied territory to the United States at any one time during the war was 5,300 kms from Brest to New York. Although it was possible for a couple of the designs to make the round trip with a light bomb load, it was never planned because there was no allowance for a minimum 15% fuel reserve insisted upon by Göring.
The only plan to bomb New York which received the approval of Fieldmarshal Erhard Milch was drawn up in 1943. Here a BV 222 flying boat would have rendezvoused with a U-Boat in mid-Atlantic on two occasions to bomb-up and refuel. The docks and Jewish quarter of New York were the target. The project was no longer feasible in 1944.
In 1933, Erhard Milch became State Secretary of the newly formed Reichsluftfahrtministerium [Reich Aviation Ministry – RLM], answering directly to Hermann Göring. In this capacity, he was instrumental in establishing the Luftwaffe.
Following the defeat of France, Milch was promoted to Generalfeldmarschall and given the title Air Inspector General. As such, Milch was in charge of aircraft production. The lack of a long-term strategy, and a divisive military command structure, led to many mistakes in the operational and technical ability of the Luftwaffe, and were key to the continued loss of German air superiority as the war progressed.
The frequent, and often conflicting, changes in operational requirements led to numerous changes in aircraft specification and designs so that manufacturers like Messerschmitt were unable to focus outright on a few aircraft types and, most importantly, production output. The Germans failed to put their production on a war footing, continued to run factories only eight hours a day, and failed to include women in the workforce. German aircraft production output did not rise as steeply as Allied output - especially Soviet production, which exceeded Germany's in 1942 and 1943.
By the summer of 1943, Germany's lack of a truly "four-engined" heavy bomber to retaliate against Great Britain was finally addressed by Milch in his 10 August 1943 endorsement for Arado Flugzeugwerke to be the subcontractor for the Heinkel He 177B separately engined heavy bomber design. Only three flyable prototypes were completed by early 1944.
Submarine launched missiles are perhaps the strongest pillar of the "nuclear triad" that made the United States the dominant superpower at the start of the 21st Century. A mobile underwater launch platform requires vast resources to build and operate but it is difficult to detect, and a fleet of them ensures that the enemy mainland is within quick striking distance at all times. The submarine launched missile, which played such an important role in the Cold War, can be traced to a 1942 experiment conducted by the Kriegsmarine.
America's entry into WW2 prompted a discussion among German strategists seeking ways to strike the American mainland. To send weapons from one continent to another, they needed some way to circumvent the limitations on the range of bomber aircraft and the capabilities of the German surface fleet.
Various methods were available at that time, the most practical of which was inserting saboteurs by U-Boat. While at least three groups of saboteurs were successfully landed [U-202, 13 June 1942; U-584, 16 June 1942; U-1230, 30 November 1944] the plan ultimately failed due to the unreliability and ineptitude of the German agents.
Another possibility was to fly bombers to New York City, and ditch them near a waiting U-Boat in the Atlantic before the fuel ran out. Due to an understandable lack of enthusiasm by both the Luftwaffe and the Kriegsmarine, the project never proceeded.
So long range was the abilities of the Ju-390 one was been reported to have left Europe coming in over Canada crossing into U.S. airspace to photograph defense plants in Michigan only to exit out over the Atlantic sometime after noon on 28 August 1943 by coming in behind any east-facing aircraft detection systems and passing directly over New York above the Empire State Building.
Albert Speer in his memoirs wrote of a Ju-390 flight from Bardufoss Norway to Tokyo via the 'Polar Route' in 1945, flown by civilian test pilots. Two wartime test pilots who flew the giant Junkers Ju-390 also referred after the war to the Ju-390's Polar flight to Japan [Ju-390 Chief test pilot Hans Joachim Pancherz in 1969 and Hans Werner Lerche in his memoirs].
Yet another method became apparent during a conversation between Dr. Ernst Steinhoff, an engineer at the Peenemünde rocket development acility, and his brother, Korvettenkapitan Fritz Steinhoff, Kommandant of U-511. They surmised that it would be possible to fire an artillery rocket from the deck of a sumbmerged submarine.
Tests were conducted in May/June of 1942 using a standard army issue Wurfgerät 41 launcher and rockets from 21 to 30cm. The tests proved that it was not only feasable, but that the rockets could be fired from depths up to 15 meters below the surface, without affecting the normal flight path.
In principle, Admiral Dönitz approved of the idea of launching against harbors on the American mainland, specifically the sprawling facilities in New York City. However, the plan was delayed by technical concerns. The Kriegsmarine wanted to fit specialized launchers instead of using modified army equipment, but they did not pursue the idea with urgency. Eventually, steadily improving Allied capability prevented U-Boats from approaching within range and the New York bombardment was cancelled.
The project was not entirely scrapped. In the summer of 1944, three U-Boats of the Black Sea 30th flotilla were secretly equipped with rocket launchers. These were mounted midships below the waterline of U-24 and U-9 and on the deck of U-19. The weapons were allegedly deployed against Soviet harbor facilities and moored ships during the German retreat. Although the records do not mention damage sustained in the attacks, this first combat use of a submarine launched missile was an historic event.
Later experiments code named "Ursel" attempted to utilize the submarine launched rocket against a pursuing surface vessel. The accuracy required by this weapon exceeded practical technological limits and efforts were concentrated on more promising sound-guided torpedoes instead. Other research included rocket powered torpedoes, several of which were tested. Despite their unnerving tendency to explode, they showed some promise. The postwar superpowers continued this research; the Soviet Navy is alleged to have developed an operational model.
Germany's superb military engineers had greatly contributed to a rapid victory over France in 1940, and so as the war situation deteriorated, much hope and emphasis was placed on new technologies desperately needed to turn the tide. From guided missiles to night vision and jet fighters, engineers and scientists sought new ways to capitalize on technology that might give Germany a war-winning advantage over the Allies.
One significant attack took place on 2 November 1942. U-518, under the command of Kapitänleutnant Wissman, attacked two ore carriers at Bell Island, Newfoundland. The attack began at 3:30 a.m. and the S.S. Rosecastle and P.L.M 27 were sunk with the loss of 69 lives. However, one of the most dramatic incidents of the attack occurred after the sinkings when the submarine fired a torpedo at the loading pier. Bell Island became the only location in North America to be subject to direct attack by German forces in World War II.
|U-133's mission to destroy the Hoover Dam|
According to an article from 1996, U-133's last mission was to travel up the Colorado River from Baja California and destroy the Hoover Dam. The article is from the USS Shaw's Newsletter. The article states that U-133, piloted by Captain Peter Pfau along with 54 sailors made it to as far as Laughlin, Nevada before sandbars made them abort their mission and scuttle the sub.
This is only an Internet story, U-133 could never have made it that far [he map shows, what would have been its approximate path from St. Nazaire, a suitable base, to the target] as its fuel supply would never have allowed this [the Typ VIIC could only make it to the US east coast by filling up part of its water tanks with fuel], there were also several of dams on the river, before it would have ever got to Hoover Dam. There was also no U-Boat commander named Pfau.
In a sort of epilogue to this Internet story, nearly all of the articles only go on to explain why the so-called mission could not have been accomplished the way it is written. None of them mention the fact that at 17:00hrs on 14 March 1942 U-133 left her base at Salamis, Greece. Only 2 hours later she hit a mine, broke in two and sank immediately with all hands --- and that the loss of the U-133 was fully substantiated in 1994 by a diving team that managed to locate and confirm the identity of the wreck. So said, there is absolutely no way the U-133 could have been involved in any way shape or form regarding Hoover Dam or any sort of an attack against it.
Not one thing regarding the alleged attack by the U-133 or any other submarine has been discovered in official German records nor has anything shown up on the American side. As for the Internet source, nobody has been able to run down a copy of the 1996 "USS Shaw Newsletter" that supposedly ran the original article.
To overcome the transcontinental barrier that prevented Germany from attacking the United States at home, an official of the German Labor Front, Direktor Bodo Lafferenz, suggested that a watertight container be constructed, in which a V-2 ballistic missile could be brought within range of the American coast. Discussion of this novel idea reached the highest levels of the Peenemünde research facility.
As it developed, the plan was to send three 500 ton displacement containers towed by a single Schnorchel equipped submarine. Each container, trimmed to neutral buoyancy, concealed a V2. Upon reaching the start location, the containers would be trimmed to a vertical position, and the rockets launched.
The idea was filed away until 1944, when it was given the code name Prüfstand XII and Vulkanwerft secretly began work on three containers. While the records indicate that at least one such submarine launch container was completed, it was never tested with a live firing. The concept was proven sound by the Soviets in the 1950s. Using captured plans and German engineering assistance they produced the 'Golem' submarine towed missile launcher. American engineers took the next step with the 'Regulus' and 'Polaris' programs, placing the missile and launcher into the submarine.
The 1942 experiments may have appeared nothing more than a stunt to an observer without the foresight to recognize the potential of such a weapon. However, in much the same way that Eugene Ely's stunts foreshadowed the Aircraft Carrier when on 14 November 1910, he took off from the 'USS Birmingham' in his 'Curtiss Pusher Model D' and on 18 January 1911, landed it aboard the 'USS Pennsylvania', these experiments were the genesis of the missile launching submarine.
Weapons reseach and development in the Third Reich pointed ultimately towards a devastating confluence of advanced weapons systems. Experiments with nuclear fission proceeded along with new generations of stealth submarines, intercontinental jet bombers and missiles. Destroying Eastern Seaboard cities was exactly the sort of capability the increasingly desperate Führer sought in order to win a surrender from the Allies..
On 13 January 1942, U-Boats commenced "Operation Paukenschlag" [roll of the kettle drums] on the east coast of America, sinking 87 ships between January and July 1942.
U-Boats would cruise off shore of coastal cities that did not turn off their lights and target ships that became silhouetted against the coast.
The cumulative effect of this campaign was severe; a quarter of all wartime sinkings - 3.1 million tons. It rates as the worst defeat by the United States Navy.
The intent to do exactly that was made clear by documents found after the war, such as a Luftwaffe map of Manhattan showing blast damage anticipated by a rocket borne nuclear/atomic weapon.
For years reports have surfaced that sometime around 17-19 September 1944, a large six engine aircraft, painted very dark green and black, crashed in the sea off Owls Head Lighthouse, Maine. A resident of Burlington, Vermont, Ruben Paul Whittemore, has reported he had relatives who witnessed the recovery of three bodies found in the Penobscot river estuary on 28 September 1944 and taken by the U.S. Coast Guard to Rockland Maine Station. One of the witnesses states he saw one body in a uniform later identified as a German Luftwaffe Signal Corps Uniform, [grey-blue with yellow/brown collar tabs].
Sometime in the mid to late 1990s a scuba diver came across what appeared to be a radial aircraft engine laying on the seabed some distance off the cliffs from the Owls Head lighthouse and traced it along with other pieces of wreckage strewn across the sand back to the main body of the craft the engine and pieces apparently came from. She recovered what has been said to be a constructor's plate with raised lettering, albeit somewhat eroded but still readable, with the following:
RMZ WERKE Nb 135?34 [Allgemeine]
JUNKERSMOTORENWERKE [Agts: Haan]
FWU WERKE Nb 135?34 [Gbs: Fliegeroberstkommando Rdt]
Most people who ascribe credibility to the downed craft said to be laying in the water off the coast of Maine agree its mission was not recon like the 28 August 1943 flight, but to bomb New York. Evidence has surfaced in some quarters the attack would not have been conventional in nature either but possibly nuclear.
It should be noted that even though New York, is usually thought of as being the target of choice for the Germans, there was as well, the major metropolitan area of London, England, which they had been bombing all along with not only conventional bombs but V-2 rockets as well --- London being much closer and strategically more convenient. However England was prepared and that late in the war Germany was finding it harder and harder to penetrate England's defenses, while New York had none..
Pearl Harbor was but the first of many attacks on U.S. homeland during World War II
Midway was shelled by two Japanese destroyers simultaneously with the attack on Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941. Bad weather saved Midway from being pounded by planes of the retiring Japanese strike fleet.
Midway is the western most of the chain of volcanic islands that form the Hawaii chain. The largest Japanese fleet ever assembled, set out to attack the island in May 1942. The intent was to draw the American fleet into combat where it would be mauled. From intercepted messages, the US fleet knew to wait in ambush and destroyed four Japanese aircraft carriers, with the loss of 'Yorktown'. This battle changed the balance of sea power in the Pacific.
Guam, an American outpost in the Mariana Islands, was air raided on 7 December by bombers from Saipan. Guam's defensive force of 365 Marines was captured on 10 December 1942 by a force of 5,400 Japanese from neighbouring Saipan.
Guam was recaptured in the battle for the Marianas [Siapan, Tinian] from 21 July - 8 August 1944.
On 15 December 1941, a Japanese submarine shelled Kahului, Maui, Hawaii.
On 30 December Submarine I-1 shells, Hilo, Hawaii, and on 31 December, submarines shell Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii.
The Japanese struck Dutch Harbor at the base of the Aleutian Islands, on 3 June 1942, with planes from two carriers in support of an invasion and occupation of Attu [13 June], at the tip of the Aleutian chain, and Kiska (21 June) with 1,800 troops. Partially a diversion to cover the attack on Midway, partly geo-political, and only partly military. The capture of Alaskan islands forced the US to establish a northern defence.
Having broken the Japanese military codes, however, the U.S. knew it was a diversion and did not expend large amounts of effort defending the islands. Although most of the civilian population had been moved to camps on the Alaska Panhandle, some Americans were captured and taken to Japan as prisoners of war.
US troops retook Attu in furious fighting, 11-30 May 1943.
Thirty-four thousand US and Canadian troops landed to retake Kiska on 15 August, but found the island had been evacuated.
Both sides had discovered that bad weather prevented further major attacks on the other's mainland from a northern route.
The Germans, assuming that they had succeeded in their mission to conquer the Soviet Union, might have attempted to conquer Alaska, based on their ability to control Siberia and the Arctic regions of Russia. From there, they would have rolled over poorly defended Canada, from which they would have launched a massive invasion from the sparsely populated North-Western U.S.
In response to the United States' success at the Battle of Midway, the invasion alert for San Francisco was canceled on 8 June.
The U.S. mainland also suffered Japanese attacks
On 23 February 1942 the first Japanese attack on the U.S. mainland occurs when I-17 submarine fires 13 shells at the Ellwood oil production facilities at Goleta, near Santa Barbara, California. Although only a catwalk and pump house were damaged, I-17 captain Nishino Kozo radioed Tokyo that he had left Santa Barbara in flames. No casualties were reported and the total cost of the damage was estimated at approximately $500.
It was not clear why this target was chosen until much later, when it was found that the commander of this particular submarine had visited the site in the 1930s and stumbled into a field of prickly pear cactus. Captain Nishino never forgave the ridicule he received from his American hosts that day.
On 20 June the radio station on Estevan Point, Vancouver Island was fired on by a Japanese submarine I-26, and on 21 June I-25 shells Fort Stevens, Oregon.
Japanese commanders also sought to ignite forest fires through incendiary bombing a strategy they believed would cause panic and mayhem behind U.S. lines.
On 9 September Phosphorus bombs were dropped on Mt. Emily, ten miles northeast of Brookings, Oregon, to start forest fires. It was a Yokosuka E14Y1 "Glen" reconnaissance seaplane piloted by Lt. Nubuo Fujita who had been catapulted from submarine I-25, specially equipped with a watertight hangar on deck.
The Phosphorus bombings were repeated on the southern coast of Oregon on 29 September.
Taking advantage of the jet stream that circles the globe and crosses over both northern Japan and the northern United States, 9,000 balloons, each equipped with four incendiary and one anti-personnel bombs, were released to start forest fires and create terror in the western United States as far east as Michigan. Six people were killed in Oregon. The project was called 'Fugo' [windship] and headed by Major General Sueki Kusaba.
Japanese land based long-range bombers
The Japanese Navy ordered the construction of Nakajima G10N1 'Fugaku' [Mount Fuji], an ultra-long range heavy bomber, for bombing the United States mainland. The bomb-load capability of the bomber was 20,000 kg for short-range sorties; 5,000 kg for sorties against targets in the U.S.
It was conceived as a method for mounting aerial attacks from Japan against industrial targets along the West Coast [e.g., San Diego], Midwestern [e.g., Detroit, Chicago, and Wichita] and Northeastern [e.g, New York and Norfolk] of the United States. Japan's worsening war situation resulted in the project's cancellation in 1944 and no prototype was ever built.
Another similar project with a similar purpose was the four engined bomber Nakajima G8N 'Renzan' [Mountain Range], Allied code name 'Rita'.
The Japanese Army ordered the design of Tachikawa Ki-74, an ultra long-range reconnaissance bomber originally intended to be used against the Soviets in Siberian lands. Later, it was ordered for development for bombing missions against the United States. The bomb charge was 500Kg-1,000Kg. This bomber was also known as the "Japanese Siberian Bomber". A twin-engine, mid-wing monoplane, it did not see operational service. Nevertheless, the Allies knew of its existence and assigned the type the codename 'Patsy' after it was discovered that it was a bomber, not a fighter.
Kinoaki Matsuo, a high-ranking officer of the Black Dragon Society, wrote the Book "The Three Power Alliance And The United States-Japanese War", which is purported to detail the Japanese war plans for the simultaneous invasions of the Panama Canal Zone, Alaska, California and Washington.
Japanese heavy seaplane bombing raids
Vice Admiral Kazume Kinsei, a former UCLA student and the brother of a famous Japanese aero engine designer, ordered the construction of the Kawanishi H8K 'Emily' Flying Boat. These seaplanes had an operational range of 4,443 miles, were equiped with four 1,850 hp 14-cylinder engines, had a top speed of 289 mph, and could climb to 27,740 feet. Using the 92-foot long and 124-foot wingspan seaplanes, Kinsei drew up plans for a concentrated air attack on the American mainland, to be launched from Wojte Atoll [Marshall Islands, South Pacific Mandate] about 2,300 miles west of Pearl Harbor. When asked about why he was interested in the seaplanes, Kinsei responded "To bomb America!"
He wanted six of the flying boats, equipped with 26,445 pounds of high explosives, to rendezvous with three submarine tankers 50 miles off the southern coast of California. Once refueled, they would take off at dawn to fly to downtown Los Angeles and drop their bombs. Then the seaplanes would fly 4,000 miles west to a second refueling from I-Boats near Japanese-controlled waters.
The plan was evaluated by Admiral Chuichi Nagumo. A trial operation against the Hawaiian Islands using a trio of H8Ks caused no significant damage and their bombs only fell in uninhabited areas.
Kinsei persisted in his idea. He envisioned a rendezvous of the H8Ks with I-Boats off the Baja California peninsula, south of southern California, from where they could take off and bomb Texas oilfields and then fly to the Gulf of Mexico. They were to operate in conjunction with German U-Boat tankers. This Axis Powers cooperation was planned for air raids up and down the North American eastern seaboard, with special "Propaganda Raids" on Boston, New York and Washington D.C.. The plan was approved by the Japanese naval high command and German U-Boat Chief Admiral Karl Dönitz, who authorized the use of the first pair of "Milch Kuh" [Milk Cow] German U-Boat tankers for the operation. Vice Admiral Kinsei ordered the manufacture of 30 H8Ks from the Kawanishi Company for completion in September 1942.
However, by the autumn of 1942 Japan's defensive posture compelled their navy's high command to confine all long-range aircraft to more conventional missions nearby in the South Pacific.
Fascist Italy planned to damage dock facilities and sink ships moored in New York Harbor using Maiale Midget submarines
In 1943 preparations were well underway to deploy these weapons against the United States.
The Regia Aeronautica [Italian Air Force], working in conjunction with the Regia Marina [Italian Navy], prepared two long-range Cantieri Zappata CANT Z.511 flying boats for the operation. The CANT Z.511 was powered by four 1,500 hp Piaggio P.XII RC 35 radial engines giving it a maximum range of 2,796 miles. This seaplane also had extremely good stability in waters with up to 7-foot waves. It could carry two or four Maiales.
The operation was to commence as follows: CANTs flying the Atlantic would fly low under enemy radar to a point from which the midget submarines could be launched. The crews of the submarines were special volunteers, who after completing their mission, were authorized to surrender. No plans were made for returning them to the seaplanes.
By May 1943 cooperation with supply U-boats was obtained. The CANTs had been successfully tested with Maiales man-guided torpedos and special volunteers for one-way missions. The raid was scheduled to take place under ideal weather conditions in mid-June of the same year. However, only three weeks before, both the seaplanes and their specially fitted launch racks were partially damaged by British fighters when the CANT's base in Lake Trasimento was strafed. The following July Marschal Pietro Badoglio declared an Italian armistice and the project was abandoned. The planned attack against New York might have scored a success paralleling the Italian attack in Alexandria Bay, Egypt during the Axis Powers' North African campaign.
Adolf Hitler Plans to Bomb the United States
The Amerika-Bomber project was an initiative of the German Reichsluftfahrtministerium to obtain a long-range strategic bomber for the Luftwaffe that would be capable of striking the contiguous United States from Germany, a distance of about 5,800 km [3,600 mi]. The concept was raised as early as 1938, but advanced, cogent plans for such a long-range strategic bomber design did not begin to appear in Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring's offices until early 1942. Various proposals were put forward, including using it to deliver an atomic bomb [which Germany ultimately never developed], but they were all eventually abandoned as too expensive, and potentially consuming far too much of Germany's rapidly diminishing aviation production capacity after 1942.
According to Albert Speer's book, "Spandau: The Secret Diaries", Adolf Hitler was fascinated with the idea of New York City in flames.
Adolf Hitler’s apocalyptic vision of New York as sketched by an artist.
For years, he worked to see to the materialization of his dream.
But, all his plans were unsuccessful.
In 1937, Willy Messerschmitt hoped to win a lucrative contract by showing Hitler a prototype of the Messerschmitt Me 264 that was being designed to reach North America from Europe. On 8 July 1938, barely two years after the death of Germany's main strategic bombing advocate, Generalleutnant Walter Wever, and eight months after the Reich Air Ministry awarded the contract for the design of the Heinkel He 177, Germany's only operational heavy bomber during the war years, the Luftwaffe's commander-in-chief Hermann Göring gave a speech saying:
"I completely lack the bombers capable of round-trip flights to New York with a 4.5-tonne bomb load. I would be extremely happy to possess such a bomber, which would at last stuff the mouth of arrogance across the sea." Canadian historian Holger H. Herwig claims the plan started as a result of discussions by Hitler in November 1940 and May 1941 when he stated his need to "deploy long-range bombers against American cities from the Azores".
Due to their location, he thought the Portuguese Azores islands were Germany's "only possibility of carrying out aerial attacks from a land base against the United States." At the time, Portuguese Prime Minister Salazar had allowed German U-boats and navy ships to refuel there, but from 1943 onwards, he leased bases in the Azores to the British, allowing the Allies to provide aerial coverage in the middle of the Atlantic.
The Führer’s dream had to be postponed given the limitations of technology and aerodynamics during the Nazi era. It had only been 34 years since the inception of the first flying machine by the Wright brothers. The plan to create a fast giant plane that could reach the U.S. in the shortest possible time and stay in the air for the longest possible time was far too ambitious to be achieved during the period.
It would be years after the Nazi rule before scientists and engineers would be able to create a plane that could carry 4.5 -tonne bombs and that was capable of flying non-stop to New York and back to German sanctuary.
Successful long-range, multi-engine bombers with ideal payloads were hard to come by for the German Luftwaffe during World War 2. Much of their production efforts had always been placed into their fighter lines and this became ever more important as the war turned into a defensive fight for the Vaterland. As such, development of a heavy-hitter comparable to the what the Allies were fielding in their Avro 'Lancasters' and Consolidated B-24 'Liberators' proved quite elusive to the most powerful military in the world.
Yet, Messerschmitt was undeterred and the finest engineers of Germany worked to realize the plan by conducting experiments of wing loads, engine power and weight ratios.
While the engineers were scampering to complete the plane, Nazi rule spread like wild fire all over Europe. In 1941, Germany had already defeated France, England was isolated into the corner and he thought that the Soviet Union was neutralized. The inevitable clash between the U.S. and Germany was almost beginning.
Operation Barbarossa, the June 1941 invasion of the Soviet Union, was alleged by some to be a testing ground for an invasion of America. Another alleged German invasion plan was "Operation Felix", in conjunction with Spain, which called for obtaining control of Atlantic islands and seas to launch long-range strikes and an eventual invasion of America.....
Before the winter of 1941, Germany appeared to be moving toward a swift victory over the Soviet Union. Alfred Rosenberg, Reich Kommisar for Eastern Affairs, was ordered to print the motto "Deutschland Welt Reich" [German World Empire] and Hitler made known his intention of further conquest following victory over Russia. These plans appeared to include an invasion of the United States.
In Autumn of 1940, the attack on the US was fixed for the long-term future. This appears in Luftwaffe documents, one of which dated 29 Octiober 1940 mentions the "...extraordinary interest of Mein Führer in the occupation of the Atlantic Islands. In line with this interest...with the cooperation of Spain is the seizure of Gibraltar and Spanish and Portuguese islands, along other operations in the North Atlantic".
"Felix", the proposed German/Spanish seizure of Gibraltar, was scheduled for January 10, 1941 but never executed.
In July 1941, the Führer ordered that planning an attack against the United States be continued. Five months later, on 11 December 1941 Germany declared war on the United States.
In "The New Dealers' War", Thomas Fleming, goes into reasons for the German war declaration in detail. Fleming claims that President Roosevelt manipulated Germany into declaring war on the U.S., which Germany did, three days after the U.S. declared war on Japan.
Fleming lays out the scenario:
"The situation was that Hitler had his hands full with Russia and did not want to force the U.S. into the war. But Japan urged Germany to join in, and Winston Churchill also wanted the U.S. in to take pressure off Great Britain, who by then was all alone on the western front since France had surrendered in 1940".
"On 9 December 1941, Franklin D. Roosevelt made a radio address to the nation that is seldom mentioned in the history books. It accused Hitler of urging Japan to attack the United States. 'We know that Germany and Japan are conducting their military and naval operations with a joint plan', Roosevelt declared. 'Germany and Italy consider themselves at war with the United States without even bothering about a formal declaration'. This was anything but the case, and Roosevelt knew it. He was trying to bait Hitler into declaring war, or, failing that, persuade the American people to support an American declaration of war on the two European fascist powers".
In the factory, the engineers were facing a dilemma. They had to build a plane, the Me 264, light enough to travel at great speeds across the Atlantic unhampered by enemy planes, but tough enough to carry the bombs and men necessary. And they never found the correct equation to completely perfect the plane as planned.
One solution they thought of was to establish pit-stops for the plane to refuel and make the necessary check-ups and repairs. With this plan, the Führer would command his naval forces to seize Iceland where the German plane could make a quick stop halfway between Europe and America.
In mid-1941, the U.S. saw through Hitler’s plan and took a preemptive move. Though the U.S. was still neutral at that time, it established military presence in Iceland denying the Germans control over the strategic region.
Messerschmitt’s engineers had no choice but to complete the Me 264 as originally intended — to go through the full distance and back.
During the later part of 1941, the United States joined the Allies after Japan attacked the American base in Pearl Harbor. The plane had to be completed as soon as possible.
A prototype of the Me 264 was finally taken out for test flights. But, the plane proved to be very unstable in the air. The engines were reported to fall off and the pilots complained of difficulty in flying the plane. The plane, which Hitler relied upon to see his dream of destruction to reality, just couldn’t be completed.
The Messerschmitt Me 264 was a long-range strategic bomber developed during World War II for the German Luftwaffe. It was intended to serve as Germany's main strategic bomber. The design was later selected as Messerschmitt's competitor in the Reichsluftfahrtministerium's [German Air Ministry] "Amerika Bomber" programme, which intended to develop a strategic bomber capable of attacking New York City from bases in France or the Azores. Three prototypes were built, but production was abandoned to allow Messerschmitt to concentrate on fighter production while another design, the Junkers Ju 390, had been selected in its place as a maritime reconnaissance aircraft.
The origin of the Me 264 design came from Messerschmitt's long-range reconnaissance aircraft project, the P.1061, of the late 1930s. A variant on the P.1061 was the P.1062 of which three prototypes were built, with only two "engines" to the P.1061's four, but they were, in fact, the more powerful Daimler-Benz DB 606 "power systems", each comprising a pair of DB 601 inverted V-12 engines, successfully used in the long-range Messerschmitt Me 261, itself originating as the Messerschmitt P.1064 design of 1937. The DB 606's later use, and badly designed engine installations in the Heinkel He 177A's airframe design managed to get them derided by Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring as "welded-together engines" in August 1942. In early 1941, six P.1061 prototypes were ordered from Messerschmitt, under the designation Me 264. This was later reduced to three prototypes.
The progress of these projects was initially slow, but after Germany had declared war on the United States, the Reichsluftfahrtministerium [RLM] started a more serious programme in the spring of 1942 for a very long range bomber, with the result that a larger, six-engine aircraft with a greater bomb load was called for. To meet this demand, proposals were put forward for the Junkers Ju 390, Focke-Wulf Ta 400, a redesign of the unfinalized and unbuilt Heinkel He 277 design — itself only receiving its RLM airframe number by the February 1943 timeframe — to give the Heinkel firm an entry in the Amerika Bomber program later in 1943, and a design study for a six-engine Messerschmitt Me 264B, prompted by the ongoing inability for Germany's aviation powerplant designers to create reliable powerplants of 1,500 kW [2,000 PS] and above power output levels that thwarted efforts to do the same with just four engines instead. As the Junkers Ju 390 could use components already in use for the Ju 290 this design was chosen. The Me 264 was not abandoned however as the Kriegsmarine [German navy] separately demanded a long-range maritime patrol and attack aircraft to replace the converted Fw 200 Condor in this role. This was reinforced by an opinion given by then-Generalmajor Eccard Freiherr von Gablenz of the Wehrmacht Heer [German Army] in May 1942, as von Gablenz had been recruited by Generalfeldmarschall Erhard Milch at the time to give his opinion on the suitability of the Me 264 for the Amerika Bomber mission, with von Gablenz echoing the Kriegsmarine's later opinion. As a result, the two pending prototypes were ordered to be completed as development prototypes for the Me 264A ultra long-range reconnaissance aircraft.
The Me 264 was an all-metal, high-wing, four-engine heavy bomber of classic construction. The fuselage was round in cross-section and had a cabin in a glazed nose, comprising a "stepless cockpit" with no separate windscreen section for the pilots, which was common for most later German bomber designs. A strikingly similar design was used for the B-29, of slightly earlier origin. The wing had a slightly swept leading edge and a straight trailing edge. The empennage had double tail fins. The undercarriage was a retractable tricycle gear with large-diameter wheels on the wing-mounted main gear.
The planned armament consisted of guns in remotely operated turrets and in positions on the sides of the fuselage. Overall, it carried very little armour and few guns as a means of increasing fuel capacity and range. The Me 264's first prototype was originally fitted with four Junkers Jumo 211 inverted V12 engines using the then-new Kraftei [or "power-egg"] unitized powerplant installation as standardized for the earlier Ju 88A 'Schnellbomber', but inadequate power from the Jumo 211 engines led to their replacement on the Me 264 V1 first prototype with four similarly unitized 1,700 PS [1,250 kW] BMW 801G engines. In order to provide comfort on the proposed long-range missions, the Me 264 featured bunk beds and a small galley complete with hot plates.
The first prototype, the Me 264 V1, bearing the Stammkennzeichen factory code of RE+EN, was flown on 23 December 1942. It was powered at first by four Jumo 211J inline engines of 990 kW [1,340 hp] each. In late 1943, these were changed to the BMW 801G radials which delivered 1,290 kW [1,750 hp]. Trials showed numerous minor faults, and handling was found to be difficult. One of the drawbacks was the very high wing loading of the Me 264 in fully loaded conditions at some 356 kg/m2 [73 lb/sq ft]; comparable aircraft, such as the Boeing B-29 Superfortress at 337 kg/m2 [69 lb/sq ft] wing loading, both the redesign of the He 277 for its intended production priority to fulfill the Amerika Bomber role at 334.6 kg/m2 [68.5 lb/sq ft], and Ju 390 at 209 kg/m2 [43 lb/sq ft], had less. The high wing loading led to performance problems across the whole flight envelope, in particular bad climb performance, loss of maneuverability, and in-flight stability, and the need for high take-off and landing speeds. This first prototype was not fitted with weapons or armour, but of the following two prototypes, the Me 264 V2 had armour for the engines, crew and gun positions, although it was decided to complete the Me 264 V2 without defensive armament and vital equipment and the Me 264 V3 was to be armed and have the same mentioned armoured parts.
In 1943, the Kriegsmarine withdrew their interest in the Me 264 in favour of the existing Ju 290 and the planned Ju 390, with the Luftwaffe preferring the unbuilt Ta 400 and the Heinkel He 277 as Amerika-Bomber candidates in May 1943, based on their own performance estimates, stopping any further payment for development work to Messerschmitt AG concerning its trans-Atlantic bomber design. As a consequence, in October 1943, Erhard Milch ordered the cancellation of further Me 264 development to concentrate on the development and production of the Me 262 jet fighter-bomber. Late in 1943, the second prototype, Me 264 V2, was destroyed in a bombing attack. On 18 July 1944, the first prototype, which had entered service with Transportstaffel 5, was damaged during an Allied bombing raid and was not repaired. The third prototype, which had not been fully completed, was destroyed during the same raid.
Following the cancellation of the competing He 277 in April 1944, on 23 September 1944, work on the Me 264 project was officially cancelled.
In August 1943 Hitler ordered production of the He-177 V8 later known as the He-277B based on the He-177 with a twin tail fin and four separate engines driving four propellers. This aircraft reached early production about April 1944. It could reach an altitude of 49,500 feet fully loaded which made it invulnerable to British fighters.
Mysteriously, although eight He-277B airframes were converted from He-177 A6 prototype aircraft at the Rechlin factory, for some obscure reason Hitler cancelled production in April 1944. About the same time the Americans flew a sole B-29 pre-production bomber around the UK on a publicity and evaluation tour and it is believed to have been sighted over Austria in April 1944 too.
Various threats were conveyed to Hitler of nuclear and biological warfare retaliation if the deployed nuclear weapons against the UK.
Col. Viktor von Lossberg proposed an alternative plan, in 1943. A BV 222 flying boat would have rendezvoused with a U-Boat in mid-Atlantic on two occasions to bomb-up and refuel. The docks and Jewish quarter of New York were the target. The move was also intended to spread terror and weaken the morale of the Allies.
The plan was approved. However, it proved to be very difficult. The mission was to be conducted in spring of 1944 since it would be very difficult for the submarine to travel through icy waters in the winter.
By spring, the U.S. navy nearly had full control of the Atlantic, and most of the German submarines were chased out of the ocean. Thus, Lossberg’s mission simply could not be carried out.
Hitler then turned his focus into creating rockets that could reach America. Scientists including Wernher von Braun were developing missiles at the Peenemünde Arms Research Center on the Baltic coast. The weapons developed were short-ranged but the scientists were enthusiastic that they could build one with longer range.
The Allies tried to prevent the Germans from seeing through their rockets by bombing Peenemünde. The rocket research was transferred to a new facility deep under a mountain at Ebensee in Austria. A 60ft high intercontinental missile assembly plant was constructed using slave labor.
However, Hitler’s desire for global domination was being met by strong resistance from east and west. From mid-1944, the Third Reich was shrinking fast. The military encountered problems left and right. Their biggest logistical dilemma was fuel shortage greatly immobilizing German air and ground forces.
These problems did not stop the Führer from making attempts at New York. This time, he planned on using the 'Condor' passenger plane which was readily available and capable of reaching American soil.
In 1938, the FW 200 'Condor', built by Focke-Wulf, was the first land-based passenger plane to fly non-stop from Berlin to New York. The flight took 25 hours. If the plane was to be used, it would not be able to refuel, making the return flight to Berlin a major issue.
The Fw 200 Condor was assigned to work alongside the Kriegsmarine, becoming active across the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean as Germany's territory expanded. The Fw 200 proved a vital component in disrupting the Allied shipping lanes during the 'Battle of the Atlantic' to the point that Winston Churchill himself tagged the German aircraft as the 'Scourge of the Atlantic'. However, the limited numbers of the Condors would soon restrict their direct combat activities as the war began progressing in favor of the Allies. By the end of 1943, the aircraft was relegated almost exclusively to the transport role.
Dr. Fritz Nallinger of Daimler-Benz, who in 1941 was appointed a member of the 'Deutschen Akademie der Luftfahrtforschung' [German Academy of aircraft research], suggested to use the plane. His idea was to load explosives on the plane and crash it into New York. The pilot would parachute out of the plane once the 'Condor' has been set on an unmanned course.
However, the Germans were not the only ones who have thought of the idea. The Allies have secretly been using "drone" bombers loaded with explosives and crashed into targets particularly underground sites in France and Holland that have been bombing England with rockets and flying bombs. Allied pilots would parachute out of the plane at the last minute.
The Allied air force were unsuccessful in its missions. Reportedly, 19 missions were launched but not a single target was destroyed. Four pilots, including Lt. Joe Kennedy, the older brother of future president John F. Kennedy, were killed during the missions. The idea was abandoned.
In early 1945 the U.S. carried out from England six robot missions of B-17s, each loaded with 10 tons of explosives. The planes were "war weary" craft that had been stripped of armor and armament. Pilots got the drone bombers airborne and pointed toward their German targets, then bailed out. None had been successful in hitting specific targets, and the project was scrapped due to British objections. Air Chief Marshal Sir Charles Portal had expressed fears that the Germans, with a great number of planes but few surviving pilots, would be tempted to reply in kind.
The Germans also found the idea too good to be true. The 'Condor' was too slow to be used for the mission. It would become an easy target for the fast fighter planes of the U.S.
The Allied invasion of France further removed the Condor from any type of maritime operations. In the reconnaissance role, the Fw 200 was ultimately replaced by the newer Junkers Ju 290, this coming late in the war.
Toward the end of World War II, with most of the German military establishment convinced that the war was already lost, an increasingly desperate Adolf Hitler ordered his engineers to begin an intense campaign to develop new types of unconventional weapons— Wunderwaffen , or 'miracle weapons', as they came to be called. The program also included plans, now largely forgotten, for what was called 'Projekt A'' a huge plane intended to fly repeat missions over the Atlantic, where it would release a smaller bomber that would continue on to carry out an attack against a target along the eastern coast of the United States. Hitler and his close associates referred to the plane as the "Amerikabomber".
A technical drawing of the Amerikabomber, was prepared in the spring of 1944 by Fritz Nallinger, an aeronautics engineer working for Daimler-Benz. Drawings of the plane appeared in "Die Deutschen Flugzeuge 1933-1945", an obscure single-volume encyclopedia, long out of print, devoted to airplanes of the Nazi period. Recently brought back to light by Ulrich Albrecht, a professor of political science at the Free University in Berlin, the drawings show prototypes for a large, multi-engine mother aircraft with a smaller plane attached to its underbelly. The plans for this smaller plane, which was designed to fly almost at the speed of sound, clearly lack landing gear and weapons systems. Accompanying technical descriptions note that the plane was not expected to be 'recovered'—strongly suggesting that it was intended to be used as a bomb.
In 1943, instructed by Göring to design and produce very long-range bombers which would be capable of attacking targets in the U.S.A. and Soviet industrial plants far beyond Germany, Daimler-Benz combined with Focke-Wulf to form a joint study group for the development of ultra long-range aircraft.
These strikes were to be carried out in non-stop flight and without recourse to aerial refuelling. The designs were to have been built in 1944.
In late 1944, a number of odd events occurred.
German aircraft designers were told to tender designs for a bomber capable of flying to New York and back, without refueling. The bomb load was to be 4000 Kilograms; surprisingly light for an attack that could have any real effect. The Horton firm was given the assignment, with the beautiful Ho XVIII B flying wing bomber being the only design that could achieve the required specifications. They were told to begin construction as soon as possible.
Work was restarted on a submarine towed pod, code named "Prüf [Test] Stand XII", to transport and launch the V-2 [A-4] missile
Up to three of these could be towed by a Type XXI submarine. The work was given high priority, and one of the pods, minus its internal equipment, was finished by the war's end.
The German rocket team at Peenemünde were told to dust off the plans for the A-9/A-10 project, a two stage ICBM capable of reaching New York. This seemed an awfully big project to start this late in the war.
Jonastal S-3 would have been the production center for all of Germany's best secret weapons with emphasis being placed on the ICBMs, German atom bomb, and an equally devastating plasma weapon that was authorized in March 1945 but not completed. This was a mix of 60/40 fine coal dust powder and LOX mixed with a secret reagent developed by the SS Technical Branch. The result was both a fire and electrical storm at ground level. Testing of small bombs near the Baltic produced spectacular results.
The Arado E.555 was a strategic bomber proposed in response to the Amerika Bomber project.
There were several different configurations of the design considered, the most striking being the E.555-1.
This was a six-jet, angular flying wing design, with remotely operated turrets, and capable of carrying a large payload. All of these projects were deemed too expensive and ambitious and were abandoned in late 1944.
So, advanced aircraft like the Sänger 'Silver Bird' Orbital Bomber, Ho XVIIIB, and Ar E.555 could have carried these over US cities on the eastern seaboard.
However, these would not have been needed as a Ju-390 could have done the job, and NYC would have been the first target. That's why all those 'Amerika Bomber' projects were authorized in early 1945, but time ran out.
Even when the Russians stormed Berlin, Hitler was still fuming with anger and revenge over the Americans.
Albert Speer, Hitler’s armaments minister, revealed that the Führer was shouting orders in his Bunker in Berlin to be shown films of London and Warsaw being consumed by the fire and bombs that were raining from Nazi bombers. Hitler was said to be craving to see the same scene in New York.
The "Daily Mail" reports that Speer, in his diary, wrote how Hitler yearned to see New York "going down in a sea of flames, the skyscrapers transformed into gigantic burning torches and collapsing on each other and the exploding city reflecting against the night sky".
As the fall of Germany approached, the Nazi Leaders reverted to an ambitious project created by Gauleiter Franz Hofer who had become high commissioner for the Italian Tyrol and the Southern Alps. The project foresaw setting up an incredible fortress in the mountains, including parts of Italy, Austria and Bavaria. Hofer submitted his plan to Hitler's aide, Martin Bormann in November 1944, but he had prepared for this moment back in 1938 when Nazi agents carefully mapped all mountain passes, caves, bridges, highways, and located sights for underground factories, munitions dumps, arms and food caches. To complete work on this fortress, Hofer demanded a slave labor force of a quarter of a million, 70% Austrian workers and 30% men of the Tyrolese home guard. So-called U-Plants were to be set up underground as gigantic workshops and launching pads for the secret weapons which were to turn the tide of the war in favor of the Nazis. Among these were some 74 tunnels along Lake Garda, in Northern Italy, which were to be adapted and transformed into a vast assembly plant by FIAT of Turin in close collaboration with the department of Minister Albert Speer. Seven other tunnels along Lake Garda, near Limone, were to produce several weapons tested at the Hermann Göring Institute of Riva del Garda.
According to the archives of the German High Command and of the Allied Combined Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee, other plants in vital areas of Central Germany, code named M-Werke, were to produce powerful missiles such as the giant A.9/A.10 destined to destroy New York and Washington.
| A9/10 drawing dated 10 June 1941. Hypersonic A9 stage highlighted|
But most important was the Alpine area, for it was from there that the supreme weapons were to come.
While we know that one of Hitler's Doppelgängers died in the Berlin Chancellery Bunker, an elaborate suicide cover-up would have been required for an important reason: To hide the true whereabouts of the Southern Redoubt, which was never found by the Allies and which, according to some observers, was the secret site of Nazi nuclear weapons research. To conceal its location, it would have been necessary to spread a new propaganda myth that there never was a hidden Mountain Redoubt, no Nazi nuclear weapons site, and the Führer directed the war from his Berlin Bunker, where he finally committed suicide.
Franz W. Seidler, the author of "Phantom Alpenfestung? Die geheimen Baupläne der Organisation Todt" discovered plans and maps from the Organization Todt, for a real Alpenfestung, the National Redoubt that many of the Allies feared, but was more hype than real.
The author shows that, given six months or a year more, this Alpenfestung would surely have been a reality. There were plans for tunnel installations, including FHQs and HQs for all the armed forces, all over the place in the Berchtesgaden/Salzburg areas [and elsewhere]. Many of these were started, but got little beyond the initial excavation phase.
If the war had gone on, almost all the critical German industry and command/control centers would have been in underground bomb-proof facilities ... facilties made by slave laborers from concentration camps.
As it was, by 1945, Thüringen already had a massive underground installation making V-1s, V-2s, and jet engines [Mittelwerk/Mittelbau/Dora site, near Nordhausen]. Another underground site near Jena made Me-262 jets. Work had started on what was apparently a secret underground Führer HQ and command/control center in the Jonas Valley, near Erfurt.
Another underground site east of Salzburg had a functioning petroleum refinery. Underground installations in the Berchtesgaden area were equipped with enough supplies to last several months, if not years. These underground facilties were certainly no myth, but the war ended before most of them amounted to much.
Work on the German "Feuerball", or fireball, had been speeded up during the fall of 1944 at a Luftwaffe experimental center near Oberammergau, Bavaria. There, and at the aeronautical establishment at Wiener Neustadt, the first fireballs were produced. Later, when the Russians moved closer to Austria, the workshops producing the fireballs were moved to Black Forest.
Efforts were accelerated to perfect the craft in 1944, but work seemed to have been shifted to the development of the Kugelblitz [Round Lightning], a round, symmetrical airplane, quite unlike any previous flying object known in terrestrial aviation history.
In the fall of 1944 work was hurriedly carried out by the SS Technical Branch on a radical disc craft that had absolutely nothing in common with any aircraft ever produced up to that time. The unmanned interceptor VTO disc was to be the product of the Wiener Neustadter Flugzeugwerk [WNF] under SS control. The project was started in 1941 but stalled by technical difficulties with both the propulsion system and the development of a primitive field weapon.
The craft was being developed by the SS Technical Branch awaiting an experimental electrostatic field weapon being developed at Messerschmitt's secret Oberammergau facility in Bavaria with help from the O.B.F. [Oberbayerische Forschungsanstalt].
The aeronautical establishment at Wiener Neustadt [with help from the F.F.O.] developed the first of what WNF named the "Feuerball" [Fireball] in total secrecy.
The very first primitive Feuerball weapons were simple, small silver jet-powered discs launched off catapults and remote-controlled from the ground. These were psychological test weapons to gauge the Allied bomber crews response to the strange machines that defied explanation and which could out-maneuver the Allied aircraft at will. If they were destroyed it was no loss, yet most of them were brought back down to earth for retrieval and re-use.
The USAAF never gave an explanation for these "Foo Fighters" which seems hard to believe given the hundreds of documented encounters and sightings of this weapon which were launched from the ground by all three Axis nations.
To hide the fact that the "Fireballs" were German weapons, US Intel designated them in official military documents as "PHOO BOMBS" starting in December 1944. This has foiled FOIA document researchers for decades until a declassifed 1944 document concerning possible German Capabilities in 1945 revealed the code words and matching precise description. Perhaps they labeled them bombs as many believed this was a flying Flak weapon, or aerial mine... which later proved to be a false assumption.
An 'Intelligence Digest' document, with a February, 1945 date, addresses German military capacities, listing "Phoo Bombs" as a weapon in the German arsenal. It was obtained in a 'Freedom Of Information Act' request asking for more information after learning the government's code word for foo fighters ["Phoo Bombs"].
-- United States Air Force, 1944, 'An Evaluation Of German Capabilities In 1945', Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, USA, this and other information related to Phoo Bombs can be found on microfilm rolls A-1007-1652, A-5729-2040; Combined Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee Report Number156, 'Report On Flugfunk Forschungsinstitut Oberpfaffenhofen F.F.O. Establishments'.
Work to enlarge the Feuerball considerably and test out various new systems that would make it lethal, had already begun in 1943 but it was not deployed until 1945, shortly before collapse. This was the Zeppelin Werk "Kugelblitz" [Ball Lightning] which was larger than a Feuerball and powered by a total reaction engine burning a gelatinous, metallic fuel, and now with added an experimental ejector gun that could spray a concentrated gaseous explosive first tested in Austria in 1936. Guidance was improved with the addition of an infra-red sensor to the plume sensor and some early television guidance equipment.
One Kugelblitz [the lone constructed one] destroyed a small group of B-24 bombers over Garda Lake using the aerosol ejector gun, which Allied Intelligence quickly reported as German "use of anti-aircraft bombs of Firedamp used against the bombers over Garda Lake".
While this was inaccurate, the Germans did develop the first aerosol bombs, known then as vacuum bombs, and what we call today "fuel-air explosives“ or FAE. The British found several bomb casings that contained aerosol dispersion canisters, but none were filled in 1945.
Official References to the German Vacuum Bomb:
Headquarters United States Strategic Air Forces In Europe Office of the Director of Intelligence: 'An Evaluation Of German Capabilities In 1945'; CIOS Report: Interrogation of Dr. Hans Friedrich Gold
The first concept of using Firedamp rockets against the Allied bomber streams was illustrated in the October 1943 issue of the German magazine "Signal" launched by a pair of Me Bf 110 heavy fighters.
As the Russians advanced towards Austria, the Zeppelin Werk workshops were moved into the Schwarzwald for the last use of these weapons. In April 1945 on order from Berlin the SS destroyed all of the remaining weapons.
Dr. Giuseppe Belluzzo of Italy worked closely with the SS on the Schriever disc re-design as well as his own jet-powered flying bomb - the Turbo Proietti. The operation and turbine engine design of Belluzzo for the Turbo Proietti is very similar to a Feuerball in appearance.
It may well be that the Italians had a part in developing the early Kugelwaffen and Feuerball. Is it just coincidence that the lone Kugelblitz attack recorded came from the Riva Del Garda area?
Dr. Mario Zippermayr, an eccentric Austrian inventor working at an experimental establishment at Lofer in the Tyrol, designed and built a series of highly unorthodox anti-aircraft weapons that were observed very closely by the Reichsluftfahrtamt [Office of Aeronautics] in Berlin. Due to the overwhelming numerical air superiority of the Allies every effort was made during the last year of the war to find ways of exploiting any known phenomenon that could bring down the heavy bombers of the USAAF and RAF.
Dr. Zippermayr constructed both a huge Wirbelwind Kanone [Whirlwind Cannon] and Turbulenz Kanone [Vortex Cannon]. Both had the same goal - to knock down enemy bombers through clever manipulation of air.
To achieve this, the Wind Cannon used a detonation of hydrogen and oxygen to form a highly compressed plug of air that was channeled through a long tube that was bent at an angle and fired like a shell towards enemy aircraft. Impossible as this may seem the Wind Cannon did particularly well on the ground - breaking one inch thick wooden boards from a range of 200 yards. This promising development, however, meant nothing against the Allied bombers that were flying at 20,000 ft! Nevertheless, taken from the Hillersleben Proving Grounds the Wind Cannon was used in defense of a bridge over the Elbe River in 1945. Either there were no aircraft present or the cannon had no effect because it was still intact where it was found.
The Turbulenz Kanone, by comparison, was a large caliber mortar sunk into the ground with fired coal dust and slow burning explosive shells to create an artificial vortex. This also worked well on the ground but again the problem was the same - how to generate a large enough effect to reach the aircraft. Zippermayr did not know if the pressure changes of this device would be sufficient to cause structural damage to an aircraft but the vortex would definitely have an effect on the wing loading as even clear air turbulence had brought down civilian airliners.
In an U.S. government post-war interview, on 8 March 1949, Dr. Zippermayr explained to the U.S. officials the test conclusions he reached during the war blowing coal dust out of hollow pipes. This test method led to a cover story that Dr. Zippermayr had invented a "Vortex cannon" by which enemy aircraft would be swept from the sky. This myth still persists to this day and has even been repeated by a prominent and respected historian in a recent British TV documentary. The initial explosion scattering and vaporizing the coal dust must be slow enough to allow a long billowing explosion over a wide area. For this a mathematician was included to verify Dr. Zippermayr's work. Other than this math, the method was so simple and direct that a cover story was needed lest this cheap rival to the atomic bomb fall into the wrong hands. This cover story and strategy worked for decades.
Even though Zippermayr could not make either of these weapons any more potent, Major Rudolf Lusar, who was involved with German disc development with Schriever’s Flugkreisel Projekt had seen the test footage of both the Wind Cannon and Vortex Cannon in action. He was especially interested in the vortex effect and destructive power of coal dust. Many late-war German fighter projects were to be powered by coal-fired ramjets including Dr. Alexander Lippisch’s Lp-13b and Skoda-Kauba P.14-01.
Major Lusar investigated the coal dust produced vortex as a means of exotic propulsion and considered if it might be applied to one of the Flugscheiben [Flight Discs].
A virtually unknown engineer working on the "Flugkreisel Projekt" named Gerhard Faulker came up with an idea that could have revolutionized aerial warfare in 1945. He proposed that a giant 100 meter diameter disc be constructed that would not only use Zippermayr coal dust vortex as the main power plant but also to produce a giant fire cloud through the bomber streams by ejecting coal dust explosive propellant through vents in the spinning external ring and then igniting the mixture with ring-tip burners.
Ing. Faulker named his design the "Feuersturm" [Firestorm]. It was proposed in late 1944 but abandoned by the spring of 1945 during the collapse and thus could not be constructed. The design was also nicknamed the "Zyclope" [Cyclops] due to the heavily shielded gyroscopic ball cockpit "eye" that would rotate as the craft literally flew in a widening arc to create the long burning cloud trail that would engulf the enemy bombers.
The Feuersturm is also unique due to its landing gear. The disc would have stood on a central coil stand made up of a series of hydraulically-retractable concentric metal rings with various diameters up to 50 meters. When extended, these formed the huge Turbulenzrohr [vortex pipe] with a huge blast plate/exhaust orifice at the bottom. When the craft went into attack, the entire collapsible hydraulic ring system retracted up into the belly of the disc with the blast plate protecting the bottom of the disc as the vortex effect generated inside the disc now drove the spinning external fire ring. For defense in the VTOL role the Feuersturm would carry four internal launch tubes that would vertically fire coal dust explosive shells. They were to be pre-loaded before launch.
The Feuersturm would have been a point-defense interceptor disc designed to quickly climb vertically to the altitude of the approaching bomber stream and then arc sideways creating an immense burning fire cloud into the path of the bombers.
One disadvantage to this proposal was the desired result. If the Feuersturm worked and all 1,000 bombers plus 500 escorts plunged to the ground on fire the devastating effect on the locals could have been actually worse than the bombing run!
Postwar, Ing. Faulker was not heard of again. He was captured by the Russians in the advance and taken to the USSR. The Russians had considered the development of coal dust explosives too but decided against it and developed their own "thermobaric" weapons which ultimately were tested in Chechnya. No Russian flight disc development seems to have resulted from Faulkner’s capture.
Jim Wilson of "Popular Mechanics" magazine through FOIA [Freedom of Information Act] documents discovered that the USAF finally admitted by 1995 that the Germans had disc aircraft prototypes but stated that they were "highly unstable". The USAF, however, failed to give any details, identifications, photos, nor flight footage because the discs are still largely classified until 2020 - which makes you wonder what technology in 1945 would be considered that sensitive to receive a 75 year classification well into the 21st century? The Jonastal S-III complex where the discs were to be manufactured is classified until 2045 - 100 years.
History has it that not only were the Germans at war, which required much in the way of manpower, but they took on incredible projects such as constructing huge underground complexes at Nordhausen in the Harz mountains, Pennemünde and others. They also had their naval vessels provide support for a very detailed study of the Antartic in which they were alleged to have been building underground bases as well.
Peenemünde was a hive of activity in its heyday, before a major RAF bombing raid in 1943, the biggest British mission of the war, destroyed large sections of the facility.
Alarmed by progress on the V-2 rockets, Britain’s Bomber Command sent 597 bombers on the night of 16-17 August 1943, to raid Peenemünde - Germany’s top-secret rocket facility built on an island at the mouth of the Oder River near the border of Germany and Poland. Because of a navigation "blunder", much of the underground and well-camouflaged Peenemünde site was left undamaged.
British author Brian Ford described the results:
"Even so, over 800 of the people on the island were killed.... After this, it was realized that some of the facility had better be dispersed throughout Germany; thus the theoretical development facility was moved to Garmisch-Partenkirchen, development went to Nordhausen and Bleicherode, and the main wind-tunnel and ancillary equipment went down to Kochel, some 24 miles south of Munich.
This was christened Wasserbau Versuchsanstalt Kochelsee - experimental waterworks project - and gave rise to the most thorough research center for long-range rocket development that, at the time, could have been envisioned".
Mary Bennett and David S. Percy, authors of "Dark Moon: Apollo and the Whistleblowers", speculated that the British air raid on Peenemünde was designed not to knock out the V-rocket site but to force it to move to safer environs, to ensure the safety of the rocket program.
They showed how the raid bombed the site’s northern peninsula rather than the main facility, due to misplaced target indicators. These authors noted that of the eight hundred personnel who died in the air raid, about half were mostly Russians from the prisoner labor force and the other half were technicians and their families.
After this raid, the irreplaceable Hermann Oberth was transferred to the safety of the Reinsdorf works near Wittenberg, to continue his work.
"Instructions from the highest level, it seems, had been to target personnel and certainly not the V-2 rocket production facilities. It was clearly crucial that these rockets, plans and parts were spared", they stated.
Someone with high authority wanted this Nazi technology available to them after the war.
General Electric in particular funded the Mittelwerke underground V-2 factory and owned EMW the company which ran Peenemünde, through it's subsidiary AEG. Indeed by late 1944 General Electric International had struck a deal for the surrender of Penemünde scientists and engineers to US forces.
So important was upholding that deal that when 450 rocket engineers were imprisoned at military barracks in Oberammergau, SS Lt General Dr Hans Kammler led an armed party of SS to free them and drive them to the American lines near Oberjoch on 27 April 1945.
Rockets were tested there until 1945 and fired at Britain from launch pads on the French coast.
Researchers have found evidence that tests were carried out to fire rockets from submarines, while a chilling speech by the camp commandant, Walter Dornberger, shows where the rockets were headed next.
"The crowning of our work will be the Amerika machine, a two-stage rocket which will cover the distance between Germany and the United States in around 30 minutes,"' Dornberger wrote in a speech for a visit by SS chief Heinrich Himmler.
During the summer of 1943, the Peenemünde research centre was seized by the SS. Brigadeführer Hans Kammler was Himmler's most trusted aide. He had a reputation of being the man who could get things done.
The Reichsführer-SS wanted underground factories for the production of war materials in natural caves and underground tunnels "completely impervious to Allied bombs", and Kammler succeeded in creating underground workshops and living quarters from a cave system in the Hartz mountains in central Germany in what Albert Speer, writing to congratulate him, called "an almost impossibly short period of two months" a feat, he continued, "unsurpassable even by American standards".
Allied intelligence knew that the Germans were working on a 'New York Rocket'. At least twenty of these large rockets were built at the SS underground base at Nordhausen. What happened to them is one of the enduring mysteries of World War II.
During the close of WWII, General Patton's army came upon a very unusual find at a captured German facility in France [near the V1 and V2 launch sites].
This finding was described in Patton's biography, which included specific data and photos, and also in an official document known as the 'Patton memo'. In fact, General Patton specifically warned the U.S. military of unbelievable facilities being found.
General Patton described coming upon a huge runway that was 200 feet wide, 11,300 feet long, and was made of concrete which was 14 feet thick. The memo stated that the runway was built by the Germans using thousands of slave laborers, and took several years to complete. It was his written opinion that the construction materials and labor force surpassed that of the great pyramids [his words]. The runway incorporated a unique feature at the far end. An upward turned "ski slope" was built into the runway to allow larger aircraft with heavy cargo loads to take off more easily. This "ski slope" feature was later incorporated into the designs of British and Russian aircraft carriers.
In October 1944 at Artois near St Omer in France, General Patton discovered a concrete ramp for catapult-launching a winged A-9 rocket 3200 miles to New York. A sketch was provided. Nothing has ever appear in Allied archives about this interesting find.
SOURCE: "Daily Mail" 30 October 1944, G Ward-Price: 'Fly-bombs were meant for US - Huge ramp found'.
The U.S. constructed such a runway in 1972 for incoming and outgoing secret horizontal take off and landing spacecraft at Hunter Army Airfield Savannah GA, which was never officially closed.
In March and April of 1945, General George S. Patton and his Third Army were not racing towards Berlin, but across southern Bavaria.
They were, claims author Joseph P. Farrell, in his book, "Reich of the Black Sun", making haste towards
(1) the huge Skoda munitions works at Pilsen;
(2) Prague; and
(3) a region of the Harz Mountains in Thuringia
One is informed by countless history books that this maneuver was thought to be necessary by the Supreme Headquarters of the Allied Expeditionary Force [SHEAF] because of reports that the Nazis were planning to make a last stand in the 'Alpine National Redoubt' a network of fortified mountains stretching from the Alps to the Harz Mountains. The Third Army's movements, so the story goes, were designed to cut off the "escape route" of Nazis fleeing the carnage of Berlin. Maps are produced in old history books, accompanied in some cases by de-classified German plans - some dating from the Weimar Republic - for just such a Redoubt. Case settled.
However, there is a problem with that explanation. Allied aerial reconnaissance would likely have told Eisenhower and SHAEF that there were precious few fortified strong points in the "National Redoubt". Indeed, it would have told them that the "Redoubt" was no redoubt at all. General Patton and his divisional commanders would most certainly have been privy to at least some of this information. So why the extraordinary and almost reckless speed of his advance, an advance the post-war Allied Legend would have us believe was to cut off the escape route of Nazis fleeing Berlin, who it turns out weren't fleeing, to a Redoubt that didn't exist?
Hitler, during a conference with his generals in the Bunker in 1945, made the wild pronouncement, when questioned by one of them as to why the strongest and best formations left to the Wehrmacht were deployed, not in defence of Berlin, but of Prague, that Prague was the key to winning the war. Allied military intelligence also confirmed that the strongest SS Panzer formations were deployed in the vicinity of Prague, an order of battle that, on the plain face of things, made no military sense to them, other than, as the Allies' own estimates of the situation concluded, that Berlin had ceased to be an important economic and military target.
Generaloberst [Colonel General, the equivalent of a four-star American general] Gotthard Heinrici, commander of the vastly outnumbered Army Group Vistula that faced the massed armies of Marshal Zhukov poised less than sixty miles from Berlin, pleaded with his leader for more troops. The general is questioning the disposition of the forces he sees displayed on the battle map, for it is clear to him that some of Germany's finest and few remaining battle worthy formations are far south, facing Marshal Koniev's forces in Silesia. These forces were thus, incomprehensibly, poised to make a stiff defense of Breslau and Prague, not Berlin. The general pleads for Hitler to release some of these forces and transfer them north, but to no avail. "Prague," the Führer responds stubbornly, almost mystically, "is the key to winning the war." Generaloberst Heinrici's hard-pressed troops must "do without." [They did in fact "do without" and yet managed to put up a fierce resistance against overwhelming odds in the initial stages of Zhukov's final offensive on Berlin].
One may also perhaps imagine Heinrici and the other assembled generals perhaps casting a doleful glance at Norway on the situation map, where thousands of German troops are still stationed, occupying a country that had long since ceased to be of any strategic or operational value to the defense of the Reich. Why indeed did Hitler maintain so many German troops in Norway up to the very end of the war? [The standard versions, of course, are that he wished to maintain the supply line of iron ore from Sweden to Germany, and that he wished to continue to use the country as a base to interdict the lend-lease supply route to Russia. But by late 1944, with the huge losses of the German Kriegsmarine, these explanations no longer were militarily feasible, and hence do not make military sense.].
These paradoxical German troops deployments, were pondered by both Allied and German generals after the war. What possibly could Hitler have been thinking? Prague? Norway? There were no standard or conventional military reasons for the deployments. On more than one occasion during these end-of-the-war conferences with his generals in the Führerbunker, he boasted that Germany would soon be in the possession of weapons that would snatch victory from the jaws of defeat at "five minutes past midnight".
All the Wehrmacht had to do was hold out a bit longer. And above all, it must hold Prague and lower Silesia. Of course, the standard historical interpretation of these and similar utterances by the Nazi leadership near the end of the war explains them - or rather, explains them away - by one of two standard techniques. One school understands them to refer to the more advanced versions of the V-1 and V-2, and on rare occasions, the intercontinental A-9/10 rockets, the jet fighters, anti-aircraft heat-seeking missiles, and so on that the Germans were developing.
Sir Roy Fedden, one of the British Specialists sent to Germany to investigate Nazi secret weapons research after the war, left no doubt as to the deadly potential these developments held:
"In these respects [the Nazis)]were not entirely lying. In the course of two recent visits to Germany, as leader of a technical mission of the Ministry of Aircraft Production, I have seen enough of their designs and production plans to realize that if they had managed to prolong the war some months longer, we would have been confronted with a set of entirely new and deadly developments in air warfare."
-- "The Nazis' V-Weapons Matured Too Late" [London: 1945], cited in Renato Vesco and David Hatcher Childress, "Man-Made UFOs: 1944-1994".
"After watching the V-1 and V-2 firing trials at Blizna and Cracow, Poland, in April, 1944, Hitler is reported to have stated that German secret weapons were not the product of dreamers and that England and the whole world would soon feel their effect. It wasn’t until allied technicians examined German developments in this field that we fully realized the tremendous achievements of German scientists, and how near they were to achieving the boasts of their leader.
"The Germans were preparing rocket surprises for the whole world in general and England in particular which would have, it is believed, changed the course of the war if the invasion had been postponed for so short a time as half a year".
-- Lt. Col. Donald Leander Putt, Dep. Cmmd. Gen., AAF Intelligence, Air Technical Services Command
"To the German scientists, the V-2 was just a toy. The V-1, V-2 and Me 262 certainly high technology for the British and Americans, but compared with the Sänger bomber, the A9/A10 rocket [both ready or almost ready in 1945] or the flying discs, they were only toys".
-- Lt. Col. John A. Keck, 28 June 1945
The other standard school of interpretation explains such remarks of the Nazi leadership as the utterances of madmen desperate to prolong the war, and hence their lives, by stiffening the resistance of their exhausted armies. For example, to make the insanity gripping the Reich government complete, Hitler's ever-faithful toady and propaganda minister, Dr. Josef Göbbels also boasted in a speech near the end of the war that he had seen "weapons so frightening it would make your heart stand still".
There is a prevailing, Intelligence sponsored myth, claiming the Germans were so completely disorganized by internal rivalries, they managed to derail most of their important weapons projects. Nothing could be further from the truth. In fact, German counter Intelligence was so effective, many of the projects disclosed to the Allies after the surrender were unsuspected or beyond the understanding of most Allied technical teams. These projects became what the Americans have termed "deep black", never to be revealed at any cost, nor subject to budgetary scrutiny by Congress, or Parliament.
One of the many Third Reich construction projects that was started but never finished was a series of underground complexes in central Thüringen, southeast of the city of Gotha [near the concentration camp at Ohrdruf, the first such camp found by the Americans on German soil]. This project had several code names, depending on what part was meant, and the names also changed over time - the following names were used for all or part of this complex - 'Siegfried', 'Olga', 'Burg', 'Jasmin'; the designation S/III was sometimes used for the entire project. The main works were dug into a hill forming the north side of the Jonas Valley, between Crawinkel and Arnstadt. This part of the project was reportedly intended as a last-ditch headquarters facility for Hitler and his staff, should they fall back from Berlin into the interior of Germany [some reports say Hitler actually spent the end of March 1945 in this or another nearby underground Führer Headquarters]. Other theories say this or a nearby site were intended for production of the intercontinental "Amerika" rocket, and even testing and production of a Nazi atomic bomb. Most of the complex never advanced much further than the tunnel digging stage, and the Soviets blasted most of the tunnel entrances after the war. The exact purpose of this facility remains in doubt, as does its code-names "'Siegfried" and "Olga" may actually have been names of other sites].
Deep within his embattled Führerbunker in Berlin Hitler had boasted that Germany was on the verge of using weapons that would win the war for them at "five minutes past midnight". The desperate ravings of a lunatic" is history's too pat answer to Hitler's intriguing claim. Yet Farrell, Nick Cook [author of "The Hunt For Zero Point"], and others have argued that the Nazis indeed had developed amazing technologies. Not only did General Patton and his Third Army stop an atomic nightmare, they also secured the evidence of Germany's secret scientific advances based upon bizarre physics. And that, suggests Farrell, may be why Patton soon died thereafter
The factual circumstances of Patton's death are plain enough. On Sunday, 9 December 1945, General Patton and Major General Hobart Gray were being driven by twenty-three old Private Horace Woodring in a 1939 Cadillac for an afternoon of pheasant shooting on the estate of a German friend. At 11.45am they were passing through the outskirts of Mannheim when a US Army truck turned left in front of the Cadillac to enter the Quartermaster Corps camp. Patton's driver, attention momentarily diverted away from the road by a remark that Patton himself had made, belatedly noticed the truck in front of them, and swerved the General's car to avoid a head-on collision.
None of the others involved in the accident were hurt, and all were able to walk away from the accident. Not so General Patton. He had suffered a broken neck, and the prognosis was paralysis from the neck down. From this point the General recovered rapidly at a military hospital, making such good progress that until the afternoon of 19 December, his doctors were seriously considering moving him to Boston. But that afternoon his breathing difficulties increased dramatically and suddenly. On 20 December he suffered breathlessness and pallor, and Patton, who had had a prior history of embolism, died in his sleep on 21 December at 5:50 P.M.
The fact that Patton alone of all the victims of the automobile accident suffered serious injuries, plus the fact of his recovery and then sudden decline in a military hospital, have fueled various conspiracy theories. One of these, that Patton knew of the Soviet shooting of American, Canadian, and British prisoners of war and threatened to expose the Allied knowledge and cover-up of the affair, was revealed by a Ukrainian defector with close ties to the Soviet KGB, who alleged that Patton's accident was no accident, and that the KGB had been behind it. Another version is similar, but has the OSS or other Allied entity performing the "accident" and subsequent "medical complications".
If there is any truth in the idea of a conspiracy behind the ironic death of America's most decorated and celebrated general officer of the Second World War, then the explanation is likely to lie in the more esoteric and arcane secrets he and his intelligence officers uncovered in Thuringia and at the Skoda Works in Pilsen. Having performed a preliminary assessment of the second and third generation weaponry Kammler's scientists had begun to research, the OSS specialists who arrived at these sites must have immediately realized the material would require the tightest security and highest classification then possible, beyond that even of the Manhattan Project, not least because what was uncovered would give lie to the emerging Allied Legend of nuclear technological superiority. Patton was a potential threat to the security of this operation and a risk to the continued secret American development of Kammler's technology in conjunction with Operation Paperclip.
If there is truth to the conspiracy theories of Patton's incongruous death, then of all the theories, this would seem to be the most plausible motivation and explanation for the murder of America's famous general. Patton, and his famous mouth, had to be silenced.
It is significant in this respect that on 17 April 1945, the United States Atomic Energy Commission inspected various underground workings at Ohrdruf, and removed technical equipment before dynamiting surface entrances. The US authorities have classified all 1945 documents relating to Ohrdruf for a minimum period of 100 years.
A Book from Berlin
Joseph P. Farrell
28 February 2011
I just received a book from Berlin, from my German publisher Thomas Kirschner of Mosquito Verlag. This one has me mightily intrigued, for it's titled "Für und Wider 'Hitlers Bombe': Studien zur Atomforschung" in Deutschland, One can guess at the nature of the book with the words 'Hitler's Bomb' but the bland subtitle, 'Studies in Atomic Research in Germany' does not quite say everything that is in the book. Having just received the book I obviously haven't started to read it, but I have, of course, glanced at the table of contents, and...the cover, which is depicted above.
At first I thought, "Gee, what's a badly-executed 'eye of Horus' doing on the cover of a book about the Nazi a-bomb?" Well, sure, the Eye of Horus is also sometimes the Eye of Ra, and Ra is a sun-god, and ...well, you get the nuclear connection. But why was the eye all blood-shot? I looked closed, and suddenly realized I wasn't looking at the eye of Horus/Ra at all, but at the simplified schematic of an implosion detonator for an atomic bomb! And the bloodshot eye? The wave-fronts driving the clearly depicted core inward upon itself into supercriticality.
But the real surprises came when I opened the book. One of the first things I always do is to read the table of contents as it lets me see the general shape of the book's argument. Well, if the actual text of the book is anything like the hints dropped in the table of contents, this one is going to be a doozy. The book itself is a collection of short papers edited by Prof. Rainer Karlsch, divided up into topics raised by post-reunification German researchers concerning the actual state of Nazi atomic bomb research during the war. As anyone who has read my book "Reich of the Black Sun" will recall, I mentioned two possible Nazi atomic tests...one in October 1944 in the Baltic near the Island of Rügen, and the other in March 1945 near the troop parade ground of Ohrdruf, a test that posed special problems, not the least of which was the very low critical mass allegedly used for the device, a mass so low that it inevitably implied - if it was successful and an actual atomic test - that the Nazis had pressed the enrichment of isotopes to very extreme degrees, and that they had also pressed the concept of "boosting" to a high degree as well.
A mere glance at the book's table of contents has me salivating: Karlsch himself begins the collection of papers with one entitled "Was gesschah in März 1945? Dokumente and Zeugenaussagen zu den Tests auf dem Truppenübungsplatz Ohrdruf" [What Was Seen in March, 1945? Documents and Witness Testimony Concerning the Tests on the Troop Parade Ground at Ohrdruf]. This is followed in chapter three by a paper from Vladimir Mineev and Alexander Funtikov entitled "Physikalische Analysen zur Energiefreisetzung bei den deutschen Atomtests von 1945" [Physical Analysis of the Liberation of Energy during the German Atomic Tests of 1945]. Yet another caught my eye: Heiko Petermann's "Unvergleichbar? Die Luftbildanalysen von White Sands und Ohrdruff" [No Comparison? The Analysis of Aerial Pictures from White Sands and Ohrdruf]. And finally, one that literally leaped off the page was Wolfgang Ebsen's paper "The Interrogation Report of Rudolf [sic] Zinsser: Why didn't the American President Fly to London at the End of 1944?"
Clearly the Germans are taking the story of wartime atomic research very seriously, and are continuing to raise disturbing questions about the postwar Allied Legend. One might even go so far as to say that this is a kind of "history" or "culture" war, a war over telling the truth - no matter how unpleasant it may be - concerning the strange end of the war in Europe. There will, of course, be a deafening silence to this book on this side of the Atlantic... but such wars are not won with silence or ever-more-studied repetitions of the same old legend. While scholars on this side of the Atlantic are writing books on whether Heisenberg did, or did not, sabotage the Nazi atom bomb, the Germans, Poles, and Russians are unearthing new documents, aerial reconnaissance photographs, and numerous other types of data to recount - to their satisfaction - what was really happening in, and to, their countries during World War Two at the hands of the Nazi regime.
This is not a story that will go away, try as people on this side of the Atlantic may to make it do so....
Nazi nuclear waste from Hitler's secret A-bomb programme found in mine
By Allan Hall for MailOnline
13 July 2011
More than 126,000 barrels of nuclear material that Hitler planned to use in an atom bomb programme now lies rotting over 2,000 feet below ground in an old salt mine.
126,000 barrels of German nuclear waste is exceptional [55 gallon drum x 10lbs* per gallon of mixed waste = 34,650 tons of material] for a project which was little more than a 'laboratory effort to invent nuclear power'.
* Since Uranium weighs 158.9lbs per gallon, this is a quite conservative estimate.
German nuclear experts believe they have found nuclear waste from Hitler’s secret atom bomb programme in a crumbling mine near Hanover.
Rumour has it that the remains of nuclear scientists who worked on the Nazi programme are also there, their irradiated bodies burned in secret by S.S. men sworn to secrecy.
A statement by a boss of the Asse II nuclear fuel dump, just discovered in an archive, said how in 1967 "our association sank radioactive wastes from the last war, uranium waste, from the preparation of the German atom bomb".
This has sent shock waves through historians who thought that the German atomic programme was nowhere near advanced enough in WW2 to have produced nuclear waste in any quantities.
It has also triggered a firestorm of uncertainty among locals, especially given Germany’s paranoia post-Fukushima.
Germany was the first western nation to announce the closure of all its atomic power plants following the disaster at the Japanese facility following the catastrophic earthquake and Tsunami in March.
There are calls to remove all the nuclear material stored within the sealed site but this would cost billions of pounds.
Yet the thought of Nazi atomic bomb material stored underground has made headlines across Germany - and the country’s Greenpeace movement has backed a call for secret documents relating to the dump to be released to the state parliament from sealed archives in Berlin.
It was in January of 1939, nine months before the outbreak of the Second World War, that German chemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann published the results of an historic experiment about nuclear fission.
The German "Uranium Project" began in earnest shortly after Germany’s invasion of Poland in September.
Army physicist Kurt Diebner led a team tasked to investigate the military applications of fission. By the end of the year the physicist Werner Heisenberg had calculated that nuclear fission chain reactions might be possible.
Although the war hampered their work, by the fall of the Third Reich in 1945 Nazi scientists had achieved a significant enrichment in samples of uranium.
Mark Walker, a US expert on the Nazi programme said:
"Because we still don’t know about these projects, which remain cloaked in WW2 secrecy, it isn’t safe to say the Nazis fell short of enriching enough uranium for a bomb. Some documents remain top secret to this day.
"Claims that a nuclear weapon was tested at Rügen in October 1944 and again at Ohrdruf in March 1945 leave open a question, did they or didn’t they?'
Rügen is a Baltic island and Ohrdruf a top-secret Bunker complex in Thuringia where local legend has it that an A-bomb was tested by the Nazis in the dying days of the war.
Did Hitler have a Nuclear Bomb?
A book published in Italy, on 30 September 2005 is set to reignite a smouldering controversy over how close the Nazis came to manufacturing a nuclear device in the closing stages of the second world war.
The 88 year-old author, Luigi Romersa, in his book "Hitler's Secret Weapon", claims to be the last living witness to an experimental detonation of a Nazi weapon he says was the world's first atom bomb.
Some historians believe was the experimental detonation of a rudimentary weapon on an island in the Baltic in 1944, and that Hitler was preparing to unleash a nuclear bomb on the Allies in the last days of the Second World War.
Hitler's nuclear programme has become a subject of intense dispute in recent months, particularly in Germany. An independent historian, Rainer Karlsch, met with a barrage of hostility when he published a study containing evidence that the Nazis had got much further than previously believed, suggesting that the Nazis conducted three nuclear weapons tests in 1944 and 1945, killing 700 people. His claims have been ridiculed by other historians, who pointed out that only a few dozen German physicists were involved in developing nuclear devices. In comparison, it took 125,000 Americans, including six future Nobel Prize winners, to develop the atomic bombs that exploded over Hiroshima and Nagasaki. .
Romersa's story suggests the Nazis were much further advanced in their nuclear ambitions than has previously been thought. It has reignites a dispute over how close Hitler came to having nuclear weapons.
Romersa, a supporter of Mr Karlsch's thesis, lives today in an elegant flat in the Parioli district of Rome. His study walls are covered with photographs from a career during which he interviewed many of the major figures of the 20th century, from Chiang Kai-shek to Lyndon Johnson. Though he suffers from some ill-health these days, he is still lucid and articulate.
He told the "Guardian" how, in September 1944, Italy's wartime dictator, Benito Mussolini, had summoned him to the town of Salo to entrust him with a special, secret mission. Mussolini was then leader of the Nazi-installed government of northern Italy and Mr Romersa was a 27 year-old war correspondent for "Corriere della Sera".
Mr Romersa said that when Mussolini had met Hitler earlier in the conflict, the Nazi dictator had alluded to Germany's development of weapons capable of reversing the course of the war. "Mussolini said to me: 'I want to know more about these weapons. I asked Hitler but he was unforthcoming'."
Mussolini provided him with letters of introduction to both Josef Göbbels, the Nazi propaganda chief, and Hitler himself. After meeting both men in Germany, was sent to Germany and he met Hitler in a Bunker in Rastenburg, northern Poland. He was also given a tour around the Nazis' secret weapons plant at Peenemünde, on the Baltic coast.
Romersa said how he saw weapons "streets ahead of any conventional weapons the allies had at the time" :
"They were developing a missile which they said they intended to launch from Europe across the Atlantic to bomb America. Hitler and Nazi Germany had a very, very developed weapons programme and were certainly capable of creating an atomic bomb".
On the morning of 12 October 1944, Romersa was taken to what is now the holiday island of Rügen, just off the German coast, where he watched the detonation of what his hosts called a "disintegration bomb".
"They took me to a concrete Bunker with an aperture of exceptionally thick glass. At a certain moment, the news came through that detonation was imminent," he said. "We were handed special glasses, there was a slight tremor in the Bunker; and when the bomb detonated there was a sudden, blinding flash of light so bright that it penetrated the glasses we were given and lit up the room, and then a thick cloud of smoke. It took the shape of a column and then that of a big flower.
"The officials there told me we had to remain in the Bunker for several hours because of the effects of the bomb. When we eventually left, they made us put on a sort of coat and trousers which seemed to me to be made of asbestos and we went to the scene of the explosion, which was about one and a half kilometres away.
"The effects were tragic. The trees around had been turned to carbon. No leaves. Nothing alive. There were some animals - sheep - in the area and they too had been burnt to cinders".
Stralsund resident Elisabeth Mestlin saw explosion and a large purple mushroom shaped cloud hovering over Bug peninsula from the island of Vitte Hiddensee on 12 October 1944.
Manhattan Project scientist Philip Morrison in "Time" magazine 27 November 1944 notes reading interrogation reports of two German officers [captured], near Peenemünde who disclosed that Germany already had the bomb...Morrison stated:
"I read a report on the interrogation of German officers [captured], near Peenemünde who had seen the purple mushroom-shaped cloud. We thought this to be very reliable, but they upset us. I sent a memorandum to safety advisers, in which I informed that President Roosevelt should not be meeting with Churchill in London, because it was feared London would be attacked by use of the atomic bomb. Every evening and morning I listened BBC radio to see if London still existed. V2 rocket would be enough to move a small atomic bomb".
Werner Grothmann [Himmler's adjutant] mentions this test.
At the location on Bug Isthmus on which the Rügen nuclear tests occurred in October 1944, there are two craters filled with water contaminated by Cobalt 60 and Caesium 137, an artificial radionuclide created in nuclear explosions.
There are no similar coastal ponds or lagoons along the Baltic coast similarly contaminated to the same levels thus it is not radioactive fallout from Chernobyl.
German testing of nuclear weapons is also mentioned in OSS Report A-44 136/5985, 7 November 1944
On his return to Italy, Mr Romersa briefed Mussolini on his visit.
Benito Mussolini, by the end of the war reduced to a mere puppet of Hitler and governing a "Fascist republic" in German-controlled northern Italy, spoke often of the German "Wonder Weapons":
"The wonder weapons are the hope. It is laughable and senseless for us to threaten at this moment, without a basis in reality for these threats.
"The well-known mass destruction bombs are nearly ready. In only a few days, with the utmost meticulous intelligence, Hitler will probably execute this fearful blow, because he will have full confidence.... It appears, that there are three bombs - and each has an astonishing operation. The construction of each unit is fearfully complex and of a lengthy time of completion".
-- Benito Mussolini, 'Political Testament' 22 April 1945, cited in Edgar Meyer and Thomas Mehner, "Hitler und die 'Bombe': Welchen Stand erreichte die deutsche Atomforschung und Geheimwaffenentwicklung wirklich?" [Rottenburg: Kopp Verlag, 2002]
It would be easy to dismiss Mussolini's statements as the delusional and insane ravings of a fascist dictator facing defeat, clinging desperately to forlorn hopes and tattered dreams, were it not for the weird corroboration supplied by one Piotr Ivanovitch Titarenko, a former military translator on the staff of Marshal Rodion Malinovsky, who handled the Japanese capitulation to Russia at the end of the war. As reported in the German magazine "Der Spiegel" in 1992, Titarenko wrote a letter to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In it, he reported that there were actually three bombs dropped on Japan, one of which, dropped on Nagasaki prior to its actual bombing, did not explode. This bomb was handed over by Japan to the Soviet Union.
-- Edgar Meyer and Thomas Mehner, "Das Geheimnis der deutschen Atombombe: Gewann Hitlers Wissenschaftler den nuklearen Wettlauf doch? Die Geheimprojekte bei Innsbruck, im Raum Jonastal bei Arnstadt und in Prag". [Rottenburg: Kopp Verlag, 2001]
Mussolini and a Soviet marshal's military translator are not the only ones corroborating the strange number of "three bombs", for yet a fourth bomb may actually have been in play at one point, being transported to the Far East on board the US heavy cruiser 'Indianapolis' [CA 35], when the latter sank in 1945.
Near the end of World War II, the principal Allied war powers each made plans for exploitation of German science. In light of the implications of nuclear weapons, German nuclear fission and related technologies were singled out for special attention. In addition to exploitation, denial of these technologies, their personnel, and related materials to rival Allies was a driving force of their efforts. This typically meant getting to these resources first, which to some extent put the Soviets at a disadvantage in some geographic locations easily reached by the Western Allies, even if the area was destined to be in the Soviet zone of occupation by the Potsdam Conference. At times all parties were heavy-handed in their pursuit and denial to others.
The best known US denial and exploitation effort was Operation Paperclip, a broad dragnet that encompassed a wide range of advanced fields, including jet and rocket propulsion, nuclear physics, and other developments with military applications such as infrared technology. Operations directed specifically towards German nuclear fission were "Operation Alsos" and "Operation Epsilon", the latter being done in collaboration with the British. In lieu of the codename for the Soviet operation it is referred to as the Russian Alsos.
Berlin had been a location of many German scientific research facilities. To limit casualties and loss of equipment, many of these facilities were dispersed to other locations in the latter years of the war.
Unfortunately for the Soviets, the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Physik [KWIP, Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics] had mostly been moved in 1943 and 1944 to Hechingen and its neighboring town of Haigerloch, on the edge of the Black Forest, which eventually became the French occupation zone. This move allowed the Americans to take into custody a large number of German scientists associated with nuclear research. The only section of the institute which remained in Berlin was the low-temperature physics section, headed by Ludwig Bewilogua, who was in charge of the exponential Uranium pile.
American Alsos teams carrying out Operation BIG raced through Baden-Württemburg near war's end in the spring of 1945, uncovering, collecting, and selectively destroying Uranverein elements, including capturing a prototype reactor at Haigerloch and records, heavy water, and Uranium ingots at Tailfingen. These were all shipped back to the United States for study and utilization in the U.S. atomic program.
Nine of the prominent German scientists who published reports in "Kernphysikalische Forschungsberichte" as members of the Uranverein were picked up by Operation Alsos and incarcerated in England under Operation Epsilon.
On 6 August 1945, a B-29 bomber, the 'Enola Gay', dropped an estimated 12 kilotons of TNT in a Uranium bomb termed "Little Boy" on Hiroshima.
Charles Sweeney published his memoirs as "War's End: An Eyewitness Account of America's Last Atomic Mission" [Avon, 1997]. During the party following the successful Hiroshima drop, he recalled that Paul Tibbets took him aside and told him that he was to command the second atomic mission, with Kokura as the primary and Nagasaki as the secondary target. Timing was important, Tibbets said.
"It was vital that [the Japanese] believed we had an unlimited supply of atomic bombs and that we would continue to use them. Of course, the truth was that we only had one more bomb on Tinian. Delivery of the third bomb was several weeks away".
Just three days another B-29, 'Bock's Car', took off for Kokura carrying a second and more deadly Plutonium bomb called "Fat Man," estimated to be between as powerful as 20 kilotons of TNT. It seems inclement weather forced the aircrew to abandon their original plans to attack Kokura and go to Nagasaki instead. Weather was so bad there that the crew had even considered violating their orders to drop the bomb via radar before finding a small gap in the clouds to deliver their deadly cargo. Archivists now suggest the attack on Nagasaki was a shock to Truman, as Kokura was meant to be the primary target, with Nagasaki a secondary option.
Archival records show a third bomb was under assembly at Tinian in the Mariana Islands where the 'Enola Gay' and 'Bock's Car' had flown from, with the main Plutonium core about to be shipped from the U.S.
A declassified transcript of a top-level call between General John E. Hull and Colonel L. E. Seeman on 13 August, reveals details of this "third bomb" which according to Seeman, would be ready for use on 19 August. It also confirmed that a vast production line of about 12 other atomic bombs was being readied for additional continuous strikes throughout September and October against other key targets.
Although some aircrew saw "Tokyo Joe" chalked on the bomb's casing, it was said to be destined for Kokura, the original target for the second bomb, and named "Fat Boy".
On 15 August, however, just as the Plutonium was about to be sent to Tinian, news of the Japanese surrender came through and its loading was stopped.
Chuck Hansen's book "U.S. Nuclear Weapons: The Secret History" notes that at the end of 1945 the U.S. owned a total of two atomic bombs, both Fat Man Plutonium bombs. [This design became the standard U.S. nuclear weapon until into the 1950s]. He also notes that the weapons were short-lived, so it is possible that a) there were more than two bombs in the inventory when the war ended and that b) the bombs on hand on 31 December had been assembled after 15 August.
Documents exist showing that America’s secret development of the atomic bomb, the Manhattan Project in late 1944 and early 1945 faced critical shortages of weapons grade Uranium, and had yet to solve the fusing problem for the plutonium bomb. So the question is, if these reports are true, where did the extra bomb[s] come from? That three, and possibly four, bombs were ready for use on Japan so quickly would seem to stretch credulity, unless these bombs were war booty, brought from Europe.
In the 1960s, the East German state security service, the Stasi, became aware of rumors circulating in the former East German state of Thuringia that there had been a nuclear detonation in 1945. Gerhard Rundnagel, a plumber to the Stasi, told the security service that he had been in contact with the research team working with Diebner. He said one of the physicists in the group had told him that there were "two atomic bombs in a safe". Rundnagel later said the two bombs were dropped over Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
If the Nazis had operational atomic weapons, is it possible they were transferred to the United States?
Since only a plutonium bomb was tested at Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 July 1945, researchers have wondered where America acquired the Uranium bombs dropped on Japan less than a month later.
Some have speculated that the United States used a Nazi bomb or used Nazi enriched Uranium to manufacture its bombs.
Also, since the "Trinity" bomb exploded near Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 July 1945, was a Plutonium bomb. Why then would the United States first drop the Little Boy, an untested Uranium bomb, on Japan on 6 August 1945?
"A rational explanation is [that] ‘Little Boy’ was not tested by the Americans because... [t]he Americans did not need to test it, because its German designers already had", surmised Farrell. This idea is supported by the statement of German authors Edgar Meyer and Thomas Mehner that J. Robert Oppenheimer, the 'father of the atomic bomb", maintained that the bomb dropped on Japan was of "German provenance".
Of course, this idea would fly in the face of the long- accepted Allied Legend that Germany simply couldn’t manufacture an atomic bomb by the war’s end.
Where could the Nazis have obtained enriched Uranium for such a bomb?
One potential source was the secure underground laboratory of Baron Manfred von Ardenne, built in Lichterfelde outside Berlin, which contained a 2-million-volt electrostatic generator and a cyclotron. In 1941, von Ardenne, along with Fritz Houtermans, had calculated the critical mass needed to create U-235. It should be noted that Hitler visited the laboratory toward the end of the war, at a time when he spoke enthusiastically of a new wonder weapon that would turn the tide in Germany’s favor.
It is also stated, that 1,200 tons of finished ore concentrate of Uranium oxide produced in Belgium were at the disposal of the Germans. However, it seems that the Germans never used it. According to the reports from the U.S. and Soviet military, nearly the same amount of material was diverted to the U.S. and the USSR after the defeat of Germany, and it was the same Belgian Uranium.
Some researchers contend that the Nazi development of a Uranium bomb was kept secret because the work was not part of the German military- industrial system but hidden within the German Postal Service.
In the 1950s, he published a fuller account of his experiences in the magazine "Oggi". But, he said, "everyone said I was mad".
By then, it was universally accepted that Hitler's scientists had been years away from testing a nuclear device. Allied interrogators who questioned the German researchers concluded that there were vast gaps in their understanding of nuclear fission. In any case, the US had needed 125,000 people to develop the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, whereas Germany's programme involved no more than a few dozen physicists, led by the Nobel laureate Werner Heisenberg.
But the documents published by Mr Karlsch and an American scholar, Mark Walker of Union College, Schenectady, have punctured this consensus. Russian archives have shown that one of the German scientists lodged a patent claim for a plutonium bomb as early as 1941 and, in June, the two historians published an article in the British monthly, "Physics World", that included what they claimed was the first diagram of one of the bombs Hitler's scientists were trying to build - a device that exploited both fission and fusion.
The true novelty of Mr Karlsch's research, though, is to have turned the spotlight off Heisenberg and onto a competing project run by one Kurt Diebner. A Nazi since 1939, Diebner had his own group at Gottow near Berlin. Mr Karlsch found evidence to show that, sponsored by Walther Gerlach of the Reich Research Council, this group abandoned its quest for an A-bomb to concentrate on a weapon made of conventional high explosives packed around a nuclear core. "It was a tactical battlefield weapon they probably wanted to use against the approaching Soviet armies," said Professor Walker.
Could Mr Romersa have seen the detonation of an early prototype? He is not the only person to have claimed to have witnessed similar explosions.
Former East German archives have produced this account by Cläre Werner: On the evening of 3 March 1945, she claimed, she was near the town of Ohrdruf when she saw a "big, slim column" rise into the air, "so bright that one could have read a newspaper".
Ohrdruf had a concentration camp, part of the Buchenwald complex. Heinz Wachsmut, who worked for a local excavating company, told officials that the day after Ms Werner claimed to have seen an explosion he was ordered to help the SS build wooden platforms for the cremation of the corpses of prisoners. He said their bodies were covered with horrific burns.
After the war, the scientists engaged in the Nazi project were interned. Gerlach, whose research in other fields won him praise from the likes of Albert Einstein, returned to academic life and died a revered figure. Diebner eventually got a job in West Germany's defence ministry. Neither man ever alluded to their work on what would have been the world's first tactical nuclear weapon.
"Diebner and Gerlach said nothing about this," said Prof Walker. "They took it to their graves".
· Le armi segrete di Hitler, by Luigi Romersa, is published by Ugo Mursia Editore.
-- "The Guardian" 30 September 2005 and "The Times of India" 2 October 2005
A declassified USN Intelligence file “Investigations, Research, Developments and Practical Use of the German Atomic Bomb” dated 19 August 1945, NARA/RG 38, Box 9-13 Entry 98c issued by COMNAVEU London on 25 January 1946, has an affidavit of Captain RF Hickey USN recounting testimony given to him during investigations by Penemünde observer pilot Hans Zinsser concerning atomic bomb tests at Rügen, October 1944. The report was given a rating of “B-1” USN Intelligence on a scale defines B-1 to mean: B= “usually reliable" and 1= "Report confirmed by other sources".
47. A man named ZINSSER, a Flak rocket expert, mentioned what he noticed one day: In the beginning of October 1944 I flew from Ludwigslust [south of Lübeck], about 12 to 15 km from an atomic bomb test station, when I noticed a strong, bright illumination of the whole atmosphere, lasting about 2 seconds.
48. The clearly visible pressure wave escaped the approaching and following cloud formed by the explosion. This wave had a diameter of about 1 km when it became visible and the color of the cloud changed frequently. It became dotted after a short period of darkness with all sorts of light spots, which were, in contrast to normal explosions, of a pale blue color.
49. After about 10 seconds the sharp outlines of the explosion cloud disappeared, then the cloud began to take on a lighter color against the sky covered with a gray overcast. The diameter of the still visible pressure wave was at least 9000 meters while remaining visible for at least 15 seconds.
50. Personal observations of the colors of the explosion cloud found an almost blue-violet shade. During this manifestation reddish-colored rims were to be seen, changing to a dirty-like shade in very rapid succession.
51. The combustion was lightly felt from my observation plane in the form of pulling and pushing.
52. About one hour later I started with an He-111 from the A/D [probably "aerodrome"] at Ludwigslust and flew in an easterly direction. Shortly after the start I passed through the almost complete overcast [between 3000 and 4000 meter altitude]. A cloud shaped like a mushroom with turbulent, billowing sections [at about 7000 meter altitude] stood, without any seeming connections, over the spot where the explosion took place. Strong electrical disturbances and the impossibility to continue radio communication as by lightning, turned up.
53. Because of the P-38s operating in the area Wittenberg-Mersburg I had to turn to the north but observed a better visibility at the bottom of the cloud where the explosion occured [sic].
There were no P-38 night fighters operating over Europe in October 1944.
'Lightnings' were withdrawn from service from almost every fighter group in Europe between July and September 1944.
The only P-38 'Lightnings' which continued operating in the ETO after September 1944 were either F5 single seat reconnaissance aircraft or single day fighter P-38s of 474th Fighter Group. This group does not appear to have ever used them as night fighters.
The P-38 was only used as a night fighter in the Pacific theatre.
It is reasonable to assume therefore that Zinsser was wrongly informed of P-38s. These may have been other aircraft obviously, but they may even have been Luftwaffe aircraft. Zinsser's affidavit does not say he personally saw, or engaged with a P-38. Wittenberg and Merseberg are both approximately 50 nautical miles south of Berlin, 150 nm south of Rügen, and way beyond visible range.
It is reasonable to assume that he was advised of P-38's by radio and the mis-identification was by a Luftwaffe nightfighter pilot 150 miles to the south, in all likelihood a twin boom P-61 'Black Widow' operating in the area.
If there was a sighting by an Allied aircraft of the same thing Zinsser saw, it may have been classified Top Secret and could some day be found in an obscure file.
Note: It does not seem very clear to me why these experiments took place in such crowded areas.
In other words, a German pilot had observed the test of a weapon, having all the signatures of a nuclear bomb: electromagnetic pulse and resulting malfunction of his radio, mushroom cloud, continuing fire and combustion of nuclear material in the cloud and so on. And all this on territory clearly under German control, in October of 1944, fully eight months before the first American A-bomb test in New Mexico! Note the curious fact that Zinsser maintains that the test took place in a populated area.
There is yet another curiosity to be observed in Zinsser's statement, one that his American interrogators either did not pursue, or, if they did pursue it, the results remain classified still: How did Zinsser know it was a test? The answer is obvious: Zinsser knew, because he was somehow involved.
The real problem with the Zinsser report is in determining what location he is describing. Where did this test take place? In the published version, Zinsser gives the location of the "Atomic Bomb Test Station" as being 10-12 kilometres away from the Ludwigslust airfield. In a later observation he added that the place in question was "further east" from there. At this point, it needs to be taken into account that the Zinsser report is only available as an Allied abstract, in English translation. The original statements, of the putative prisoner-of-war Zinsser, can thus not be directly compared, to see whether they agree. The details of the location, in the available version, may have been concealed for reasons of security. Subsequently, it may have made it more difficult for the test area to be found.
As likely locations, researchers who have worked on the Zinsser report, suggest the troop exercise areas at Peenemünde, and an exercise area near the island of Rügen. Others are of the opinion that the suggested direction "east" has been deliberately confused with "west", so that perhaps the troop exercise area at Kummersdorf is a likely location. Near to that exercise area was the Gottow nuclear laboratory of Dr Diebner. American aerial photographs, taken in 1945, also show in Kummersdorf a large unusual looking round explosion area. That may have been the test site.
To date, there has been no conclusive success in establishing the definitive location of the October 1944 atomic test. If that test involved an atomic explosion set off at great height, it would be futile to look for a crater or anything like one. ln any case, it would certainly have to be possible, even today, to establish by ground tests, that a nuclear explosion took place there in 1944. Further research is needed.
lf the further statements in Zinsser’s reports are to be believed, then there also must have been American eye-witnesses of the nuclear explosion. Zinsser’s He 111 would have had to avoid American P 38 fighters that were operating in the area. Such a fantastic sight as a nuclear explosion could scarcely have escaped the crews of those P 38s. Therefore their observations should be able to be found in American operational reports.
Certainly Zinsser’s report, in the form in which it has reached us from the Allies, contains an important key that could indicate the actual location of the nuclear test. The key concems Zinsser’s actual activity, and his aircraft. Zinsser maintains in the report that he had happened to pass the area because he had to make a courier flight. lt is believed that he went up again, a second time, a little later. Most importantly, it is not known who could have given him permission. Therefore the question is what did an anti-aircraft missile expert want with a He 111 at a nuclear test?
Many converted Heinkel He 111s were used by the Karlshagen test centre near Peenemünde for testing new types of rockets. At Karlshagen, as at Peenemünde, the aircraft were a fixed element of the complement and were used by both test centres, until they were evacuated in the spring of 1945. The reliable Heinkel aircraft were used there as launch, survey or photographic aircraft. Every individual rocket flight had to be documented to the last detail. That suggests the conclusion that the anti-aircraft missile expert Zinsser had actually taken off in his special He 111 from Peenemünde, and not from Ludwigslust. There is thus added weight to statements that place the nuclear test in the Peenemünde area .
The question as to whether Zinsser "happened"’ to come across the test area at the time must, on closer exarnination, be discounted. In actual fact, he had probably been given the task of documenting the individual stages of the nuclear test, from a special Heinkel He 111 that was otherwise used for anti-aircraft missile tests. In a test as secret as a nuclear explosion, he could perhaps have "happened", to fly close to the test area, but he could never have made a second flight within an hour. He must then have been given the task of continuing his test observations by a second flight.
Of course, the information given in the Zinsser report is not yet final proof. Interestingly, in addition to Zinsser’s report there also exists a statement from an Italian officer, who attended the same test as an observer for Mussolini. That officer states precisely that the nuclear test was carried out on 12 October 1944 in the area of the island of Rügen, i.e. close to Peenemünde.
-- Friedrich Georg, "Hitler's Miracle Weapons"
Did Hitler have a Nuclear Bomb?
Mushroom cloud sighting in declassified US documents suggests the Nazis successfully tested a nuke before the end of World War Two
By Allan Hall In Berlin for MailOnline
23 February 2017
Documents unearthed in an American archive suggest that Nazi Germany may have tested an operational nuclear bomb before the end of the Second World War.
Recently declassified file APO 696 from the National Archives in Washington, obtained by the popular daily newspaper "Bild", is a detailed survey of how far Third Reich scientists got in the development of an atomic bomb - something Hitler craved.
In the file, the task of the academics who prepared the paper between 1944 and 1947 was the "investigations, research, developments and practical use of the German atomic bomb".
The report was prepared by countless American and British Intelligence officers and also includes the testimony of four German experts - two chemical physicists, a chemist and a missile expert.
It concurs that Hitler's scientists failed in the quest to achieve a breakthrough in nuclear technology - but that a documented test may have taken place of a rudimentary warhead in 1944.
The statement of the German test pilot Hans Zinsser in the file is considered evidence: The missile expert says he observed in 1944 a mushroom cloud in the sky during a test flight near Ludwigslust.
According to other archival documents, the Italian correspondent Luigi Romersa observed on the ground the same explosion.
He had been sent by dictator Benito Mussolini to watch the test of a "new weapon" of the Germans. He was ordered to report his impressions back to Mussolini.
It is known that Hitler pursued the goal of nuclear technology and wanted his V-2 rockets to be able to carry them to destroy the UK.
The testimony of the four German scientists in the declassified American report mentions a top secret meeting held in Berlin in 1943 at which armaments minister and Hitler favourite Albert Speer was present for the discussion called a "Nuclear Summit".
In the end the report states that the Allies believe the Germans fell short of triggering the nuclear chain reaction necessary to trigger a nuclear blast - but none could come up with an explanation for what occurred in the skies over Ludwigslust in 1944.
German nuclear energy project
The German nuclear energy project was an endeavor by scientists during World War II in Nazi Germany to develop nuclear energy and an atomic bomb for practical use. Unlike the competing Allied effort to develop a nuclear weapon the German effort resulted in two rival teams, one working for the military, the second, a civilian effort co-ordinated by the Reichspost.
The nuclear research effort most widely discussed was that of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute team led by the physicist Werner Heisenberg. The second was a military team under the scientific leadership of Prof. Kurt Diebner. This military team was also associated with Dr. Paul Harteck who helped to develop the gaseous Uranium centrifuge invented by Dr. Erich Bagge The intentions of Heisenberg's team are a matter of historical controversy, centering on whether or not the scientists involved were genuinely attempting to build an atomic bomb for Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler. The project was not a military success by any measure.
A heavy water nuclear test reactor was built in a cave in Haigerloch. This reactor never reached critical condition, because the amount of Uranium was never sufficient. The cave is now a museum. 
Effectiveness and implications
Nuclear fission was discovered in Germany in 1938-1939 through the work of Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassman, Lise Meitner, and Otto Robert Frisch [following up on work done by Enrico Fermi]. By the beginning of World War II the scientific community was well aware of the early German lead in this area of nuclear physics.
The threat of a Nazi atomic bomb was one of the primary driving forces behind the creation of the "British Tube Alloys" project which would eventually lead to the Allied nuclear weapons effort: the Manhattan Project. Several European exiles from Germany, Italy, Hungary and other nations eventually would make significant contributions to the Allied nuclear effort. The German government never did finance a full crash program to develop weapons, as they estimated it could not be completed in time for use in the war, thus the German program was much more limited in capacity and ability when compared to the eventual size and priority of the Manhattan Project.
In 1945, a U.S. investigation called "Operation Alsos" determined that German scientists under Heisenberg were close, but still short, of the point that Allied scientists had reached in 1942, the creation of a sustained nuclear chain reaction, a crucial step for creating a nuclear reactor [which in turn could be used for either peaceful purposes, or for creating plutonium, needed for nuclear weapons]. The U-234 submarine tried to deliver uranium and advanced weapons technology to Japan, but after the German capitulation, it surrendered to the U.S. before reaching Japan..
There has been a historical debate, however, as to whether the German scientists purposefully sabotaged the project by under-representing their chances at success, or whether their estimates were based in either error or inadequacy.
After the war, ten German scientists: Erich Bagge, Kurt Diebner, Walther Gerlach, Paul Harteck, Horst Korsching, Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, Karl Wirtz, Werner Heisenberg, Otto Hahn [who had co-discovered nuclear fission], and Max von Laue [an ardent anti-Nazi], were taken captive by Allied forces and put under secret watch at Farm Hall, England, as part of Operation Epsilon. Their conversations were recorded as Allied analysts attempted to discover the extent of German knowledge about nuclear weapons. The results were inconclusive, but they allowed them to hear the results of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, Japan, which sent Hahn into a near-suicidal despair. By the next morning, Heisenberg claimed to have worked out exactly how the American atomic bomb must have worked, judging from reports of the damage and explosive size, and gave a lecture to the rest of the captive scientists on the effort.
While it is clear that Heisenberg had a firm understanding of the principles involved, he, either conciously or erroneously, greatly overestimated the amount of fissionable material required by several orders of magnitude, yet in 1941 a paper by Fritz Houtermanns was circulated to Heisenberg and other key Nazi scientists calculating the critical mass for Uranium and Plutonium with more accuracy than calculations by the Manhattan Project.
At a Harnak Haus conference in July 1942, Heisenberg was trying to promote development of a nuclear bomb to Speer and German Chiefs of staff. Erhard Milch in his unpublished memoirs recalled that he stood up and asked Heisenberg how big a wahead would need to be to level a whole city. Heisenberg replied no bigger than a pineapple.
Heisenberg's 1941 meeting with Bohr
In September of 1941, Werner Heisenberg met with his former mentor Niels Bohr in occupied Denmark and had a conversation outside of any other witnesses. The exact content of their conversation has, since the 1950s, been a matter of some controversy. The meeting and its controversy was the subject of a Tony Award-winning play from 1998 by Michael Frayn, "Copenhagen".
There is considerable speculation on what occurred at the real-life meeting, and the actual accounts of it from the parties involved differ. The pro-Bohr version of the story asserts that Heisenberg was seeking to recruit Bohr to the Nazi nuclear effort, and offering him academic advancement in return. The pro-Heisenberg version asserts that Heisenberg was attempting to give Bohr information about the state of the German atomic programme, in the hope that he might pass it to the Allies through clandestine contacts. At that point the German atomic programme was not progressing well [the Nazi government had decided not to undertake the investment required to develop a weapon during the war]; Heisenberg may have suspected that the Allies had a viable atomic program, and hoped that by disabusing them of the idea that the German program was also successful he could dissuade the Allies from using an atom bomb on Germany.
Much of the initial "controversy" resulted from a 1956 letter Heisenberg sent to the journalist Robert Jungk after reading the German edition of Jungk's book "Brighter than a Thousand Suns" . In the letter, Heisenberg described his role in the German bomb project. Jungk published an excerpt from the letter in the Danish edition of the book in 1956 which, out of context, made it look as if Heisenberg was claiming to have purposely derailed the German bomb project on moral grounds. [The letter's whole text shows Heisenberg was careful not to claim this]. Bohr was outraged after reading this excerpt in his copy of the book, feeling that this was false and that the 1941 meeting had proven to him that Heisenberg was quite happy with producing nuclear weapons for Germany.
After the play inspired numerous scholarly and media debates over the 1941 meeting, the Niels Bohr Archive in Copenhagen released to the public all heretofore sealed documents related to the meeting, a move intended mostly to settle historical arguments over what they contained. Among the documents were the original drafts of letters Bohr wrote to Heisenberg in 1957 about Jungk's book and other topics. The documents added little to the historical record but were interpreted by the media as supporting the "Bohr" version of the events. According to the archivists, the letters were released "to avoid undue speculation about the contents of the draft letter", which had been known about but not been open to historians previously.
Although the motives of the meeting will continue to be debated, several aspects of the meeting cannot be denied. By September of 1941, Germany had been at war for two years, and as Heisenberg was the head of the secret German atomic bomb project, he was risking severe punishment by just speaking to Bohr. Since Bohr was half-Jewish he would never have been allowed to participate in the project. Also, since Bohr was a famous physicist, it would have been fairly easy to conclude that Bohr would be attempting to escape to the West soon, making Heisenberg's meeting with him an even more serious breach of security.
Battle of Berlin
According to the military historian Antony Beevor possession of as much of the German nuclear energy project was a primary motive for Stalin authorising the launching of the Battle for Berlin.  The pre-emptive destruction of as much of this infrastructure as possible, so that it would not fall into Soviet hands, was the motive behind the raid on 15 March 1945 by the USAAF Eighth Air Force on the German atomic energy research facility in Oranienburg, a suburb of Berlin. 
Degusa was chemically refining Uranium from Thorium at their refinery at Oranienburg according to an OSS interrogation of Dr Ing Ernst Naggelstein in Switzerland in November 1944
Since the Oranienburg plant was to be in the future Soviet zone of occupation and the Russian troops would get there before the Allies, General Leslie Groves, commander of the Manhattan Project, recommended to General George Marshall that the plant be destroyed by aerial bombardment, in order to deny its uranium production equipment to the Russians. On 15 March 1945, 612 B-17 Flying Fortress bombers of the Eighth Air Force dropped 1,506 tons of high-explosive and 178 tons of incendiary bombs on the plant.
Nikolaus Riehl visited the site with the Russians and said that the facility was mostly destroyed. Riehl also recalled long after the war that the Russians knew precisely why the Americans had bombed the facility – the attack had been directed at them rather than the Germans.
When a Soviet search team arrived at the Auergesellschaft facility in Oranienburg, they had, however, found nearly 100 tons of fairly pure uranium oxide. The Soviet Union took this Uranium as reparations, which amounted to between 25% and 40% of the Uranium taken from Germany and Czechoslovakia at the end of the war, which saved the Soviet Union a year on its atomic bomb project
David Holloway, "Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy 1939–1956" [Yale, 1994]
Norman M. Naimark, "The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949" [Belknap,1995]
Nikolaus Riehl, "The Soviet Race for the Bomb" [American Chemical Society and the Chemical Heritage Foundations, 1996]
There have been numerous other cited factors for the failure of the German program. One is that the repressive policies under Hitler encouraged many top scientists to flee Europe, including many who worked on the Allied project [Heisenberg himself was a target of party propaganda for some time during the Deutsche Physik movement]. Another, put forth by Alsos scientific head Samuel Goudsmit, was that the stifling, utilitarian political atmosphere adversely affected the quality of the science done. Another is that the German homeland was nowhere as secure from air attack as was the USA. Had the many massive centralized factories and production facilities constructed for the US bomb project been built in Germany, they would have been prime targets for Allied bombing raids.
In 2005, Berlin historian Rainer Karlsch published a book, "Hitlers Bombe" [in German], which was reported in the press as claiming to provide evidence that Nazi Germany had tested crude nuclear weapons on Rügen island and near Ohrdruf, Thuringia, killing many war prisoners under the supervision of the SS. Some press reports, however, have reported the book as only having claimed to provide evidence that the Nazis have been successful with a radiological weapon [a "dirty bomb"], not a "true" nuclear weapon powered by nuclear fission. Karlsch's primary evidence, according to his publisher's reports, are "vouchers" for the "tests" and a patent for a plutonium weapon from 1941. Karlsch cites a witness to the Ohrdruf blast and another to the scorched bodies of victims afterwards. He also claims to have radioactive samples of soil from the sites. At the Nuremberg trials in 1946 Nazi munitions minister Albert Speer was questioned by prosecutors about the Ordruf blast, in an attempt to hold Speer accountable for its victims.
Mainstream American historians have expressed skepticism towards any claims that Nazi Germany was in any way close to success at producing a true nuclear weapon, citing the copious amounts of evidence which seem to indicate the contrary. Others counter that Prof. Kurt Diebner had a project which was far more advanced than that of Dr. Werner Heisenberg. A recent article in "Physics Today" by the respected American historian Mark Walker has presented some of Karlsch's less controversial claims—that the Germans had done research on fusion, that they were aware that a bomb could potentially be made with plutonium, that they had engaged in some sort of test of some sort of device, that a patent on a plutonium device [of unspecified detail] had been filed and found—as substantiated.
The Germans’ only source of heavy water, a necessary component of some of their bomb research, was Norsk Hydro's plant in Vemork, Norway. In February 1943, a Norwegian Commando unit sabotaged the plant. The plant was later bombed from the air and a shipment of heavy water was destroyed in transit. Whether this affected the German program is not clear.
It is kind of a myth that Germany lacked heavy water. It is a historical fact that Nazi Germany operated more than one Heavy Water distillation plant. These were the plants they operated:
1) Leuna plant south of Mersberg near Berlin [Harteck/Süss process - codename Stalin Organ]
2) Kiel Plant 4 km outside Kiel, wooded area [Dr K Geib’s hydrogen sulphide exchange process]
3) Hamburg Plant [possibly near Zeven, Harteck low pressure distilation process]
4) Munich Plant [Clusius-Linde, Nernst Distribution Process]
5) Vemork (Haber-Bosch process) Norway [The Vermork plant was only out of commission for a month. It was dismantled in 1944 and reassembled in Germany]
6) Saheim [Haber-Bosch process] Norway
7) Montecantini plant at Merano, Italy [near Bolzano]
In addition Prof Kurt Diebner revealed to Dr Karl Wirtz six weeks after the sinking of the ferry 'SF Hydro' on Lake Tinso that they were pre-warned of an attack on the ferry and sent a dummy cargo of lightly distilled water on the ferry. Diebner boasted that the real cargo went by truck and took six weeks to reach Germany.
The Nazis used the codeword SH.200 for heavy water and SH.220 for Trittium. They built a plant for Trittium after September 1944 in Austria near Melk. There was no other use for Trittium except to provide a Fusion boost for a fissile atomic bomb.
An important footnote to the German nuclear effort is that as part of the Paris Treaties of 1955 and Adenauer's "non-nuclear pledge", Germany has perpetually forsworn nuclear [(as well as chemical and biological] weapons. It was this pledge that ultimately cleared the way for West Germany's entry into NATO.
Walker M. . 'Amerikas Einschätzung der deutschen Atomforschung'. "Physik in unserer Zeit" 33.
1. Folberth O. G. . 'Haigerloch cave survived the war'. "Physics Today" 54.
2. Antony Beevor. "Berlin: The Downfall 1945", Penguin Books, 2002
3. Richard G. Davis. "Bombing the European Axis Powers. A Historical Digest of the Combined Bomber Offensive 1939–1945" Alabama: Air University Press
A timeline to the Bomb
Nazis come to power in Germany
Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann discover nuclear fission in uranium
2 August 1939
Einstein warns President Roosevelt of dangers of an atomic bomb
1 September 1939
Germany invades Poland and launches "Uranium project"
3 September 1939
Britain and France declare war on Germany
Von Weizsäcker files a draft patent application that refers to a plutonium bomb
Von Weizsäcker visits Bohr in Copenhagen
Germany invades Soviet Union
Von Weizsäcker visits Bohr again, this time with Heisenberg
6 December 1941
Manhattan Project begins in Los Alamos
7 December 1941
Japan attacks Pearl Harbour
8 December 1941
US enters Second World War
Heisenberg gives popular lectures on nuclear weapons
Bohr visits Los Alamos
Germany tests a nuclear device in Thüringia, eastern Germany
7 May 1945
16 July 1945
Trinity test - world's first atomic blast
6 August 1945
US bombs Hiroshima
9 August 1945
US bombs Nagasaki
14 August 1945
There are a number of declassified documents from West German and DDR archives which indicate the importance of the Ohrdruf site in the last months of the war. In particular, it is beyond doubt that it was to be the last Führer HQ. Allied files on Ohrdruf are closed for a minimum of 100 years, which suggests the importance of the location. Colonel Allen, Patton's adjutant, described the fantastic underground locations in his book "Lucky Forward" published in 1947 - and that is the last we ever hear of them.
According to the DDR documents, it seems clear that some kind of extraordinary explosive substance was tested at Ohrdruf on 4 and 12 March 1945 and that an A9/10 30-metre long rocket was test fired there later that same month. Eye-witness reports about the effects of this explosive do not encourage one to believe that it was 'atomic' although popular writers [and publishers! and TV documentary makers] in Germany and elsewhere have recently climbed aboard the "German atomic device" band-wagon.
Patton's 3rd Army took the Ohrdruf region around 7 April 1945. Patton was surprised at the level of resistance he encountered, and at the fact that the Germans had put up veteran SS mountain troops to oppose him. This was 6th SS Division "Nord". These troops were used to gain time to blow up the underground installations at Ohrdruf.
The sudden increase in American weapons-grade uranium stocks in June 1945 has led to speculation that the extra must have come from German arsenals. This is uninformed nonsense. To understand about the American A-bombs one has to bear in mind always the question of the detonation device.
Leading US atomic scientist Oppenheimer had calculated that between 50 kgs and 100 kgs weapons grade Uranium was necessary for a Uranium bomb if detonated using the "gun-type trigger". On the other hand, if an efficient "implosion fuse" were invented, a Uranium bomb would only need 14 kgs. weapons-grade uranium. The Plutonium bomb could only be detonated at all by implosion. No implosion device was invented until June 1945.
At the end of 1944, the United States had enough weapons grade Uranium "for three atom bombs" according to military project head Lt-Gen Groves, but would not be able to explode them until "the end of 1945". This means that by the end of 1944 they had about 42 kilos of weapons grade Uranium, enough for three U-bombs with an implosion device, or half a bomb with a gun-type device. They also had Plutonium, but could not set the bomb off.
The Manhattan Project was a failure until June 1945 in that it could make material for atomic bombs, but lacked the technical ingenuity to set them off.
In June 1945, the Manhattan Project finally came up with an implosion fuse known as the Electronic Bridging Wire. This was the brainchild of American physicist Alvarez in cooperation with Professor Schlicke, a German expert in electronics who had been aboard the captured submarine U-234.
The US now had the means of testing one, and dropping one, Plutonium bomb, and of dropping probably three or four Uranium bombs using the new implosion fuse. It will be seen, therefore, that the large "increase in weapons grade Uranium stocks" in June 1945 was due entirely to the discovery of the EBW implosion fuse.
"Victory in this global war depended on the successful execution of OVERLORD. That must not fail. Yet the Japanese could not be permitted meanwhile to entrench in their stolen empire, and China must not be allowed to fall victim to further Japanese assaults. Allied resources were searched through again and again, and strategy reconsidered in the light of the deficiencies.
"These conclusions seemed inescapable: France must be invaded in 1944, to shorten the war by facilitating the advance westward of the Soviet forces. At the same time German technological advances such as in the development of atomic explosives made imperative that we attack before theses terrible weapons could be turned against us. In addition, the pressure on the Japanese in the Pacific must not be relaxed. Communications with China must be reopened. Resources were allocated accordingly. The balance was extremely delicate but we had to go ahead.
"Between Germany and America in 1914 and again in 1939 stood Great Britain and the USSR, France, Poland, and other countries of Europe. Because the technique of destruction had not progressed to its present peak, these nations had to be eliminated and the Atlantic Ocean crossed by ships before our factories could be brought within the range of the enemy guns. At the close of the German war in Europe they were just on the outer fringes of the range of fire from an enemy in Europe.
"Göring stated after his capture that it was a certainty the eastern American cities would have been under rocket bombardment had Germany remained undefeated for two more years. The first attacks would have started much sooner.
"The technique of war has brought the United States, its homes and factories into the front line of world conflict. They escaped destructive bombardment in the second World War. They would not in a third".
-- George C. Marshall. 'Biennial Report of the Chief of Staff of the Army to the Secretary of War' [1 July 1943 to 30 June 1945].
Transport Submarine Carried Uranium for Japan's Atomic Program
U-234. One of the eight large mine-laying submarines built by Germany, a type XB or type VIIC, the largest class of German U-Boat ever constructed at 1,650 tons and 294 feet; only U-234 and U-219 survived. U-234 was damaged by bombing in construction, her forward end was rebuilt, and commissioned 3 March 1944. She exercised as a mine-layer until refit as a transport.
Cargo. Cargo containers were built to fit in the original mine shafts forward, midships and astern. Four cargo containers were carried topside. 240 tons of cargo were loaded for departure 25 March 1945. Cargo included three crated Messershmitt aircraft [two Me-262 jet fighters, ME-163 rocket-propelled fighter], Henschel HS-293 glider-bomb, extra Junkers jet engines, 10 canisters of uranium oxide, a ton of diplomatic mail, and over 3 tons of technical drawings, plus other technology [torpedo, fuses, armor piercing shells, etc.] Passengers were 9 high technical officers [one general] and civilian scientists. Destination: Japan. Two returning Japanese Navy Lt. Commanders, one air and one submarine, were returning, having observed Nazi technology and techniques.
Voyage. U-234 collided with another U-Boat while both were on Schnorchel. After minor repairs and topping off with food and oil, she set sail again 15 April 1945, proceeding slowly underwater 22 hours a day on Schnorchel. The Nazi order fell on 7 May while U-234 was out of reliable radio contact; she surfaced 10 May to receive surrender orders and to confirm them with other submarines. Told to preceed toward Halifax, the skipper actually made for Newport News, Virgina, anticipating less militant treatment for his crew. The Japanese officers committed suicide [sleeping pills] and were buried at sea. U-234 was intercepted 14 May 1945 by 'USS Sutton' [DE-771], a short time later by Coast Guard cutter 'Forsyth', and arrived Portsmouth, NH, on 17 May.
U-234 departed Kristiansand, Norway on 16 April 1945, commanded by K L Fehler, bound for Kobe, Japan. It carried 10 German and two Japanese passengers. Cargo was loaded at Kiel in January-February 1945 and the boat sailed. The U-234 entered Plymouth Navy Yard, New Hampshire on 17 May 1945, with 560 kgs of Uranium oxide in gold lined containers. Specific handling instructions were given to Falck and a Lt Pfaff was responsible for loading the boat. On 24 May 1945, when the Navy began unloading the U-234, there had been no decision to use the atom bomb. On 30 May both the Secretary of State, Stimson, and President Truman were agreed no alternative existed but to do so.
Lt Col John Lansdale, Chief of Security for the Manhattan Project, wrote in 1996 that he "personally handled the disposal of the 10 cases from the U-234". He stated the American military authorities "reacted with panic when they learned what the containers contained".
In Pfaff’s interrogation report he stated that the cylinders could be safely handled like TNT, but if opened the material became sensitive and dangerous if exposed to air. No nuclear physicist has been able to deliver an opinion as to what the substance in the cylinders was and why it required such extraordinary precautions.
-- British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee Final Report [142g]
The Uranium carried by U-234 was enough to make two atomic bombs, to blow up two American cities -- 1,235 pounds of 77 percent pure uranium oxide -- unusable by the destroyed Nazi hopes, it was destined for the Japanese atomic bomb program.
The U-234 executive officer supervised the opening of the containers in Washington, DC, and reports he was told that one of the Americans was Oppenheimer. It is generally believed the the Uranium was taken over by the Manhattan project, but its ultimate use, if any, is lost in secrecy. It was most certainly sent to Oak Ridge, but there was probably not enough time for it to have been processed and used in the two WW2 weapons. It certainly would have been in followup weapons and probably was expended at Bikini Atoll or in Nevada.
The German A-bomb laboratory was destroyed by the Hamburg bombing raids in July 1943 and was shifted after this. The Germans developed a gas centrifuge technology to refine bomb grade uranium in 1942 that did not require heavy water reactors. Magic decrypts of signals to the Japanese embassy in Berlin discovered requests for Uranium from the Japanese A-bomb project in July 1943. The Nazis may have transferred this technology to Japan during 1943-44.
Japanese Intentions were clear, Japan was searching for a miracle weapon from all sources, including atomic research centers operating in North Korea. It would have been justice if the Nazi material intended to let Japan win the war, had helped fuel the bombs that did end the war.
Germany had begun a joint nuclear research programme with Japan some time in 1942, establishing a research facility in North Korea on the Hungnam River.
According to an American researcher writing in "Science" magazine in 1978:
"Japan's nuclear efforts were disrupted in April 1945 when a B-29 raid damaged Nishina's thermal diffusion separation apparatus. Some reports claim the Japanese subsequently moved their atomic operations to Konan [Hungnam, now part of North Korea]. The Japanese may have used this facility for making small quantities of heavy water. The Japanese plant was captured by Soviet troops at war's end, and some reports claim that the output of the Hungnam plant was collected every other month by Soviet submarines".
Other Trips. There were at least 98 different U-Boat or I-Boat attempts to travel between Germany and Japan. Some German and Italian boats made it and were commissioned into the Japanese Navy. Several I-boat suceeded in the round trip. Most subs, and their cargos, were lost..
The Italian sub "Amiraglio Cagni" capitulated at Cape Town South Africa on 8 September 1943 with a load of "Mercury" aka Uranium-oxide.
U-219 departed Bordeaux on 23 August 1944 with U-195 and U-180, carrying two Japanese officers, and cargo which included Uranium oxide, blueprints for advanced weapons and part of a consignment of twelve dismantled V-2 rockets for Japan shared with U-195.
A wartime USN Intelligence report asserts that Japan had not only acquired nuclear weapons technology from Germany in 1944 but also that it had commenced manufacture of the V-2 rocket at the Mukden Arsenal [Shenyang] in Manchuria.
-- 'German Technical Aid to Japan a Survey', Division of Naval Intelligence, dated 31 August 1945
"This document contains technical information concerning German techniques, devices, and weapons whose use by the Japanese would have a bearing on the war in the Pacific. Includes radio, artillery, weapons, underwater ordnance, submarines, surface craft, aircraft, vehicles, and miscellaneous".
Digitized by the Combined Arms Research Library Digital Library, US Army Combined Arms Center, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, USA. http://cgsc.cdmhost.com/cdm/
The Death of California
"This is "Flapjack # 111, calling Coast Guard station #1 at Santa Barbara, California... Come in please - This is urgent. I am Captain Roscoe Barnschagle, two hundred miles off the Santa Barbara Channel... I have picked up three large objects on my sonar scope. They are traveling about ten miles per hour, at a depth of three hundred feet. They are approximately four hundred feet long and appear to be traveling in formation. I strongly suggest you send a Coast Guard Cutter to investigate. It is possible that these are enemy submarines!"
[Flapjack #111 was a fifty foot long commercial fishing yacht].
"Flapjack # 111 this is Coast Guard Station #1, do not be unduly alarmed, your submarines in question are without a doubt large whales! No nation on the face of the earth has any submarines that large. Over and out'. [End of transmission].
Now this was the same kind of complacency that allowed the Pearl Harbor attack. When Japanese planes were first detected and reported..."Do not be unduly alarmed, they are some of ours coming in from the mainland". The "three large whales" were really the 1-400, the 1-401 and the 1-402 Japanese Super Submarines.
Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto had personally ordered that these submarines be built and they were the largest submarines ever built and used in World War ll.
These super submarines were 400 hundred feet and 3 inches long and 39 feet and 4 inches wide. In order to keep the draught [depth] as shallow as possible, the hull was constructed as two side by side cylinders. Armament was one 5.5 inch gun, ten 25-mm cannon [antiaircraft guns] and eight 21 inch torpedo tubes. And on deck the subs carried three fighter bomber seaplanes [in water tight hangars]. A catapult launched the seaplanes and a crane lifted them back on board. Their cruising range was a remarkable 37,500 miles. And their diving range was at least 325 feet. These super subs could do 18 3/4 knots on the surface and 6 1/2 knots submerged. Sometimes they were fitted with dummy funnels to try and disguise them. Most of Japan's submarines were sunk during World War II, but somehow these three super subs survived.
It is now early morning, just before dawn, on 17 August 1945. The three monstrous submarines, the 1-400, the 1-401, and the 1-402, surface 100 miles off the California coast. Quickly the airplane mechanics rush to warm up the three airplanes on all three subs. These fighter-bomber airplanes were Aichi M6A1 'Seiran' float planes.
These planes were especially designed and built for this type of submarine, although they were similar to the Yokosuka E14Y1 that had fire-bombed the Oregon forest in September of 1942. These seaplanes were loaded with two small atomic bombs a piece. That was a total of eighteen atomic bombs. These atomic bombs were much smaller than the ones that were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. However, these atomic bombs were very different, they are known as "Dirty Bombs". Many people would be killed in the initial explosion, annihilated instantly; many others would be contaminated by high levels of radiation and with biological bacteria, to suffer a horrible lingering death.
The largest cities of California were all targeted. Sacramento, San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, Los Angeles and San Diego. California is only around 200 miles wide, so nearly all of California would have become waste land. This bombing would affect people as far inland as Las Vegas, Nevada and Phoenix, Arizona.
Negotiations had taken place with Russia with whom Japan had a treaty throughout the war until this time. By agreement with the Allies in Europe, the USSR declared war on the Empire 8 August and Emperor Hirohito finally accepted "to bear the unbearable" on 10 August. Japan capitulated on 15 August. Dissident attacks continued on the following days on the US fleet off the Japanese coast until the formal surrender 2 September 1945.
The Japanese Supreme War Council made most of the decisions concerning the war. Many times Emperor Hirohito knew nothing about their plans. He probably knew absolutely nothing about their top secret plan to bomb California on 17 August 1945. But this is just how close the U.S. came to losing the entire state of California.
Stephen McGinty's "Camp Z: The Secret Life of Rudolf Hess" has a lot of material that tends to suggest that nuclear warfare was a major factor in Hess's flight to England - and might also explain Hitler's anger towards it
The transcript of the interview with Lord Simon on pages 125-126 is one such example:
Simon: It wasn't intended to interrupt you, but if two things don't seem to me to agree I like to know how it stands. Another question, do you mind? You see, you have been describing to me how everything in Germany is ready: vast quantities of aeroplanes and pilots and, no doubt, of other material too, which if it was used, would finish off the war by attacking England. I am rather inclined to ask you, well then, why do you go on losing men in Crete and in Iraq and in other fields of war, when you have in your hand something which is going to defeat us straight away? Why does the great German strategy prefer that?
Kirkpatrick: If Germany, as you say, has such a fighting force in its hand which can finish off England with one blow, why, with such a weapon in its hand, does Germany need to run around in the Balkans, in Crete, if it has such a wonderful, powerful weapon in its hand, to strike us dead.
Hess: Firstly, I didn't say that she had in in the hand, but that this will come.
Kirkpatrick: You said that there are already people who have been trained, flight personnel, en masse, already existing -and aeroplanes- in the numbers of our expedition corps - that is to say hundreds and thousands. And Lord Simon says if this monstrous weapon exists already, in Germany's hand, why the running around in the Balkans, with certain bloodshed, which is completely unnecessary, if England could be struck dead this summer.
Hess: I don't say that we possess these things already, I saw that they were coming out; one day sooner or later this weapon will be in our hand and I don't say it will be decisive, that it will win the war, I only say that it will be more terrible than anything that has gone before.
Churchill's response to the 10 June 1941 transcript is on page 149:
I have read the Guthrie-Jonathan transcripts which seem to me to consist of the outpourings of a disordered mind. They are like a conversation with a mentally defective child who has been guilty of murder or arson. Nevertheless, I think it might be well to send them by Air in a sure hand to President Roosevelt. Pray consider this. They are not worth cabling, but people have to go from time to time from here to Washington.
I see no sufficient foundation for Mr Guthrie's assumption that Jonathan is in fact reflecting Hitler's inner mind, although no doubt he gives us some of the atmosphere of Berchtesgaden, which is at once artificial and fetid.
I do not see any need for a public statement at the present time, and meanwhile Jonathan should be kept strictly isolated where he is.
In August 1941 Marcus Oliphant flew to America to urge the accelerated development of atomic weapons.
On page 186 Major Frank Foley of MI6 in autumn 1941 also indicts Hess belief in hidden armaments:
What did Hess know? It was a question Foley asked himself daily and to which he still did not have an answer. In conversation, Hess was robustly confident about a German victory but, given recent newspaper reports, this should not have been so. The MI6 officer was concerned that Hess's confidence was pinned to his knowledge of what hidden armaments Germany now possessed but had not yet used. In his mannerisms and behaviour, Hess had the appearance of a man with secrets: 'He seems to have something on his mind which we have not fathomed.'
As Foley's report explained:
"We have been impressed by his absolute faith in a German victory in spite of the articles he has read in "The Times" about the British air offensive, the Russian situation, increased British production strength etc. We have been asking ourselves whether his faith is based in particular on knowledge that Germany was developing a new weapon which could be used with effect on some densely populated areas of England, or in some secret with regard to himself and his mission outside the statements he has made".
On page 274:
On Wednesday 19 November Hess was questioned by Foley on Germany's Secret Weapon. "'Z", on being questioned about Germany's Secret Weapon, said he knew there was one but he had no idea what it was but that Hitler would not use it except as a last resort.
On page 320 of Gitta Sereny's book on Speer there is Hess's reaction after the war in Spandau:
But Speer's various versions of events also differ. In "Inside the Third Reich" he stated unequivocally [thereby adapting himself to the then accepted scenario] that the nuclear physicists informed him in the autumn of 1942 that an effective atom bomb could not be counted on for three or four years, and that the project was therefore scuttled in favour of an energy-producing uranium motor for propelling machinery, which was of interest to the navy and might be available in time to be useful.
Fifteen years earlier, however, in the "Spandau Draft", on 3 July 1953, still in ignorance of what the German physicists were claiming, he wrote that it was only around the time of the Allied landings in Normandy, in June 1944 that the atom scientists came to see him to admit that there was no hope of an atom bomb for several years. They therefore suggested, and he accepted, that they should work instead on a nuclear engine. The timing is borne out be his discussion with Hess, on 2 December 1962, which he reports in "The Secret Diaries", written 5 years after "Inside the Third Reich". Hess was astonished, he writes there, that Speer had on his own responsibility switched the scientists' efforts toward a motor instead of a bomb. "You mean to say that you didn't send up a query about the bomb?" he interjected dismayed. Speer said no, he decided on his own - "At the end it was no longer possible to talk with Hitler". "At the end" could not have referred to 1942, as he said in "Inside the Third Reich".
Hitler's Nazis developed an atom bomb carried by a flying saucer, documentary claims
German film makers draw on Russian and American reports to investigate a mystery involving UFO sightings, devastating explosions and secret SS work camps
By Stephen White
30 Jul 2015
Nazi Germany may have perfected an atomic bomb and a "flying saucer" to deliver it in the dying days of WW2.
Test were even carried out in which Russian prisoners of war were sacrificed to test the bomb’s efficiency, a German TV documentary claims.
Had it been put into production, a Nazi bomb could have altered the outcome of the war.
‘The Search for Hitler’s Atom Bomb’ on the ZDF channel quotes from sealed records from Russia and America proving that secret and frenzied research brought the Third Reich close to a weapon of mass destruction.
The programme quotes interrogation reports of Nazi scientists, eyewitness accounts and records left behind by researchers, many of which were shipped to America after the war.
Historian Matthia Uhl said the race to develop a Nazi A-bomb went into overdrive in the last year of the war as Germany was being defeated on every front.
The programme focuses on Hans Kammler, an S.S. general who was given 175,000 concentration camp inmates for slave labour in the V-weapons factories, tank production lines and building secret Bunkers.
Kammler was one of a very few Nazis who answered only to Hitler, who put him in charge of the race for nuclear fission.
One of his main projects – still classified by the Americans – was the Jonas Valley in Thuringia, eastern Germany, the supposed site of Hitler’s nuclear and space programmes.
One test was said to have been carried out at the beginning of March 1945.
The US has placed a 100-year secrecy order on the files concerning the valley and what went on in the secret tunnels the Nazis carved into it.
Now sealed off, authorities play a cat-and-mouse game with conspiracy theorists every weekend at the site who believe the Americans found two things in the tunnels - a primitive nuclear bomb and a flying saucer meant to deliver it.
Throughout the latter stages of the war there were reported sightings of flying saucer type craft - nicknamed "Foo Fighters".
Allied intelligence and commanders suspected that foo fighters reported in Europe were advanced German aircraft. Project Sign, the first U.S. Air Force UFO investigation group, noted that the advanced flying wing designs of the German scientists were similar to some UFO reports.
In 1959, Captain Edward J. Ruppelt, the first head of "Project Blue Book" [Project Sign's follow-up investigation] wrote:
"When WWII ended, the Germans had several radical types of aircraft and guided missiles under development. The majority were in the most preliminary stages, but they were the only known craft that could even approach the performance of objects reported by UFO observers".
ZDF quoted Soviet documents from Russian military Intelligence agents who speak of two nuclear tests in Thuringia.
"The Germans are in the throes of making and testing a new secret weapon, which has a large destructive force,” said the Soviets. "The available bomb has a diameter of 1.5 meters. It consists of interlocking hollow balls".
Another Russian report said: "Communicated by our reliable source from Germany: the Germans have conducted two explosions in Thuringia with great force".
Trees in the Jonas Valley were reportedly felled almost two thousand from the epicentre of the blast.
The secret reports also claimed Russian prisoners of war “in the centre of the explosion were killed and often no trace remained of them. Also a strong radioactive effect has been observed".
Declassified American intelligence reports showed that America’s supreme commander in Europe, Dwight Eisenhower, ordered reconnaissance flights over the valley but they proved inconclusive.
But the programme was unable to find where the weaponised Uranium the Nazi scientists would have needed for the bomb came from, and admits many pieces of the Nazi atomic puzzle are still missing
"To the German scientists, the V-2 was just a toy. The V-1, V-2 and Me 262 were certainly high technology for the British and Americans, but compared with the Sänger bomber, the A9/A10 rocket [both ready or almost ready in 1945] or the flying discs, they were only toys".
-- Lt. Col. John A. Keck, 28 June 1945
If this technology did exist in the past, where is it now? And better yet, what kind of technology did the Nazi use to create a flying saucer? Is it possible that the Nazi did possess otherworldly technology as many Ufologists have suggested in the past? And if Nazi Germany was able to create “flying saucers” wouldn’t Russia or the United States have similar technology?
The truth is obscured by numerous enigmas of the past, there are so many questions regarding "lost technology" that was in possession of Nazi Germany that today, people are not sure what to believe. If there is any truth in the documentary, "The Search for Hitler’s Atom Bomb", then we should ask ourselves, where did this technology come from, and is it possible that many other countries had, or still have, similar top-secret projects going on, and ultimately what is their purpose.
The Mystery of the Nazi Saucers
by Joseph P. Farrell
31 January 2011
I just received this week an interesting book in the mail, one I had ordered for some other research I am conducting on the history of the atomic and hydrogen bombs. The book is Jungck's classic study "Brigher Than a Thousand Suns: The Story of the Men Who Made the Bomb". Jungck's study is interesting for the fact that, unlike many histories of the bomb, he goes not only into the contributions made by the usual cast of characters - Nils Bohr, Robert Oppenheimer, Luis Alverez - and so on, but also into the conceptual contributions and roles of the Axis scientists, the Japanese physicist Fukuda, and of course, the Germans Heisenberg, Korsching, and so on.
So needless to say, I anxiously sat down and started reading...and then I ran into this completely unexpected footnote on page 87, that, occurring as it does in the middle of a classic and well-known study of the history of the atom bomb, left me speechless, pondering the implications. Speaking of the German research, the footnote states:
"The only exception to the lack of interest shown by authority [in the atom-bomb] was constituted by the Air Ministry [Reichsluftministerium]. The Air Force [Luftwaffe] research workers were in a peculiar position. They produced interesting new types of aircraft such as the Delta [triangular] and "flying discs". The first of these "flying saucers" as they were later called -circular in shape, with a diameter of some 45 yards- were built by the specialists Schriever, Habermohl and Miethe. THey were first airborne on 14 February 1945, over Prague and reached in three minutes a height of nearly eight miles. They had a flying speed of 1250 m.p.h. which was doubled in subsequent tests. It is believed that after the war Habermohl fell into the hands of the Russians. Miethe developed at a later date similar 'flying saucers' at A.V. Roe and Company for the United States".
Of course, Jungck's book appeared long before the German reunification, and the evidence that has emerged since then that the Nazi atom bomb program may not have been nearly as incompetent as the post-war Allied Legend made it out to be. And of course, as I argued in "Reich of the Black Sun", the Nazi program appears to have been, at its deepest level, conducted away from the big-name Nazi scientists -Heisenberg, Weizsäcker, Hahn, et al- precisely as a security measure against potential Allied kidnapping or assassination attempts against them. Hence, the "Nazi distinterest" in the atom bomb, the view promoted by standard histories, is just that: a cover deliberately created by the Nazi government, and apparently a successful one, for it is still a component of the Allied Legend, while the reality, as my own research has suggested, is anything but that. And this leads us to the Nazi flying saucers...
While I have always been extraordinarily suspicious of the stories of the alleged Nazi saucers "Hanuebu" and "Vril", in fact, consigning them to the bin of "Neo-Nazi hoaxes", I have always had to place the Schriever, Habermohl, and Miethe story -in all its endless variations- in a gray basket, and for a very simple reason: as I detail in "Roswell and the Reich", one of their colleagues, Richard Fleissner, actually took out, and was awarded, a US patent for just such a craft, based on work he claims he did for the Nazis at Peenemünde. Fleissner's patent, by his own statements, was essentially a reconstruction of work he says he did in Germany, and notably, his patent application was delayed for the unheard of time of five years, while the USA quietly and secretly developed its own "Project Silverbug", which looks needless to say like a pirated version of Fleissner's design in some respects.
Very little information has survived concerning this disc, but according to the "Augsburger Neue Presse" dated 2 May 1980, Ing. Heinrich Fleissner is the "Father of the Flying Disc" having designed at Peenemünde a strange disc machine known as the 'Düsenscheibe' [Nozzle/Jet Disc] that took to the air shortly before Germany capitulated, on 24 April 1945 from Berlin-Lichtenfeld. The strange disc was on an official Luftwaffe mission.
Ing. Fleissner, an Augsburger himself and hydrolic engineer at Peenemünde, worked directly under Hermann Göring on the only know Luftwaffe disc project which was officially sanctioned by Hitler, which makes its last flight from Berlin all the more baffling.
Göring’s direct involvement in the project was due to the fact that the disc was secretly intended as his personal courier craft, so work on building components for the disc was ordered throughout the Reich. Once the sections of the disc began to arrive at Peenemünde a specialist team led by Ing. Fleissner assembled the disc and flight tested it.
There it remained until it was summoned to Berlin.
Ing. Fleissner maintains that his Düsenscheibe flew in April 1945 and also that he personally witnessed four other German discs take off from Tempelhof before the collapse.
In the news article Ing. Fleissner states that the Düsenscheibe could be reconstructed at any time suggesting that the original had been destroyed after its last [and perhaps only] flight mission. After the war, Ing. Fleissner filed for another disc aircraft patent on 28 March 1955 which was granted on 7 June 1960 [# 2,939,648]. but never built.
The Düsenscheibe is described as a huge machine with a central non-rotating dome structure surrounded by a large jet rotor fed by radial fuel tanks contained in the central body. The number of jets [Jumo 004s perhaps] is a staggering twenty around the rotor. In addition to those jets, other propulsion systems are buried in the disc body below the disc rotor.
As a hydrolic engineer Ing. Fleissner had proposed a multi-fueled combination of engines to power the Düsenscheibe. The reason behind this was for the flight performance of the machine, concentrating on maximum speed, range, and altitude. The logic behind the proposal is that to achieve these maximums required different types of engines fed by different fuels to accomplish each level of flight performance.
For the take-off and landing the external rotor jets were sufficient and even necessary up to a certain speed and altitude. To achieve greater speed and heights required the internal engines which could have been burning any number of fuels including: kerosene, liquid oxygen, gelatinous metallic fuel, or liquid rocket fuels. The number and type of aux. engines is not known but a cut-away on the illustration shown, reveals at least two huge engines inside.
It has been stated that the Düsenscheibe could reach up to 3,000 km/hr.
The large dome with many windows suggests a rather large crew and ample space to accommodate many “passengers” should the need arise.
With Hitler and his staff remaining in the Bunker during the final days of the Reich the mystery mission of the Düsenscheibe is unclear. This single giant disc built at Peenemünde would certainly not have come to Berlin in the heat of battle if not to remove sensitive documents and high-ranking Nazi officials to another secure area either within the Reich [Thuringia] or outside of it [South America or Antarctica]. With Göring arrested for treason Hitler might have ordered that his personal courier disc be brought to Berlin for immediate use or to be taken to some remote area and destroyed. Either way, the machine was destroyed and there are no known photos of it.
-- Rob Arndt
So encountering the old story of Miethe, Habermohl, and Schriever in Jungck's work was a little disconcerting. One wonders if, after all these years, there will ever be any more details emerge that can move the whole story from the gray basket, into one of two resolutions of the story. That said, the whole story of the jet-based flying saucers of Miethe, Habermohl, and Schriever does get rather odd corroboration in the postwar American Intelligence memoranda of Generals Schulgen and Twining, as I detail in "Roswell and the Reich"
Lieutenant General Nathan Twining, head of US Army Air Forces' Air Material Command, a Brigadier in USAAF Intelligence in September 1947, stated that objects "approximating the shape of a disc, of such appreciable size as to be as large as a manmade aircraft, were neither "visionary nor fictitious".
Twining went on to write that it was possible "within the present US knowledge provided extensive detailed development is undertaken to construct a piloted aircraft which has the general description of the object above which would be capable of an approximate range of 7,000 miles..."
His memo was written just three months after the supposed crash of a UFO at Roswell, New Mexico, in July 1947; the period many people tout as the real start of the modern UFO sightings.
"While there remains a possibility of Russian manufacture, based on the perspective thinking and actual accomplishments of the Germans, it is the considered opinion of some elements that the object may in fact represent an interplanetary craft of some kind".
-- General George F. Schulgen, Air Intelligence Requirements Division
28 October 1947
As for the reference in Jungck's footnote about "delta-shaped" triangular aircraft, it is important not to identify this with the delta-shaped UFOs seen so often in the last two decades. For one thing, most of the German designs were by Kurt Tank or Walter Lippisch, and were for high altitude super-sonic ramjet aircraft, and in all of those designs there is nothing to damp the noise such aircraft would have made, whereas the modern "triangle UFO" sightings are usually and typically of very quiet craft with the ability to hover. Ramjets, of course, are neither quiet nor, by the nature of the case, are they capable of hovering since they require a forward thrust even to keep the jet active. So it is important not to confuse the two...
...unless, of course, one wished to maintain that the Zeppelinwerke was constructing triangular shaped rigid-body dirigibles and combining them with novel forms of propulsion that rendered them silent. But that leads to a whole other area of post-war stories...
Since the Eighties, there has been speculation about the existence of a mythical plane called 'Aurora' that supposedly flew on the edges of space. In 1992, there was a detailed sighting of a massive triangular-shaped aircraft spotted flying in formation with US air force bombers above the North Sea.
In Belgium, in 1989 and again a year later, hundreds of people reported seeing silent triangular shaped craft all over the country. They were tracked by Belgian radar and pulled turns of about 20G-40G enough to kill a human pilot. The Belgian air force confirmed their existence in a government report.
|Roswell was not aliens - it was the Nazis, according to a German documentary|
A German TV documentary being screened on Wednesday night claims the mysterious UFO "Roswell Incident" in the USA nearly 70 years ago was the result of experiments with ultra-secret Nazi rocket technology.
By Allan Hall in Berlin
14 October 2014
A German documentary claims that the "Roswell Incident" was the result of Nazi rocket technology ["Discovery Channel"].
The Roswell Incident was reported on 8 July 1947 in the town of the same name in New Mexico.
Initially thought to be the crash landing of a flying saucer, military authorities later said it was a downed weather balloon, but conspiracy theorists down the years have always insisted that the military was covering up an alien visitation.
But now a documentary entitled "UFOs in the Third Reich" claims the incident was linked to testing of the "Bell", a copper coloured aircraft three metres in diameter, the core of which was a futuristic propulsion unit using electric particles.
The documentary screened on the N24 channel claims the craft was the forerunner of the Stealth fighter of today and was crafted by scores of V2 rocket experts who were spirited to America at the end of the war to give the USA the edge over the Soviet Union in rocket technology.
One of them was S.S. General Dr. Hans Kammler, who was head of construction and defence projects´in the Third Reich and as such planned the forced labour factories at Auschwitz and the secret V-2 rocket plants inside Germany.
The German documentary draws on a vast wealth of archival material. One of the experts is Igor Witkowski, a Polish former journalist and historian of military and aerospace technology.
In his book, "Prawda O Wunderwaffe" in 2000, he wrote extensively of the "bell-shaped craft" that was being created by the Nazis, and that Hitler wanted the best scientists and engineers at his disposal.
German engineer Georg Klein claimed that such designs had been developed during the Third Reich.
Klein, who went on to have a distinguished postwar career as an aeronautical engineer, said:
"I don't consider myself a crackpot or eccentric or someone given to fantasies. This is what I saw, with my own eyes; a Nazi UFO".
British and American bomber crews, who ranged free in the skies over Germany towards the end of the war to deliver their lethal cargoes, also reported strange sightings over enemy territory when debriefed back at their bases - now thought to have been test flights of the Bell.
The programme explores the possibility that the Roswell Incident may have been the crash of another Nazi-era flying saucer known as the Schriever-Habermohl model.
Rudolf Schriever was an engineer and test pilot, Otto Habermohl an engineer.
Klaus [Otto] Habermohl, was a BMW engineer who worked as part of the Flugzeug Special Projects Group in Prague, who developed the radial-flow jet engine in the 1930s, described in various articles as a system of "adjustable" nozzles, of great significance just ten years later. [Radial-flow allowed for VTOL performance and used the little-known "Coanda" effect]. He was captured by the Russians in Prague on or about 11 May 1945. He undoubtedly helped in the construction of a Soviet disc.
This project was centred in Prague between 1941 and 1943, but the plans for it was taken to America at war's end.
Initially a Luftwaffe project, it eventually fell under the auspices of armaments minister Albert Speer before being taken over once again in 1944 by Kammler.
Located near Ohrdruf, Thuringia was located the S-III Führer Headquarters. Constructed by approximately 15 - to 18,000 inmates of the nearby Ohrdruf, Espenfeld and Crawinkel concentration camps, from autumn 1944 to spring 1945, was a tunnel system over 1,5 miles in length.
Ohrdruf was reached by General Patton about 11 April 1945. Colonel R. Allen accompanying him described the installations extensively in his book:
"The underground installations were amazing. They were literally subterranean towns. There were four in and around Ohrdruf: one near the horror camp, one under the Schloss, and two west of the town. Others were reported in near-by villages. None were natural caves or mines. All were man-made military installations. The horror camp had provided the labour. An interesting feature of the construction was the absence of any spoil. It had been carefully scattered in hills miles away. The only communication shelter, which is known, is a two floor deep shelter, with the code "AMT 10".
"Over 50 feet underground, the installations consisted of two and three stories several miles in length and extending like the spokes of a wheel. The entire hull structure was of massive reinforced concrete. Purpose of the installations was to house the High Command after it was bombed out of Berlin. This places also had paneled and carpeted offices, scores of large work and store rooms, tiled bathrooms with bath tubs and showers, flush toilets, electrically equipped kitchens, decorated dining rooms and mess halls, giant refrigerators, extensive sleeping quarters, recreation rooms, separate bars for officers and enlisted personnel, a moving picture theatre, and air-conditioning and sewage systems".
--"Lucky Forward: The History of Patton's 3rd US Army", Col. Robert S. Allen, published by Vanguard Press, New York, 1947
a. The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht [OKW, High Command] and Luftwaffe war diaries and all copies of them for the period March 1945 have disappeared and are suspected to be in American keeping.
b. On 17 April 1945, the United States Atomic Energy Commission inspected various underground workings at Ohrdruf, and removed technical equipment before dynamiting surface entrances. The US authorities have classified all 1945 documents relating to Ohrdruf for a minimum period of 100 years.
Fortunately for researchers, in 1962 a quasi-judicial tribunal sat at Arnstadt in the then DDR, to take depositions from local residents for an enquiry entitled 'Befragung von Bürgern zu Ereignissen zur örtlichen Geschichte'. The enquiry was principally interested in what went on at the Ohrdruf Truppenübungsplatz [TÜP] in the latter years of the war. The depositions became common property in 1989 upon the reunification of Germany and may be viewed at Arnstadt town hall.
The Ohrdruf military training ground
There had been a military training ground at Ohrdruf since imperial times. It was a large, rugged area of upland, nowadays disused and strewn with shells and other military scrap. Its perimeter can be circumnavigated by Land Rover in about three hours. Through binoculars, small parts of the ruins of Amt 10, described below, can be made out but not visited.
During 1936-1938, an Army underground telephone/telex exchange known as Amt 10 was built in the limestone strata below the Ohrdruf Truppenübungsplatz. Its entrances were disguised as chalets. The Bunker was 50 feet down and measured 70 by 20 metres. Both floors had a central corridor about 3 metres wide with rooms either side, and 2 WCs. End-doors were gas-proofed, the installation had central heating, air was supplied under pressure, water drawn from a spring 600 feet below. A 475 hp ship's diesel was on hand as the emergency electrical generator, and this piece of equipment plays an important role in understanding the Ohrdruf mystery.
One of the three full-time Reichspost maintenance engineers employed there from 1938 to 1945 stated that Amt 10 was never used until the last few months of the war when it was "more than it seemed" and "its clandestine purpose was fairly obvious."
Col Robert S Allen, a Staff officer with General Patton's Third Army described in his book a completed underground reinforced-concrete metropolis 50 feet down "to house the High Command". It was on two or three levels and consisted of galleries several miles in length and "extending like the spokes of a wheel." The location of Hitler's Führer headquarters was not stated and Amt 10 was described misleadingly as "a two-floor deep concrete shelter."
If the structure was built like a wheel, the Führer headquarters would logically be at the hub, and Amt 10 was at the hub. Allen's description of Amt 10 as having two floors on April 1945 conflicts with the evidence of two persons who worked there: one hinted that there were more than two floors, the other testified there were three. The latter witness also stated that Amt 10 was two great bunkers of the same size, each of three floors, but not connected except by underground piping. Each Bunker was guarded on each level by an SS sentry and passes for each entrance were not common to both. The most likely explanation is that the second Bunker was constructed in 1944 at the same time as a third level was added to the first Amt 10 Bunker as the Führer-suite.
As regards the second Bunker, a witness stated that in 1944 there was an installation below the Ohrdruf Truppenübungsplatz which created an electro-magnetic field capable of stopping the engines of a conventional aircraft at seven miles. During the war, the Allies never photographed Ohrdruf from the air, nor bombed it, even though their spies must have assured them it was crawling with SS and scientific groups. A German electro-magnetic field which interfered with their aircraft at altitudes of up to seven miles is admitted by a 1945 United States Air Force Intelligence document. The USAF suspected that it was a device to bring down their bombers, but it obviously had some other purpose, or it would have been operating below Berlin.
Many Arnstadt witnesses described occasions when electrical equipment and automobile engines cut out. They always knew when this was about to happen, for the ship's Diesel engine at Amt 10 would smoke. A Diesel motor is not affected by an electro-magnetic field. In 1980, Russians scientists were still able to measure the field on their equipment, but they were never able to identify the source.
The Führer headquarters at Ohrdruf
The Führer headquarters at Ohrdruf is not admitted by academic historians. The evidence for it, however, is strong:
a. S-III was an SS military factory complex below Jonastal near Ohrdruf where 1,000 Buchenwald inmates began digging in June 1944. No decision had been taken to build a Führer headquarters in Thuringia before 24 August 1944.
b. In September 1944, a geologist consulted by SS-WVHA regarding the suitability of Jonastal for a Führer headquarters suggested the Ohrdruf Truppenübungsplatz instead.
c. In October 1944, General von Gockl, Ohrdruf Truppenübungsplatz commandant, evacuated all Wehrmacht personnel from the plain. Within a fortnight the notorious Ohrdruf-KZ had been set up while SS-Führungsstab S-III, in charge of the Führer headquarters project, occupied a school at nearby Luisenthal. Firms working on building projects in Poland were ordered immediately to Ohrdruf.
d. At the end of 1944, Hauptsturmführer Karl Sommer, the deputy chief of the Prisoner Labor Allocation Department of the SS Economics and Administration Main Office [SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt - SS-WVHA], assembled a workforce at Buchenwald to build a secret Führer headquarters named S-III at Ohrdruf. S-III had a fully-equipped telephone-telex exchange before work started, thus identifying it as around Amt 10.
e. Hitler's Luftwaffe adjutant Nikolaus von Below stated in his memoirs that in early 1945 he visited the location of the new Thuringian Führer headquarters at the Ohrdruf Truppenübungsplatz.
f. In late January 1945, Hitler spoke openly of evacuating Ministry staff from Berlin "perhaps to Oberhof in Thuringia".
g. In compliance with order 71/45 and the communique from Führer headquarters Berlin issued by Wehrmacht ADC General Burgdorf on 9 March 1945, General Krebs of the Army General Staff reported that between 12 February and 29 March 1945 a substantial proportion of OKW Staff had transferred to the Ohrdruf area.
h. On the nights of 4 and 12 March 1945, "a small explosive of terrific destructive power" was tested on the Ohrdruf Truppenübungsplatz. 200 KZ inmates and 20 SS guards were scorched to death on the first test due to a miscalculation of the extent of the effect. The bodies were immolated on a common pyre, the ashes being scattered across central-Germany from aircraft. In mid-March, a 30-metre long rocket was reported test fired into the night sky from a weapons site within five miles of the Truppenübungsplatz. The Amt 10 telephone engineer gave evidence that "200 so-called female signals auxiliaries" ["'Nachrichtenhelferinnen", also nicknamed "Blitzmädchen" or lightning girls because of the signals insignia on their uniform], arrived to staff the second Bunker in this period. Why they were "so-called" is not explained.
An Unusual Exchange at Nuremberg
At the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunals after the war [on 21 June 1946}, an amazing exchange occurred between former architect cum Nazi minister of armaments, Albert Speer, and Mr. Robert H. Jackson, the chief American prosecutor.
ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTIETH DAY AND SIXTIETH DAY AND SIXTIETH DAY AND SIXTIETH DAY
Friday, 21 June 1946
JACKSON: "Now, I have certain information, which was placed in my hands, of an experiment which was carried out near Auschwitz and I would like to ask you if you heard about it or knew about it.
"The purpose of the experiment was to find a quick and complete way of destroying people without the delay and trouble of shooting and gassing and burning, as it had been carried out, and this is the experiment, as I am advised.
"A village, a small village was provisionally erected, with temporary structures, and in it approximately 20,000 Jews were put. By means of this newly invented weapon of destruction, these 20,000 people were eradicated almost instantaneously, and in such a way that there was no trace left of them; that is developed, the explosive developed, temperatures of from 400 degrees to 500 degrees centigrade and destroyed them without leaving any trace at all.
"Do you know about that experiment?"
SPEER: "No, and I consider it utterly improbable. If we had had such a weapon under preparation, I should have known about it. But we did not have such a weapon. It is clear that in chemical warfare attempts were made on both sides to carry out research on all the weapons one could think of, because one did not know which party would start chemical warfare first..."
-- Cited in Harald Fath's
"Geheime Kommandosache -S III Jonastal und die Siegeswaffenproduktion:
Weitere Spurensuche nach Thüringens Manhattan Project"
[Schleusingen: Amun Verlag, 1999]. Original text cited in English.
This exchange is remarkable in several respects, not the least of which is that its "explosive contents" are almost entirely overlooked in standard histories of the war and its aftermath.
In "The Memoirs of Felix Kersten"  Kersten, Himmler's trusted physiotherapist recorded that one of the last conversations he had with Himmler was about a "secret weapon," more powerful than the V-1 and V-2 rockets, that was to end the war. "One or two shots and cities like New York or London will simply vanish from the earth". He was told of a village built near Auschwitz where the new weapon was tried out. Twenty thousand Jewish men, women, and children were brought to live there. A single shell according to Himmler caused 6,000 degrees of heat and everything and everybody there was burned to ashes. Kersten assumed that the Germans had nearly completed constructing an atomic bomb. [Himmler's startling revelations are unconfirmed].
There was a large, and very secret, Uranium enrichment program inside Nazi Germany, beginning sometime ca. late 1940 or early 1941, and continuing, apparently unabated -as the surrender of the U-234 would imply- right up to the end of the war.
Now, at Nuremberg, there is corroboration of the use of some type of weapon of awesome explosive power in the east by the Germans, this time from no less an individual than the chief American prosecutor at the Tribunal. And in his case, it is apparent that he is relating information gathered by Intelligence. It is worth pausing to consider the implications of the exchange between Jackson and former armaments Reichminister Speer.
Albert Speer was successor to Dr. Fritz Todt as minister of armaments and production for the entire Third Reich. Speer's accomplishments are not to be gainsaid, it was largely owing to his efforts to organize the huge Nazi industrial capacity and streamline its efficiency that the wartime production of Germany increased dramatically under his oversight. In fact, in all pertinent areas of German industrial war production, Speer managed to achieve peak production levels in all categories during the same precise period that Allied strategic bombing also was at its height.
His methods in achieving this feat were simple but effective: German industry was decentralized and dispersed into smaller plants, and, to the extent possible, moved into underground bomb-proof factories. "Modular" construction techniques were employed wherever possible. For example, German U-Boats were produced in modular fashion, in sections, far inland in such factories, and transported to ports for final assembly. The deadly Type XXI U-Boats with their exotic and revolutionary underwater propulsion systems -allowing an underwater cruising speed in excess of 21 knots, an unheard of speed for that time- were produced in this fashion at the end of the war.
But notably absent from Speer's comments is any indication that he was even aware of the huge extent of the German atom-bomb project and its enormous Uranium enrichment program. Lofty as his position in the Nazi hierarchy was, it would appear that Speer was entirely in the dark on the programs and totally oblivious to any progress that had been made.
Judge Jackson's question remained unanswered but it was not proposed to any of the other accused people, not even to those in charge of supervising the concentration camps [although it must be considered that two of the most important creators of the extermination programs, Hans Kammler [who, in the initial phase of his career was responsible of the realization of Auschwitz] and Heinrich Müller [leader of Amt 4 of the "Reichssicherheitshauptamt" [Reich’s Main Security Office and of the Gestapo] were not even considered as accused people; there was not any certain proof of their death: they had simply disappeared.
Furthermore, nobody worried about calling Walter Gerlach [responsible of the Reichsforschungrat and therefore of the whole German nuclear program] who, in theory, should have been well informed about such an experiment, to testify.
20,000 prisoners dead, maybe with a nuclear experiment and the Tribunal which has to judge the crimes committed against humankind happily ignores the event, accepting the denial of Speer.
The German government, like its American counterpart, had rigidly "compartmentalized" its atom bomb production program and placed it under the tightest security. But clearly, by the time of the exchange between Jackson and him, Speer and the whole world had heard of the atom bomb. So Speer appears to obfuscate his answer somewhat by redirecting the topic to chemical warfare.
The question of a revolutionary chemical explosive is not, however, as far-fetched as it might at first seem, for Jackson's comments suggest it by referring to temperatures of 400 to 500 degrees centigrade, far below the enormous temperatures produced by an atomic explosion. Was Speer obfuscating his answer, or was Jackson his question?
Information obtained from Targets of Opportunity in the Sonhofen area [HMSO London]:
"During 1944 an explosive mixture of 60% liquid air and 40% finely powdered coal dust, invented by Dr Mario Zippermayr, was tested at Döberitz explosives ground near Berlin, and found to be very destructive over a radius of 600 metres. Waffen SS scientists then became involved and added some kind of waxy substance to the explosive. The bombs had to be filled immediately prior to the aircraft taking off. Bombs of 25 kgs and 50 kgs were dropped on the Starnberger See and photos taken. Standartenführer Helmut Klemm showed these to Rudolf Brandt [Himmler’s scientific advisor]. The intensive [sic] explosion covered an area up to 4.5 kms. This waxy substance was a reagent of some kind, which was said to interact with air during the development of the explosion, causing it to change its composition and so create meteorological change in the atmosphere. Lightning storms at ground level consumed all available oxygen. Göring’s statement upon his arrest in May 1945 is significant. He claimed to have led a revolt against Luftwaffe use of the bomb, "which would have destroyed all civilization". The bomb was not a nuclear weapon, and it appears to have been a conventional explosive which used a reagent or catalyst produced by Tesla methodology or similar, for its inexplicable effect".
The prosecutor's statements and question also clearly alludes to the use of some type of weapon of mass destruction, possessed of enormous explosive power, in the east, and significantly, at or near Auschwitz, site of the I.G. Farben "Buna factory". It is to be noted that the Nazis had apparently gone so far as to build an entire mock town and placed concentration camp inmates in it, an obvious though barbaric move to study the effects of the weapon on structures and people. His statements afford a serious clue and one often overlooked even by researchers into the "alternative history" of the war- into the nature of the Nazi's secret weapons development and use, for it would appear that insofar as the Third Reich possessed weapons of mass destruction of extraordinary power, atomic or otherwise, they were tested and used against enemies considered by the Nazi ideology to be racially inferior.
Hitler and the Atom Bomb
An incurable lung disease brought Otto Skorzeny to Heidelberg in 1975 for medical treatment. There, Hans-Ulrich Rudel and Waldemar Schütz were his last comrades, visiting him before his return to Spain eight days before his death. He told them on this occasion about his visit in the Führerhauptquartier in the autumn of 1944, when the Führer was ill and received him at his bed. The Führer told him that day that Germany had not built the atom bomb, because he did not want to take the responsibility for mankind being destroyed by such a "Teufelswerk":
"Do you know Mr Skorzeny, that the energy which will be freed through the splitting of the atom's nucleus and the additional radioactivity from such a bomb might destroy our planet? .... The effects would be dreadful. Even if one could control the radioactivity and could use atom splitting as a weapon the results would be dreadful. When Dr. Todt visited me I read that the energy set free by such a bomb could destroy the whole of Arizona or make as big a crater as the meteor had caused in Siberia. That means that all life within such an area would be destroyed, not only humans but all life. Animals and plants would not be able to live within a radius of 40 km for hundreds of years due to radiation. That would mean an Apocalypse. No land, no group of civilized people could bear the responsibility for such a slaughter. In battle after battle human beings would destroy themselves if such a bomb were used. Only in remote places like Amazonia and the jungles of Sumatra would people have a chance of surviving such a bomb".
-- Otto Skorzeny: "Meine Kommandounternehmen" [My Commando Adventures]
Thus there is a speculative answer to the all-important question: If the Germans had the bomb, why didn't they use it? And the answer is, if they had it, they were far more likely to use it on Russia than on the Western allies, since the war in the East was conceived and intended by Hitler to be a genocidal war from the outset. And it certainly was that: fully one half of the approximately fifty million fatalities of World War Two were inflicted by the efficient Nazi war machine on Soviet Russia.
The use of such weapons on the Eastern Front by the Germans would also tentatively explain why more is not known about it, for it is highly unlikely that Stalin's Russia would have publicly acknowledged the fact. To do so would have been a propaganda disaster for Stalin's government. Faced with an enemy of superior tactical and operational competence in conventional arms, the Red Army often had to resort to threats of execution against its own soldiers just to maintain order and discipline in its ranks and prevent mass desertion.
Acknowledgment of the existence and use of such weapons by the mortal enemy of Communist Russia could conceivably have ruined Russian morale and cost Stalin the war, and perhaps even toppled his government.
There is, also, the strangely ambiguous quality of Mr. Jackson's remarks. He begins: "Now I have, 'certain' information, which was placed in my hands, of an experiment which was carried out near Auschwitz..." If Jackson deliberately altered the location of the test, he did not alter the nature of its victims. But another possibility is that the event took place where he says it did, "near" Auschwitz.
Note also, the presumption of guilt, embedded within the accusation, for which there was never a shred of actual evidence.
Was the story supposed to open the door for a miraculous explanation for the murder and disappearance of millions of Jews, so that the prosecution would not have to provide any evidence at all; because they had been "eradicated almost instantaneously, and in such a way that there was no trace left of them".
This was not an isolated incident. The Nuremburg trials were full of obviously faked evidence and forged reports, usually submitted from unaccountable sources, and blithely accepted as "common knowledge" - without any investigation or allowance for rebuttal.
A further interesting set of depositions from the 1962 Arnstadt DDR enquiry refer to the test of a rocket apparently the size of an A9/10 "Amerika" rocket.
Witness 1 was Cläre Werner, throughout the war custodian of the Wachsenburg watch-tower. She stated that a rocket with a huge tail-fire was fired after 21.00 hours on the night of 16 March 1945 while she was looking through binoculars towards Ichtershausen. She had been informed earlier by a friend working for the "Reichspost Sonderbauvorhaben" at Arnstadt that a tremendous achievement was to be celebrated in the sky that night.
Witness 2 was a former KZ-inmate who gave evidence to the DDR tribunal that he helped erect staging for "an enormously long rocket" at MUNA Rudisleben. From the Wachsenburg watch tower, Rudisleben is close to Ichtershausen.
Witnesses 3 and 4 were a technician and fuel system engineer respectively who all stated that they worked on the construction of a huge rocket over 30 metres in length which was fired on the night of 16 March 1945 at Polte II underground facility, one kilometer from Rudisleben.
The first of the rocket series successfully tested that night may have been intended as the carrier for the mysterious explosive, and intended to bring New York under attack.
Following this successful launch, at what stage the rocket could have entered series production is an interesting question.
i. In early March 1945, Organization Todt began work on the Brandleite railway tunnel at Oberhof to accommodate the special trains of Hitler and Göring, installed a telephone exchange in the station-master's house and positioned flak batteries on surrounding peaks.
j. A witness stated that the Führer-Sperrkreis at Ohrdruf was called Burg and alleged that Hitler spent at least one day there in late March 1945.
It is known that Hitler did personally visit and address the officers of the German Ninth Army, operating in that precise area, on 13 March 1945:
"We have invisible aircraft, submarines, colossal tanks and cannon, unbelievably powerful rockets, and a bomb with a working that will astonish the whole world. The enemy knows this, and besieges and attempts to destroy us. But we will answer this destruction with a storm and that without unleashing a bacteriological war, for which we are also prepared.... All my words are the purest truth. That you will see. We still have things that need to be finished, and when they are finished, they will turn the tide".
"Nazis with biological weapons" sounds like the "bad guys" in some sci-fi video game, but it is a thing that almost existed. Germany's biologists during WWII actually figured out how to make all sorts of bioweapons. The fact that they did not use any is all thanks to one individual who single-handedly threw a wrench in this Nazi super-plot - Adolf Hitler.
In 1943, a high-ranking Nazi scientist had recommended, "America must be attacked simultaneously with various human and animal epidemic pathogens as well as plant pests". And they could have done it; the Nazis had already carried out a series of bizarre insect-related tests, at one point even toying with the idea of releasing up to 40 million weaponized potato beetles over England's crops.
The scientists also learned how to weaponize a many of human diseases, including Typhoid, Cholera, and Anthrax. The ingenious synthetic medium they invented to keep the diseases dangerous for weeks was considered an "outstanding" achievement by the American scientists who raided Nazi laboratories after the war.
So why did they not they use these "weapons"? Early in the war, Hitler issued an obscure order that said there could be no offensive biological weapons research. Nazi scientists basically ignored that order and did it anyway, but Hitler refused to change his mind when he was informed that he now had WMDs. Theories about why he did that abound.
k. In late March a Luftwaffe mutiny occurred in which Luftwaffe General der Aufklärungsflieger Karl-Henning von Barsewisch and over three hundred pilots and air base command personnel were executed for refusing to obey an unknown order [the Luftwaffe War Diaries for March and first part April 1945 have vanished].
Ferenc A. Vajda and Peter G. Dancey Vajrey, "German Aircraft Industry and Production 1933-1945" [Airlife Books, UK 1998] allege that at the end of March 1945 in the Lahn region of the Western Front, General der Flieger von Barsewisch and over 300 airfield commanders and pilots were executed for refusing to obey an unknown order.
The so-called "mutiny" was actually a voicing of strong disagreement that occurred in early December 1944 during a meeting of some 300 Jagdflieger Kommodore, Kommandeure and Staffelkapitäne that had been called by Göring, reportedly connected with an Me 262 two-seater bomber aircraft deliberately crashing behind American lines at Lahn on 30 March 1945. The eminent and highly respected German Jagdwaffe historian Dr. Jochen Prien does not think the meeting rose to the level of a riot.
A few officers were fired from their jobs or resigned, but there was no retaliation against the other 99%. The account of this is well covered in the Adolf Galland memoir and in a number of others.
Approximately 95% of all Luftwaffe documents were destroyed in the final week of the war in accordance with long-standing orders from Reichmarschall Göring. Most of the documents were in wooden crates aboard a 50-car train after being evacuated to Karlsbad/Sudetenland from Potsdam near Berlin in February 1945. A short time after the train departed Karlsbad about 5 May 1945, it came to a halt in a rural area and the order was given to begin the destruction. The crates were dragged off the train, sloshed down with Petrol and set on fire.
l. Upon his arrest in May 1945, Göring told his captors that he had engineered the mutiny thus saving the world by "refusing to deploy bombs that could have destroyed all civilization". It was freely reported at the time, since nobody knew what he meant.
A witness stated that in 1944 there was an installation below the Ohrdruf Headquarters which created an electro-magnetic field capable of stopping the engines of a conventional aircraft at seven miles. During the war, the Allies never photographed Ohrdruf from the air, nor bombed it, even though their spies must have assured them it was crawling with SS and scientific groups. A German electro-magnetic field which interfered with their aircraft at altitudes of up to seven miles is admitted by a 1945 USAF Intelligence document. The USAF suspected that it was a device to bring down their bombers, but it obviously had some other purpose, or it would have been operating below Berlin.
A similar device to the one operating below Ohrdruf finds a place in declassified literature as follows:
On 6 December 1944, the US Military Intelligence Service commenced Research Project 1217 "Investigation into German Possible Use of Rays to Neutralize Allied Aircraft Motors". This resulted from "recent interference phenomena occasionally experienced on operations over Germany in the Frankfurt/Main area." It was usually described as "freakish interference to engines and electrical instruments" over the north bank of the Main River, about ten miles from Führer headquarters Adlerhorst.
In a top secret report entitled 'Engine Interference Counter-Measures' addressed to the Director, Air Technical Service Command, Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, reference was made to OSS discussions about a German unit somewhere near Frankfurt/Main operating:
"...an influence interfering with conventional aircraft... however incredible it may appear to project from the ground to a height of 30,000 feet sufficient magnetic energy to interfere with the functioning of the ignition system of an airplane, it must be concluded that the enemy not only intends to interfere with our aircraft by some immaterial means, but has also succeeded in accomplishing this intention..."
From the Office of Director of Intelligence for the US Strategic Air Forces in Europe [USSTAF] comes a new name for foo-fighters.
In a Top Secret document dated 19 January 1945 entitled 'An Evaluation of German Capabilities in 1945', under paragraph 2e 'Other Weapons' it states:
"German capabilities with already proved weapons as V-1 and V-2 and untried weapons, such as the "Phoo" Bomb, Magnetic Waves and gases applicable to aircraft, are considered to offer no new threat of really serious proportions....
"Occasionally reports by pilots and the testimony of prisoners of war and escapees describe this weapon [foo-fighters] as a radio-controlled, jet-propelled, still-nosed, short-range, high performance ramming weapon, for use against bombing formations. It's speed is estimated at 525 mph".
The Miracle Explosive
It seems that the Germans were on to a new way to make and store energy. It was the process of liquefying air. Air is a combination of many gases but its main components are nitrogen and oxygen in a ratio of roughly seventy percent and twenty percent, respectively. There is a history of research and breakthroughs regarding means to liquify air prior to World War Two. A commercial means to liquify air was developed by the Frenchman, Georges Claude, who worked with the Germans.1 Given a method to liquify air, liquified air seems to have been produced and stored by the Germans for later use. There may also have been a breakthrough in storage.
To make it a liquid, the gas must be artificially cooled until it reaches a temperature were it turns from a gas to a liquid. Some gases are harder to liquify than others. Usually, the difficulty comes from reaching a temperature low enough to liquify the gas. Once a gas has been liquified, it can usually be stored under pressure. This means storing the liquified gas in steel containers. One source says that liquid hydrogen as well as liquid air can not be stored under pressure because of their low boiling points. Instead, it must be stored at normal atmospheric pressure in thermos bottles or Dewar flasks. 2 This is a system in which a metal bottle is encased within another metal bottle with a space in between where the air has been removed. With a vacuum between the two bottles, the inner bottle is filled with the liquid to be kept cold. The vacuum is an excellent insulator and so the contents of the bottle are kept cold or hot, depending on application, for an extended period of time. Additionally, a small hole or valve can be placed in the bottle, allowing a measured quantity of liquid gas to escape and expand to a gas. Heat is absorbed in this expansion process, cooling the remaining liquid gas in the bottle to offset any heat entering the bottle. This thermos-at-atmospheric-pressure explanation is fine but somehow does not conform to what was observed during the war.
Apparently, the Germans were making liquified air, storing it under pressure, and extracting its stored energy at a later date. As early as 1930, the "Reichsarbeitsgemeinschaft" [Reichs Works Association], concerned itself with liquified air and its energy potential almost as much as it concerned itself with sources of new energy. 3 This organization was set up with the express purpose of energy independence for Germany. The exact application to which the liquified air was to be put was not explained but it was given a considerable volume of print in their publications. During the war, all sorts of plans were made to utilize the liquid air that must have been on hand. Plans were made to ignite it in new engines. 4 Liquified air facilities fell under the control of the SS, which is a sure sign that this was a valued commodity with a real role to play in the war. 5 These roles included powering submarine as well as aircraft engines. 6 But the information that tells us the Germans were able to store liquid air, presumably under pressure in a closed container, comes from their work to used liquid air as an explosive in artillery shells.
R. Lusar, "Die deutschen Waffen und Geheimwaffen des 2. Weltkrieges und ihre Weiterentwicklung"
[German weapons and secret weapons of WWII and their subsequent development]
T. F. Lehmanns Verlag München, 1956
In the chapter 'Sonderwaffen' [Special weapons] thes author mentions a "Flüssiger Luft-Werfer" [Liquid air thrower]:
"At the beginning of the Russian campaign the German army had a remarkable weapon that aroused the greatest sensation. It consisted of "Minengefäße" [mine-vessels], filled with liquid air that had a terrible effect. After their use on 16 June 1942 near Tim on the Dnieper the Soviet Union demanded that use of this weapon should cease threatening to wage a gas-war if their demand was denied".
Later in the same chapter the author again uses his term "Minengefäße" to indicate weapons fired from "Nebelwerfers".
"A completely new pioneering device for the forcing of fixed fortifications was developed under the name "Schlaganfall" [stroke]: A gas mixture was blown into the fortifications and then detonated.
"Tests were commenced with Firedamp, feared in the mining industry, then experimented with methane or hydrogen mixtures. However, it was difficult to achieve a controllable ignition. Tests with acetylene obtained from calcium carbide also led to self-ignition in numerous cases. The best effect was a mixture of 80 per cent carbon oxide with 20 per cent ethylene. In use, the gas was brought into the vicinity of the fortress, a hole was blown in the armor with a small hollow charge, and the gas was blown in. The ignition then took place electrically through a glow plug inserted with a probe.
"In 1942, the first pioneer unit was equipped with this weapon, now called "Taifun": It had more than 500 such gas bottles. An attack against the interconnected cellar rooms in the inner city of Kharkov failed, the necessary high concentration could not be achieved. In the autumn of 1943 some operations on the Kerch peninsula were carried out with moderate success.
"The opponent considered the use of this weapon as a banned chemical weapon use. Because of this, Generaloberst Erwin Jänecke, then the commander-in-chief of the 17th Army, was condemned to death by the Russians. He was, however, later pardoned and released from captivity in October 1955. In March 1945 there was still a special unit with typhoon equipment at the Army Sturmpionier-Brigade 46".
There is a report from late 1943 about a projectile containing phosphorous and other chemicals that absorb oxygen. The effective radius on impact is given as a few hundreds meters. There is also a report of a larger version. B.I.O.S. Report No. 142 refers to an "Oxygen Bomb" Factory located at Nordhausen. The effect of the bomb is killing all life in a circle of several kilometers. The length of the bomb is given as 17 meters.
This information comes from a G-2 source working in conjunction with the U.S. Seventh Army, on or about 21 October 1944. 7 In that source a prisoner of war was interviewed. The prisoner claimed that 105 mm Howitzer cannons had been modified to fire a liquid air-filled shells. The German word "Pressluft" is inserted into the English text and presumably was the word employed by the prisoner. The barrel of this gun was about half meter longer than the normal German 105 mm Howitzer, and, on both sides of the breech there was a vent 2-3 cm wide. The projectile itself is somewhat longer that the standard for that gun. The new shell, without the powder charge is about the same as the length of the normal 105 mm projectile and the cartridge case combined. The firing of this gun was somewhat out of the ordinary. The firing, the crew stood off 10 meters away from the gun at time of firing. The explosion made a muffled sound and smoke came through the vents in the breech. The smoke itself was described as having the effect of vomiting gas and caused the lungs to ache which way why the crew withdrew to the 10 meter distance. This description seems to indicate that the projectiles themselves were fired using liquid air as a propulsion source.
In test firings, 30 cows and horses were spread out over a 2.5 km diameter area. Four projectiles were fired. All the animals were killed. It was discovered that the animals died because their lungs had been crushed.
At time of the tests a Col. Kurt Kruse, the commanding officer of the artillery school made an odd comment:
"Let us hope that in the field the same result will be attained. Then V-2 will be achieved".
The first sentence is not surprising. Every military man hopes his weapons will work in practice as they do in testing. It is the second statement which is noteworthy and which raises the question as to if liquid air was intended as an explosive warhead for the V-2 rocket. According to one source, this is exactly what was in the works and an American OSS report from 8 October 1944 is cited—a date very close to the one discussed here. 8. The use of liquid air as an explosive is probably only one small part of its significance.
During the period of the Third Reich, the Germans envisioned liquid air as a source of energy. They did not need to go abroad to get it, the raw material, air, was everywhere. No prospecting equipment, pipelines or refinery was necessary. Liquid air could be manufactured at leisure, then bottled and stored for later use. Its energy could be extracted halfway around the world. The ultimate German flying machine may have been a saucer that manufactured and burnt its own liquid air as it flew. This is an idea hinted at by flying saucer pioneer Renato Vesco 9 and which has recently been taken up again by researcher Klaus-Peter Rothkugel who has written about this on many occasions.
A lot of people like to cite Renato Vesco as a source of "reputable information". This is largely based on the belief that he was supposed to have been was a licensed pilot and a fully-licensed aircraft engineer, who specialised in aerospace and ramjet developments.
The same biographers frequently claimed that he attended the University of Rome and, before World War II, studied at the German Institute for Aerial Development; and that during the war he worked with the Germans at Fiat’s secret Lake Garda installations, in Italy.
He is said to have become a senior member of the Italian Association of Aerotechnics in 1943 and, in 1944, to have commanded the technical section of the Italian Air Force. In 1946–47 Vesco, served in the 'Reparto Tecnico Caccia' and during the 1960s, worked for the Italian Air Ministry of Defense as an undercover technical agent, investigating the UFO mystery.
Unfortunately, Vesco was born in 1924. World War II started in 1939.
• How could he have attended the University of Rome and studied at the German Institute for Aerial Development by the time he was 14 or 15 years old?
• How likely is it that he was a senior member of the Italian Association of Aerotechnics since the ripe old age of 18 or 19?
• How did he come to command 'the technical section of the Italian Air Force' by the time he was 19 or 20 years old?
The highly-respected Italian researcher Maurizio Verga — who actually met Vesco — gives a quite different accounting of Vesco's life and activities:
• Between 1942 and 1944, he submitted a 50-page proposal for a stratospheric fast jet-fighter to the Luftwaffe in Gallarate. His tender was tacitly rebuffed.
• In 1943 he joined the MVSN, presumably to fight the Allied invasion of his homeland. Not long after, though, Italy capitulated.
• He promptly volunteered for the Air Force of the 'Repubblica di Salò'. Instead of becoming a pilot, however, he was immediately put to work in an office, as a bookkeeper. He was only allowed to fly toward the end of the war, when the situation grew sufficiently desperate.
• After the war, he joined the new Italian Air Force. In spite of the fact that he had actually flown in combat, he was made a private. As such, he was stationed at the Galatina airfield, near Lecce in southern Italy, until July 1947.
• Between 1956 and the early 1960s, he worked as an engine technician aboard various merchant ships.
• He returned to Genoa in the mid-1960s, where he lived as a recluse until the day he died.
In the liquid air Howitzer shell and the V-2 warhead, we think of the utilization of liquid air as a burning or explosive force. To do this, of course, liquid air must burn. Oxygen itself doesn't really burn; but it is necessary for combustion. We seem to be left with nitrogen as the combustible material under consideration. Nitrogen is mentioned in a U.S. government file describing liquid air used as an explosive shell.
-- BIOS Report Number 142: Liquid Air Bomb.
A liquid air bomb design using coal dust may have been a forerunner to Dr. Zippermayr's fuel-air bomb using nitrogen, usually thought of as an inert gas. This is true as a practical matter in our daily lives, but nitrogen will burn if it gets hot enough. Thunder is evidence of this. During a discharge of lightning, atmospheric nitrogen is burnt by the heat generated by the lightning. Nitrogen rapidly combines with atmospheric oxygen, causing a low-pressure area in its wake. Thunder is the sound generated by the gasses of the atmosphere slamming that pocket of low pressure, burnt nitrogen, shut once more. The fallout is "fixed nitrogen", molecules of nitrogen combined with oxygen, falling to earth which are used by plant life as fertilizer. The point is that nitrogen will burn given enough heat.
A second method to extract energy from liquid air involves its rapid transformation from a frozen liquid [liquid Nitrogen at-147 degrees C] to a gas as the result of heating. Here we encounter the patent of Karl Nowak. Nowak was an Austrian who found that when matter in its cold, liquid state is heated rapidly, for instance injected into a combustion chamber on an engine, it expands with a tremendous rate of force. Nowak made all sorts of claims as to the power of that force but for us it is probably only necessary to recognize the principle. If liquid air were injected into a combustion chamber, such as that of an automobile engine, and it was sufficiently heated, such as with a high voltage discharge, not only would a force of expansion arise from the burning of the gasses, but prior to the burning and just before ignition, a force would have generated based upon the rapid heating of the liquid air by the spark discharge. A second expansion would take place upon the burning of the fuel itself, a reaction with which we are all familiar. The basics of this liquid air discussion are that the Germans succeeded in finding a simple new source oi energy, one that was not based on foreign sources and which could be produced and transported relatively easily and one that has apparently been forgotten today.
1. Vesco, Renato, "Intercept UFO", 1976, Pinacle Books, Inc., New York
2. Van Nostrand, "Scientific Encyclopedia", 1958, D. van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York
3. 'Weltdynamismus Streifzug durch technisches Neuland an Hand von biologischen Symbolen', 1930, commissioned by the Reichsarbeitsgemeinschaft "Das kommendende Deutschland", Otto Wilhelm Barth Verlag, Berlin
4. Vesco, Renato, Intercept UFO, 1976.
7. Office of the Director of Intelligence [G-2], file: MU 500, CSDIC [West], Ref. No. 578, Interrogation Reports and Correspondence on Prisoners of War ["Mis-Y"], 1943-1945, The National Archives, Record Group 165: Records of the War Department Genera and Special Staffs
8. Georg, Friedrich, 2003, "Hitlers Siegeswaffen Band 2: Star Wars 1947 Teil A: Von der V-1 bis zur A-9: unkonventionelle Kurz - und Mittelstreckenwaffen", Amun-Verlag, Zella Mehlis
9. Vesco, Renato, 1976
-- Henry Stevens, "Hitler's Suppressed and Still-Secret Weapons, Science and Technology"
The four items of literature appearing to relate to the explosive tested at Ohrdruf in March 1945 are as follows:
a. British Security Coordination [BSC] was the largest integrated Intelligence network enterprise in history. Its Director was Sir William Stevenson, a Canadian industrialist. His code-name was "Intrepid". In his autobiography, "A Man Called Intrepid", Sphere Books, 1977, Stevenson relates:
"One of the BSC agents submitted a report, sealed and stamped 'This is of Particular Secrecy' which told of "...liquid air bombs being developed in Germany... of terrific destructive effect".
The reader should not be misled into thinking that these were modern common-or-garden "liquid air bombs": Stevenson noted that they were "as powerful as rockets with atomic warheads".
b. The book "German Secret Weapons", Ballantyne Press, UK, also Libr. Edit. San Martin, Madrid, 1975, was authored by Brian Ford [military scientist], Barrie Pitt [academic historian] and Captain Sir Basil Liddell Hart [military historian]. It states:
"The Whirlwind Bomb produced an artificial hurricane of fire and is absolutely authentic even though it may seem improbable. The explosive was developed and tested by Dr. Zippermayr at Lofer, an experimental Luftwaffe institute in the Tyrol. The explosive was pulverized coal dust and liquid air. Its effect was sufficient to create an artificial typhoon and was intended initially as an anti-aircraft weapon able to destroy aircraft by excessive turbulence. The effective radius of action was 914 metres".
c. There is a 4-page declassified US Intelligence document of the Salzburg Detachment of the US Forces Austria Counter-Intelligence Corps, describing Dr. Zippermayr interrogated at Lofer on 3 August 1945. His laboratories were established at Lofer with head office at Weimarerstrasse 87, Vienna. Staff was 35, work financed by RLM and under direction of Chef der Technischen Luftrüstung.
-- US Forces Austria Counter-Intelligence Corps, Salzburg Detachment, Zell am See report 4 August 1945, Case No S/Z/55 Dr Mario Zippermayr; NARA RG 319 Entry 82a Reports and messages, ALSOS Mission.
Zippermayr worked on three projects of which one was the Enzian/Schmetterling anti-aircraft rockets "charged with a coal dust explosive so strong that the concussion could break the wings of a bomber". This item "was proved successful by August 1943, but orders for its production were not issued until 9 March 1945."
Unlike other contemporary German missiles like the Rheinmetall-Borsig "Rheintochter" or Henschel Hs 117 "Schmetterling" which were precision weapons designed to effectively destroy one aircraft at a time, the "Enzian" was designed to create a explosion and shockwave large enough to knock down several bombers at once.
d. This item is an extract from BIOS [British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee] Final Report 142[g] "Information Obtained from Targets of Opportunity in the Sonthofen Area, [HMSO London] detailing evidence of a 4.5km radius of forest flattened above Starnbergersee SW of Munich with destruction out to 12.5 kilometres, BIOS target numbers C28/8.211, C25/549, C6/137, C30/338, C4/268, C22/2182, C21/601
The report states that during 1944, an explosive mixture of 60% liquid air and 40% finely powdered coal dust invented by Dr. Mario Zippermayr was tested at Döberitz explosives ground near Berlin, and was found to be very destructive over a radius of up to 600 metres.
Waffen-SS scientists then became involved and added some kind of waxy substance to the explosive. The bombs had to be filled immediately prior to the aircraft taking off. Bombs of 25 and 50 kgs were dropped on Starnberger See and photos taken. Standartenführer Dr Alfred Klemm showed these to Rudolf Brandt [Himmler's Personal Administrative Officer]. The intensive explosion covered an area 4 to 4.5 km radius, and the explosion was still felt on a radius 12.5 km. When the bomb was dropped on an airfield, much destruction was caused 12 km away, and all the trees on a hillside 5 to 6 km away were flat. On a radius of 12.5 km. only the tops of the trees were destroyed.
Note the truly massive size and area of devastation caused by the relatively small fuel-air bomb, for the area covered by the second test is commensurate with the blast from a large atom bomb: 6 kilometers. This is only one step short of a modern fuel air bomb with its chain molecules and electrical, instantaneous, rather than slower chemical, detonation.
So in other words, regardless of whether or not the Nazis actually detonated atom bombs during World War Two, they did have a weapon of mass destruction as powerful as an atom bomb, and one that did not have radioactive side effects. Moreover, the weight of this bomb, while large, was within the capabilities of existing German bombers to carry. Finally, it is to be noted that this test took place under the direct auspices of the SS, Himmler's representative himself being present for it. And that would place the weapon firmly within the orbit of Kammler's "think tank". But possession of a fuel-air bomb by Nazi Germany now raises some important historical problematics."
German possession of even a prototype fuel-air bomb during World War Two causes a number of historical problems, and it is worth considering them and their implications.
First, the test of such a device during the war would give lie to the contemporary "public" history of the fuel-air bomb, since they are only supposed to be the offshoot of American thermonuclear research and dating from the early 1980s. Doubtless, the modern fuel-air bomb is nothing like the early German prototype, with its chain molecules and simultaneous electrical detonation, it is a lighter, and much more powerful device.
Second, if the technology existed for such enormous conventional bombs capable of wreaking strategic large scale destruction on the order of small atom bombs, why were untold billions spent on much more expensive atomic and thermonuclear bombs, whose side-effects included deadly radioactivity, and why was the charade continued for so long? The existence of such weapons indicates that at some very profound, and little appreciated, level, the Cold War was a partial sham.
Third, the basic idea for such a weapon had, in fact, been explored by Austria [prior to its annexation by Germany], and then subsequently both by Italy and Germany in the years immediately prior to the war. The idea is simple, and the effects obvious. So why did it take this long to obtain the weapon? Or is there a history that has not yet come to light? Given the allegations of the German use of some weapon of extraordinary strategic explosive power on the Eastern Front, it seems likely that some similar type of weapon was already in use. The Zippermayr test may thus only have been a test, not of the concept itself, but of how large of a weapon could actually be made. The results were probably beyond even the Nazis' wildest destructive dreams.
This waxy substance was a reagent of some kind which was said to interact with air during the development of the explosion, causing it to change its composition and so create meteorological change in the atmosphere.
When detonated the bomb would create a huge explosion with a latter unnatural electrical storm effect at ground level, consuming all oxygen and burning everything alive in a 4.5 km radius - a form of plasma weapon. However, the decision to proceed with this bomb was only granted on 9 March 1945 and was to be constructed at the Jonastal S-3 complex as well as the German discs. The complex was never finished in time and worked stopped that same month.
Göring's statement upon his arrest in May 1945 is significant: he claimed to have led a revolt against Luftwaffe use of a bomb "which could have destroyed all civilisation." The bomb was not a nuclear weapon, and it appears to have been a conventional explosive which used a reagent or catalyst produced by Tesla methodology or similar for its inexplicable effect.
The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht [OKW, High Command] and Luftwaffe war diaries and all copies of them for the period March 1945 have disappeared and are suspected to be in American keeping.
Russia tests giant fuel-air bomb
12 September 2007
The Russian air force has tested a giant fuel-air bomb which the military says is the biggest non-nuclear explosive device in the world.
Russian TV showed a Tupolev bomber dropping the bomb over a test range, a powerful explosion and a four-storey building reduced to rubble.
Claims it is bigger than the MOAB, a US device of similar destructive power, seem plausible, analysts say.
Such bombs are mainly designed to destroy underground targets.
The name MOAB officially stands for "Massive Ordnance Air Burst" but has unofficially been interpreted as "Mother Of All Bombs".
The Russian bomb, which has no known official name, has been dubbed Father of All Bombs by its designers, Russia's "Channel One News" says in its report.
It contains about seven tons of high explosives compared with more than eight for the MOAB but is four times more powerful because it uses a new type of explosive developed with the use of nanotechnology, according to the channel.
"Test results of the new airborne weapon have shown that its efficiency and power is commensurate with a nuclear weapon," Gen Alexander Rukshin, Russian deputy armed forces chief of staff, told the channel.
It has, he says, "no match in the world".
Robert Hewson, editor of Jane's "Air-launched Weapons", believes that the Russian claims are plausible given the country's track record in developing, and using, fuel-air devices.
"I think the likelihood is that this is the world's biggest non-nuclear bomb," he told the BBC News website.
"You can argue about the numbers and how you scale this but the Russians have a long and proven history of developing weapons in the thermobaric class."
Russia used such weapons in Afghanistan and Chechnya, Hewson says, and he suspects that the bomb shown on TV was conceived for the Chechen conflict but never actually used because of the sheer scale of the destruction it could wreak.
He believes that the test blast was a "statement" by Russia comparable in its psychological effect to America's demonstration of the Moab just before the 2003 invasion of Iraq - a demonstration never followed up by its actual use.
"The Russians are in a phase of needing to make statements at the moment and have done the same thing," Hewson says.
The giant bomb was transported by a Tu-160 'Blackjack' supersonic bomber, itself in the news recently when Russia revived the Soviet practice of sending heavy bombers out on long-range flights.
The suggestion at this point is that by late 1944, Waffen-SS scientists in Germany had developed a catalyst or reagent, apparently a waxy substance, maybe a plasmoid of some kind, which when added to a conventional explosive containing liquid air vastly magnified the effect, killing everything within a three mile radius by blast, tremendous heat and suffocation. It appears also to have had undesirable meteorological effects.
On 16 April 1945 the Type XB submarine U-234 departed Kristiansand, Norway for Japan. She had loaded at Kiel in January and February, and besides a strategic cargo in the region of 260 tonnes carried ten German and two Japanese passengers, all of whom were specialists in the military field or scientists.
According to U-234's radio operator Wolfgang Hirschfeld in his autobiography part of the cargo was offloaded and flown to Tokyo from a Norwegian airfield. German armaments minister Albert Speer confirms this in his memoirs and mentions the flight was by Junkers Ju-390 on 28 March 1945.
On 17 May 1945, against his express orders, Kptlt. Fehler decided to surrender his submarine to the US Navy, and arrived two days later at Portsmouth Navy Yard, New Hampshire.
What is principally of interest is the cargo, and in particular ten cases of "Uranium oxide" of 560 kilograms weight, and several items which were not included on the Unloading Manifest.
The Unloading Manifest [US NAT Arch, College Park MD, Box RG38, Box 13, Document OP-20-3-G1-A [Unloading Manifest] dated 24 May 1945] is a falsified document purporting to show the entire cargo aboard U-234. The true Manifests, both American and German, have never been declassified.
The full USN Unloading Manifest showing all the items making up the 260 tonnes of cargo aboard U-234, and the German Loading Manifest, are thought to be classified top secret since even the fact that they are top secret is a top secret. A partial USN Unloading Manifest was released some time ago but most of the interesting items are absent from it. Amongst items believed to be on the full Manifest are one Me 262 two-seater jet aircraft equipped as a bomber [why would you want to keep that secret?] and the eighty cases of "U-powder". Another super-classified top secret is the assay report on this U-powder.
It is curious that, after more than 70 years, despite the rules respecting automatic declassification of documents, much of the archive material relating to the cargo of the German submarine U-234 still has not been made public. In 1985, American journalist Robert K. Wilcox wrote:
"Inquiries to government agencies have produced nothing. It is as if the incident never occurred, as if the U-234, its important passengers and cargo, enver arrives".
British rocket engineer Philip Henshall wrote in 1995:
"Despite requests made to the US naval authorities, the reply has always been that matters relating to nuclear affairs are still subject to official secrecy".
Anybody who thinks this is legal should examine American law itself. [Opinion of Alaskan lawyer Sidney Trevethan, title 552 section [a] sub-sections  and [A] USCA, in "The Controversial Cargo of U-234", Revision 13 January 1999]. In the United States, a request to a government agency must be answered within ten days, and if denied a reason given. The courts have ruled that the Freedom of Information Act is to be broadly construed in favour of disclosure, and its exemptions are to be "narrowly construed".
Where a matter is to be "kept secret in the interest of national defense or foreign policy" pursuant to an Executive Order, then the section relating to disclosure does not apply. If this exemption is being used secretly after 70 years, there must have been something extraordinary indeed about the heavy little case of uranium on board the German submarine U-234. These is no blanket exemption by which nuclear matters generally are still subject to secrecy, and many formerly Top Secret documents in the matter have been declassified.
In the normal course of events, a Manifest upon declassification would bear the censor's deletions where it was intended that certain items should not be displayed. The USN alleged Unloading Manifest is clean of any deletions and purports to be the true Unloading Manifest. From a declassified cable, it is evident that 80 cases of Uranium Powder have been omitted, as was also, from the statements of the U-Boat crew members and Kptlt. Johann-Heinrich Fehler, a two-seater Me 262 bomber aircraft brought from Rechlin and stowed in its component parts.
Germany had 1,200 tonnes of uranium oxide on hand at Oolen in Belgium throughout the war, but made no strides towards making an atom bomb. Nevertheless, many commentators fantasize an embryonic atom bomb in the 560 kilos of "Uranium oxide" aboard U-234. It is a fantasy, for such evidence as exists points to this being a cover word for something else.
Two official documents address the ten cases of "Uranium oxide" directly.
a. A report headed "Regarding 'URANIUM OXIDE' and other CARGO aboard U-234" on the interrogation of Geschwaderrichter Kay Nieschling, U-234 passenger by USN Intelligence Officer Lt Best states that "Lt Karl Pfaff was the man responsible for loading the U-boat" and that "the meaning behind the ore" -peculiar phrase suggesting that the ore was not the ore- would be known by Kptlt. Gerhard Falk [or Falck] who took some secret courses before he boarded the U-boat. Kptlt. Fehler should also know something about the ore".
It does not appear that Kptlt. Falk or Falck survived his interrogation, for there is no record of his return to Germany, and the US authorities have not been able to account for his movements in their custody after interrogating him on 26 May 1945. There are other indications that the "Uranium ore" was extraordinary. Lt. Col. John Lansdale, chief of security for the Manhattan Project, wrote in a 1996 newspaper article published in Britain and Germany that he had personally handled the disposal of the ten cases. He stated that the American military authorities "reacted with panic" when they learned what the cases contained.
b. The second document was found by researcher Joseph Mark Scalia, a former 12-year US Navy man, during a rummage through old boxes at the Portsmouth Navy Yard. It is a secret cable from CNO to NYPORT on the subject "MINE TUBES, UNLOADING OF" and states:
"Interrogation Lt. Pfaff IIWO U-234 discloses he was in charge of cargo and personally supervised loading all mine tubes. Pfaff prepared Manifest List and knows kind cargo in each tube. Uranium Oxide loaded in gold-lined cylinders and as long as cylinders not opened can be handled like crude TNT. These containers should not be opened as substance will become sensitive and dangerous..."
The so-called "Uranium Oxide" would become sensitive and dangerous if exposed to air. The so-called "Uranium Oxide" was perfectly safe in its cylinders provided one respected it as one would dynamite. The so-called "Uranium Oxide" was sealed in a cylinder lined with gold.
In nuclear physics gold is used to absorb fission fragments plus gamma rays in containers, and is particularly efficient at capturing neutron radiation as well. From this it is evident that the material in the ten cylinders was not just highly radioactive - it was extraordinarily dangerous and behaving as if it were itself a nuclear reactor. No atomic physicist who has examined the evidence about these ten cases has been able to deliver an opinion as to what substance kept within a lead case might have required these extraordinary precautions.
On 24 May 1945, when the US Navy began to unload U-234, it is clear from the US State papers that no decision regarding the atom bomb had been taken by the US government. On 30 May 1945, both Secretary of State Stimson and President Truman were agreed that no alternative existed to deploying America's atomic arsenal against Japan.
They had no alternative to using the atom bomb, and no satisfactory reason has ever been forthcoming why that decision was made. So what could have caused these two decent men to decide that such a course of action was unavoidable?
What was aboard U-234 might also be aboard other Japan-bound U-boats. The Japanese had at least two submarines with a range of 30,000 miles, that were capable of being used as aircraft launchers. The Japanese had a plan of mixing the Uranium from U-234 with standard explosives, and loading them in bombs or planes which were to take off the submarines and attack San Francisco. The target date was 17 August 1945; they were ready, only waiting for the shipment of Uranium to arrive.
That would make no sense unless the "Uranium" from U-234 was the waxy substance which when mixed with conventional explosives turned the material into the miracle weapon. These two Japanese submarines would be very close to San Francisco, and the pilots of the bomber aircraft would have to be Kamikazes, for proximity to the waxy substance meant certain death.
If the Japanese were indeed in the process of being supplied with this material by German U-boats for use against the United States west coast, then this was the reason for the nuclear attacks against Japan.
The miracle explosive known nowadays as R-Waffe was not based on Uranium, although Uranium was used in the creation of the plasmoid. The plasmoid worked as a catalyst on a conventional coal-dust/liquid air mixture to vastly expand the explosion.
The Electromagnetic Vampire
What I am calling the "electromagnetic vampire" is so unique that I feel it must be discussed. Its implications in the modern world, in our current "Security State", are obvious.
The uncovering of this device is not my work. This report comes to us from Dr. Axel Stoll in his book "Hochtechnologie im Dritten Reich". The topic of interest arises as Dr. Stoll is discussing a German base in Tibet during the Second World War. He mentions that Tibet fought with the Germans in this conflict and that SS men were actually trained in Tibet. This association argues for a German underground base in Tibet and Dr. Stoll goes on to describe possible provisions for security in German underground bases and describes an example of a German electromagnetic security system.
The example he uses is the early Reich Chancellery. The lower floors of the Reich Chancellery were flooded during the latter stages of the war. This tactic was used numerous times on high-value underground facilities to prevent the advancing Allied Powers from learning Nazi secrets. Therefore, there may be other examples still out there. The device under discussion is some sort of electromagnetic cage. Dr. Stoll calls it an "energetischen Käfig" or "elektromagnetische Birne". Within the area of this cage a special electromagnetic field was present. This cage would be used to surround a specific room or area within the larger facility. Presumably, within this room, objects of tremendous value would be stored and therefore needed ultimate security, even more security than simply housing them within this high-security underground facility.
Dr. Stoll is unable to name his sources for security reasons, but goes on to tell a fascinating story. In the former East German Democratic Republic [DDR], strong, able-bodied divers, who were former members of the State Security Service [MfS] of that communist government were detailed to dive into the Reich Chancellery and surrounding vicinity with the goal of recovering documents, material stores and technology. These operatives were not boy scouts, nor was East Germany a worker's paradise in the 1970s and 1980s, which is the period in which this story takes place. The DDR is the country which spawned the dreaded secret police, the "Stasi". Stasi was one of the most efficient, innovative and ruthless intelligence organizations ever conceived. Stasi could be thought of as the KGB coupled with German innovative efficiency. It is from this hard background that the divers were lowered by ropes into the black pool which were the lower floors of the Reich Chancellery.
What the divers encountered in the blackness was terror itself. Some of the divers, described by Dr. Stoll, surfaced with prolific symptoms. Their faces were contorted into a horrible grimaces. The problem was that this terribly distorted expression would not relax. Their contorted faces were frozen into a masks of permanent deformity. Not only were they disfigured but somehow they had been aged during the dive. Now they appeared to be visibly older, perhaps aging up to fifteen years in a few minutes. But that was not all. Functioning like an almost perfect security system, the divers could not remember what had happened during their dive. Their memories had been blanked out. This was not temporary amnesia. This amnesia proved to be life-long.
Dr. Stoll, a Geophysicist, explains the workings of the device this way. Within the cage, "Käfig", which is the space to be secured, a human body encounters an almost null-point of energy near the physical center of the device. At this point, energy is actually drawn out of the human body. This withdrawal of energy alters the human body and the human being, as a rule, for the worst. This sucking away of human energy can lead to death. This electromagnetic or psychic vampire constitutes the ultimate in security systems. Imagine marketing a home security system boasting to suck the life out of intruders. Imagine this system in place in all truly sensitive government facilities today.
Source: Stoll, Axel, Ph.D., 2001, "Hochtechnologie Im Dritten Reich: Reichsdeutsche Entwicklungen und die vermutlich wahre Herkunft der 'UFOs', Amun-Verlag, Schleusesiedlung 2, D- 98553 Schleusingen, Germany 29
-- Henry Stevens, "Hitler's Suppressed and Still-Secret Weapons, Science and Technology"
"The East came West - Muslim, Hindu and Buddhist Volunteers in the German Armed Forces 1941-1945" edited by Antonio J. Munoz, has exact figures and bibliography about the hundreds of thousand of the collaborators from Asia. There are also some very interesting photos of Asians in their colourful outfits that fought bravely side by side with the Germans; Turkmenes, Indians, even some Koreans, to name but a few. Some were volunteers, some were captured non-Russian soldiers of the Soviet Army, natives of the oriental Soviet Republics, who had been given the choice either to stay in PoW camps or to join the Wehrmacht, or even the Waffen-SS. They were badly needed for the garrisons, as "Ersatz" Units, in France when the troops originally stationed there had to be transferred to the Eastern front, where the losses were enormous.
Tibetans in German Uniforms
In "Victims of Yalta" by Nikolai Tolstoy, there is the story of two Tibetans being captured by the Allies in Normandy.
It took some time to establish their identity because no-one could identify their language, let alone speak it.
They were supposedly Tibetan shepherds who had wandered across the border from the Asian fringe of the Soviet Union near China, and had been drafted into the Soviet army, were captured by the Germans, then drafted into service and sent to defend Normandy.
There is a footnote in Cornelius Ryan's "The Last Battle" mentioning that he was with Allied interrogators who were questioning two Asian men captured in German uniforms. Ryan said, that it was later learned that these two men were Tibetans who were press ganged into the Red Army and were captured when the Germans invaded and were press ganged into the Wehrmacht
A certain number of Tibetans, about 1000, had been in German service in the later years of the war. Their unit was wiped out completely by Soviet troops during the siege of Berlin in Spring 1945. The final battle was fought around the communications control center. Many dead soldiers were found at the ruined communications control center. Though the Tibetans were neither Hitler's Schutzstaffel, nor members of his Entourage, they fought to the end, after Hitler had killed himself.
"During the 1940s Tibetan volunteers formed brigades attached to the Cossack regiments fighting Communism with NS Germany. The Tibetans with their endurance of sub-zero temperatures, and refusal to surrender made them among the toughest fighters against the Soviets. They were exceptional horsemen and staged some of the last cavalry charges in history. It was the remnants of these brigades that the Soviet army found in the ruins of Berlin, having fought to the last".
Agehananda Barati [Leopold Fischer], a Professor of Sanskrit and Anthropology at Syracuse University and a former member of Hitler’s "Free India Legion", claimed the rumor about Tibetans in Berlin fighting for Nazi Germany was not true.
The Mystery of Dead Tibetans in Berlin
On 25 April 1945, Soviet troops were patrolling around the capital of Nazi Germany, Berlin, lying in ruins.
They spotted seven bodies with the badge of the SS [Schutzstaffel], in a cellar. They seemed to be German soldiers, nothing unusual. But there was one thing unusual. One of the seven bodies was surrounded by other six bodies in a circle. They glanced at them and passed.
But one soldier found that the way they had been killed was strange. He stopped other soldiers. They looked at the dead German soldiers carefully again. The hands of a dead soldier in the center had been joined firmly as if he had been praying, and both hands were covered with green gloves. But the most surprising thing was that the dead soldiers' faces were beyond doubt the faces of Asians, particularly from Tibet. Not only the soldier in the center but also all other bodies around him were Tibetans.
"What's this all about?"
The Soviet soldiers were stunned at the inexplicable scene in front of them.
But it was apparent that the Tibetans had not been killed but that they had committed some ritual suicide.
The dead wore German military uniforms, but with neither identification badges nor identification paper. They were laid on the floor in a perfect array. They had disemboweled themselves with ceremonial daggers.
Since then, hundreds [some sources claim "thousands"] of Tibetan corpses in SS uniforms were found one after another in every nook and cranny of Berlin.
In "Conspiracy Files" by David Southwell and Sean Twist, it is noted "...this element of the war tends to be glossed over in history books..."
Assault on "German Village"
During the Second World War the Americans tested in the desert of Utah the bombardment of Berlin. In accurate detail they had copies of tenement buildings constructed. The architect was the well-known German Jew Erich Mendelsohn.
By Mike Davis
11 October 1999
The most faraway, unknown suburb of Berlin lies abandoned in the desert of the US federal state of Utah, about one hundred kilometres south-west of Salt Lake City. It carries the name "German Village" and is part of the army’s "Dugway Proving Ground".
Dugway is about half the size of Saarland and is more contaminated with poisons that the nuclear testing grounds in the state of Nevada to the west of Utah. Three generations of chemical and biological weapons of the American forces have been tested here; the area was always above top secret and during the Cold war was enshrouded in legends.
The "German Village" is the remains of a larger complex of buildings: Copies of Berlin tenements, which served to test the incineration of German cities. A great man of modern architecture had created them – the German-Jewish architect Erich Mendelsohn.
In 1943 the US Corps for chemical warfare secretly hired Mendelsohn and won him over to erect in the desert of Utah – together with technicians from Standard Oil – a Berlin workers’ quarter in miniature. A tenement named "Building 8100" is still there today – the building gives no idea that here the very man had been at work who during the time of the Weimar Republic had been responsible for Berlin marks like the Mosse Building, the Columbus House, the residential premises Sternefeld in Charlottenburg or the observatory Einsteinturm at Potsdam.
Absolute similarity in every respect was the specification. His employers were in a hurry. Despite successful air raids that made seas of flames of German cities, frustration grew on the American side because they did not succeed to ignite a firestorm in the German Reich’s capital.
Therefore, their scientific advisors asked for an immediate programme in which the burning characteristics of workers’ tenements should be tested on exact copies. Planning and building were co-ordinated with secret research about the inflammability of Japanese houses, for the simulated destruction of Japanese targets were also part of the Dugway programme.
Mendelsohn’s achievement was the anonymity of the result: six versions of the typical tenements that made the workers’ quarters of Berlin some of the most densely populated poor people lodgings in Europe. The copies were not as tall as the seven-story originals in Wedding or Kreuzberg, but in all other respects they were surprisingly faithful duplicates.
The German star architect procured for the Americans extensive information about the roof construction in the target areas, as these were a critical factor for the success of the incendiary bombs. According to Standard Oil these data were "expanded and confirmed by a member of the teaching body at the Harvard School of Architecture, an expert in German wood frame building techniques".
The construction companies made sure that the frames used at Dugway compared as closely as possible with the originally in age and specific density. Some of the wood had been imported from Murmansk. Since incendiary experts maintained that the climate at Dugway was too dry, Standard Oil ensured the proper humidity: In copying Berlins rain, GIs had to douse the targets continuously with water.
The interior decoration was handed to skilled Hollywood decorators from the RKO studios; they had gained accolades for their work on "Citizen Kane". Aided by workers who had learned their craft in Germany they created the cheap but heavy furniture that was part of the furnishings in most Berlin workers’ households. They even got German textiles in order to study carefully the typical properties of bedcovers and curtains in conflagrations.
Inmates of the Utah state prison who were put to work only needed 44 days to finish both the German Village and its Japanese counterpart [twelve double apartments, completely furnished with hinoki wood and tatami mats]. The whole complex was then bombarded with incendiaries and between May and September 1943 completely re-built three times.
Mendelsohn’s responsibility for the Berlin project in the Wild West is full of irony. The architect was highly interested in reforms in the building of tenements and in a new culture of housing. Yet he never participated in the important contracts that in the later 20s had been organised by the Social Democrats.
Most mysterious is Mendelsohn’s absence at the planning of the Weissenhof residential estate in Stuttgart in 1927, a showcase project supervised by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe which the American architect Philip Johnson called "one of the most important groups of buildings in the history of modern architecture". Mendelsohn biographer Bruno Zevi surmises that the architect had been excluded for anti-Semitic reasons.
If this is true, the Dugway was his revenge. The tenement copies had been constructed to "take the roof from over the head of the German industrial worker", as the British openly formulated – even if the USA shortly after they entered the war continued to maintain that their air force would never intentionally target "the small man in the street", it was committed exclusively to the "clean" destruction of purely military or military-industrial targets.
The 8th US aerial fleet flew "precision strikes" in daylight – in contrast to their British allies who, embittered by the bombardment of London, covered German cities with bombs by night and hoped that the citizens would become discouraged and would rise against the Nazi regime.
The new technical equipment of the B-17s [the "Flying Fortresses"] and the highly sophisticated Norden airdrop targeting instruments enabled the USA to conduct a bombing war "with democratic values". Then as today the "civil marginal damage" was brushed aside in order not to encumber national consciousness. But as the erection of the German Village shows, reality has very much darker sides.
The Berlin tenements were erected in May 1943 on the Dugway Proving Ground, shortly before Winston Churchill had gale-force firestorms ignited in the centre of Hamburg. Their intended purpose was to try out the possibilities and to solve the problems that clearly lay beyond any moral limits of target bombardments. The buildings became a trade fair for the growing lobby of fire war.
The planners of the looming aerial war against Japan were highly interested to see what effects new incendiary agents like Napalm and even "bat bombs" –containing hundreds of living bats prepared with tiny incendiary compositions– would have when launched against Japanese houses.
Berlin, however, would "prove more difficult than most other German cities", the leading incendiary expert Horatio Bond avowed before the national commission for armament research of the USA. "The building quality is higher, and the single blocks are better separated from each other". As the tests at the Dugway Proving Ground showed, it "was hardly to be expected that the flames would jump unhindered from one building to the next".
Thus Armageddon happened in two acts: The first was the "aerial battle around Berlin" of the Royal Air Force [RAF] from November 1943 to March 1944, the second was "Operation Thunderclap" in February 1945. Air Marshall Arthur Harris, who had promised the British to "bombard Berlin until the heart of Nazi Germany has stopped beating", sent the heavy bombers of the RAF on 18 November 1943, towards the German capital.
The Lancasters flew in dangerously close formations and concentrated their loads on small, densely populated areas. The incendiary bombs were followed by explosives, the expressive aim of which was to kill firemen and rescue workers. Following the doctrine of the Royal Air Force to attack Berlin’s red belt of industrial workers to sow unrest and resentment, the area of Wedding, stronghold of the KPD [Communist Party of Germany] was almost completely reduced to rubble.
Although Harris did not succeed to unleash a firestorm like the Hamburg one, the Lancasters nevertheless flattened about one quarter of the central city. Up to 1.5 Million Berliners became homeless, about 10.000 lost their lives.
When Hitler after the landing of the Allies in the Normandy took revenge with the V1 and later V2 attacks on London, Churchill’s first reaction had been the demand for further attacks on Berlin – he even had checked whether poison gas could be used, and bio-weapons were also not taboo: "It is absurd to apply morals to this question".
He asked Roosevelt for an expedited delivery of 500.000 highly secret "N bombs". They contained deadly Anthrax viruses that the scientists at Dugway had grown. Poison gas and Anthrax were too much for the White House, but Roosevelt absolutely wanted to accommodate the British.
In August 1944, he angrily said to his Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau Jr.: "We have to treat Germany harshly, and I mean the Germans, not just the Nazis. We either have to castrate the German people or to treat it such that it can no longer beget offspring that wants to continue as in the past".
In the same month Churchill presented to the American president the plan for "Operation Thunderclap" that foresaw that 220.000 people of Berlin would be wounded or killed in one great attack with 2.000 bombers. Roosevelt agreed in principle, although some of the top commanders of the Air Force objected because of the expected effects.
The US war hero Jimmy Doolittle, commander of the 8th air fleet, also reacted with bitterness when General Dwight D. Eisenhower commanded him to be ready for the "indiscriminate" bombing of Berlin.
In the end "Operation Thunderclap" –now extended to Dresden and Leipzig as further targets– was ordered for reasons that had as much to do with the ending of World War Two as with the later Cold War. "The complete destruction of the inner city of a metropolis as large as Berlin," the RAF had announced at a conference with foresight, "would convince our Russian allies and the neutral states of the striking power of the Anglo-American air forces".
When on 3 February 1945, the grey leaden skies over Berlin finally cleared, Doolittle held his vulnerable B-24 bombers back tenaciously and sent more than 900 B-17s, escorted by hundreds of fighter planes. It was not the great knock-out hit the British had envisaged, nevertheless it killed 3.000 people in Berlin.
Ten days later Dresden came closer to the original apocalyptic vision of "Operation Thunderclap". The culture city jam-packed with fugitives from Silesia, forced labourers and allied prisoners of war had strategic import only as a temporary traffic junction for the collapsing eastern front. American bombers concentrated on the train stations and railroad tracks, the British targeted everything else.
The result was the greatest firestorm since Hamburg. The estimated number of dead was 35.000 to 40.000. In the same year, hundreds of thousands of Japanese succumbed to the firestorms that the B-29 bombers unleashed in their cities.
These reminiscences of the darkest side of the "good war" are still hanging over the poisonous legacy around the German Village – even today, when Potsdamer Platz and other open wounds in Berlin change into magnificent symbols of prosperity in reunited Germany.
Mendelsohn’s lonely tenement is a memorial for an overly righteous punishment of the refuges of evil. "German Village", the secret place of mourning of Berlin, lies unnoticed in the middle of the Utah desert.
Nazis Are Making News Again
May/June 2011 - #87
Late in 2010 headlines in several European newspapers, including Britain’s "Mail and Telegraph" screamed that Hitler’s last attempt to win the war could have been a surprise assault on London and New York carried out with giant antigravity flying discs—an attack thwarted only by the end of WWII.
Long circulated in the UFO underground, the story received a new lease on life when German science magazine "PM" reported evidence for the existence of such an advanced and secret program in the German military during the last days of the war.
Now "Iron Sky" a new movie [set for release later this year] suggests that the Nazis not only had the technology to carry out such attacks but that, before the war’s end, they successfully transfered operations to the far side of the moon where development has continued to this day. In the film, the Nazis attack again in 2018, but this time with enormous flying discs.
Could there be any truth behind such fantastic allegations? Reporter C.C. von Werklaäg investigates for "Atlantis Rising"—Editor
Did the Nazis produce a UFO-style craft toward the end of WWII, which they called "Die Glocke" [The Bell], intended to be the war-winning ace up Hitler’s sleeve? Researchers Igor Witkowski, Joseph P. Farrell, William Lyne and others think so.
In "Twentieth Century: History of the World 1901 to 2000", J. M. Roberts quotes Winston Churchill’s speech concerning the Nazis’ insatiable conquest of Europe. If the Allied forces "fail, then the whole world . . . [will] sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age made more sinister . . . by the lights of perverted science". Roberts points out that the Nazis did not act insanely as historians maintain. “The crimes of Nazism had been carried out not in a fit of barbaric intoxication with conquest, but in a systematic, scientific . . . way about which there was little that was irrational except the appalling end that it sought and the lunatic mythologies which fed it.” These "lunatic" ideals refer to more than the Nazis’ desire for race purity, they include their quest to prove connections to their presumed Teutonic heritage and their obsession with occult symbolism and the powers it might unleash.
Scientifically, the Nazis utilized their mechanical skills to develop a sophisticated array of technology and weaponry. Many historians equate the successful invention of the V series rockets with the much-touted Wunderwaffe [wonder weapon] Hitler, in his efforts to curb catastrophic losses, was anxious to possess. However, Witkowski argues that the V-1 and V-2 were largely ineffective, thus not the "wonder" of modern weaponry many perceive them to be [from Farrell’s "The SS Brotherhood of the Bell]. Witkowski’s "The Truth About the Wunderwaffe" [translated into English, 2003] is a detailed examinations of Die Glocke—a major inspiration for many later works on the subject.
Die Glocke was built in a facility near Breslau known as Der Riese [the Giant]. It was constructed of a metallic or ceramic material, approximately 9 feet in diameter and some 12 to 15 feet in height. In keeping with their penchant for occult iconography, Nazi scientists embellished Die Glocke with a band of Runic symbols near its base, meant to amplify the intensity of the awesome machine. The device was powered by massive electrical generators but could only be engaged for several minutes. It emitted high amounts of electromagnetic radiation [which, in early tests, killed many slave laborers and scientists working on the project]. Witkowski’s research indicates that Die Glocke was tested at a secret base in Ludwigsdorf, near the Czech border. Witkowski photographed a strange amphitheater-sized construction, which many researchers have dubbed “the Henge”.
Die Glocke was powered by a radioactive compound labeled Xerum 525—a “red mercury” which Farrell claims the Nazis might have used to create an atomic bomb ["The SS Brotherhood of the Bell"], and which scientists Drs. David Clarke and Steve Young associate with "Vril power". Dr. Clarke notes a connection between the inner circle of Nazi political power and the Thule Society, a group obsessed with Vril, while Dr. Young points out how seriously Vril was examined by Nazi scientists for its potential in the manufacture of weapons.
Die Glocke’s complex system of opposing turbines was purported to generate a field of antigravity so powerful it wreaked havoc on all life in its vicinity and may even have teleported matter over vast distances. Some speculate that Die Glocke functioned as a time machine, a theory often associated with UFO conjecture and corroborated by former U. S. Army remote viewer Joseph McMoneagle who claimed in "Atlantis Rising" #18  that "UFOs are real vehicles—possibly time machines". The deleterious effects described above sound like the pivotal weapon the Nazis were searching for except their interest in antigravity had a more logical origin. With their Luftwaffe’s runways destroyed by Allied bombing raids, the need for aircraft that could take off and land vertically [VTOL] became vitally important. The most sensible assumption indicates Die Glocke’s capabilities for propulsion rather than its use as a weapon. The Nazis’ desperation to create such technology may have prompted their scientists to sidestep conventional maths.
William Lyne’s "Occult Ether Physics: Tesla’s Hidden Space Propulsion System and the Conspiracy to Conceal It"  details the use of Nikola Tesla’s scaler physics in “German flying saucer[s].” Farrell agrees that the Nazis eschewed “Jewish physics” in favor of those devised by non-Jewish scientists. This egregious anti-Semitism is corroborated by biographer Walter Isaacson. He describes how German scientists received Einstein’s theories.
Arnold Sommerfield . . . was among the first to suggest there was something Jewish about Einstein’s theoretical approach, “ . . . . It lacked due respect for the notion of order and absolutes . . . As remarkable as Einstein’s papers are, . . . it still seems to me that something almost unhealthy lies in the unconstruable [sic] and impossible to visualize dogma. An Englishman would hardly have given us this theory. . . . It might be [that] here too . . . the abstract conceptual character of the Semite expresses itself”. ["Einstein: His Life and Universe"].
Lyne proposes that the public’s acceptance of the “[r]elativistic bromides” described by curved space-time, serve only to cover up Tesla’s “Occult Ether Physics” employed by the Nazis to power their UFOs. Max B. Miller’s article 'Field Theory and Gravity Drive' ("Fate Magazine", Vol. 11, No. 5, May 1958) notes Dr. Hermann Oberth’s conclusion that the “behavior of the UFO . . . discounts any means of propulsion—including the reaction rocket—known to us,” and that the “principle of an ‘anti-gravity device’ might be expected.” An interesting conclusion since, as Farrell points out, Oberth was directly involved with Die Glocke and the creation of Nazi UFOs.
Analyzing Oberth’s pronouncement from the perspective of contemporary physics, mathematician Ward Locke combined Einstein’s gravitational theorems with a later tensor model developed by Hermann Weyl. The math revealed the potential for the generation of an antigravity field when the equation begets a negative number. Professor Locke confides that sustaining such a system requires a continued energy input of at least 900 kiloamperes [or the transfer of 1020 electrons] per second. Without an effective heat-sink, the temperature will instantly rise to 28,000º Kelvin [nearly equivalent to the surface temperature of the sun]. Although dubious that the Nazis harnessed such a force, Professor Locke concedes that, if true, this may have been the reason behind the short intervals sustained during Die Glocke’s early tests. The scientists simply couldn’t generate enough power to keep it going.
It Takes a Rocket Scientist to Understand It
Discussing the wave of UFO sightings occurring in the decade after WWII, Frank Edwards detailed another interesting connection between this phenomenon and the seemingly omnipresent Hermann Oberth.
West Germany . . . the scene of so many visits by the UFO’s, including some reported landings, named the world-famous rocket and space-travel scientist, Professor Hermann Oberth, to head their probe . . . . The outspoken Oberth said . . . in 1954: ‘There is no doubt in my mind that . . . [UFO’s] are interplanetary craft of some sort. . . . It is also our conclusion that they are propelled by distorting or converting the gravitational field” ["Strange World"].
Was similar technology channeled into experiments conducted by the U. S. government? Farrell notes the probability that Wernher von Braun, along with other German rocket scientists brought over during Project Paperclip, most likely contributed to research which fueled UFO sightings from the late 1940s to now. Several failures required cover-ups like those at Roswell, NM and Kecksburg, PA.
The involvement of von Braun and Oberth with UFO phenomenon pales in comparison to the identities of those who oversaw Die Glocke. Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS, who was obsessed with the occult, in 1942, Himmler chose SS Obergruppenführer Dr. Hans Kammler, formerly a high-level Air Ministry officer in charge of engineering, to take over the rocketry program. In his memoir "Inside the Third Reich", Albert Speer claims that at first he “liked [Kammler’s] objective coolness” but later understood how Kammler’s “zeal” made him dangerous. Speer states that “SS Grupenführer Kammler, already responsible for the rocket weapons, was to be in charge of the development and production of all modern aircraft” [emphasis added] forcing him out of this position. Speer notes the incredible number of workers (both skilled and slave labor) commandeered by Kammler for his endeavors. The creation of “All modern aircraft” would have provided Kammler free reign to pursue the elusive wunderwaffe sought by Hitler. The displacement of “half a million workers a year,” noted by Speer, would have provided Kammler the means to achieve this goal.
As WWII ground to a grim close for Germany, Kammler disappeared. While his driver, Kurt Preuk, swore in court he had witnessed Kammler’s dead body, Farrell believes Kammler made a deal with either the American or Argentine government in exchange for safe passage and sanctuary from war crimes. Kammler’s greatest bargaining chip may well have been Die Glocke.
The Kecksburg/Die Glocke Connection
During the early evening of 9 December 1965, reports of a fireball in the skies over Canada and the Midwestern United States flooded meteorological centers and police bureaus. Newspapers commented on the amazing meteor that appeared to break apart over northern Ohio before veering east as it descended into rural Pennsylvania, just southeast of Pittsburgh. What interests ufologists about the Kecksburg incident [apart from the alteration in trajectory] is the unusual manner in which the presumed meteor broke up. Some witnesses reported details one associates with large meteors hitting the atmosphere and splitting into pieces. Others saw what appeared to be a craft spewing a fiery rain of burning debris. Several pieces of the burning material fell into a field in Elyria, Ohio, starting small fires. Firemen easily put out the blaze, yet found nothing to cause it.
The bulk of the material landed in the woods outside Kecksburg, PA. Several witnesses reported the incident to the local radio station and to police. Within the hour, people from the area, policemen, firemen, and news reporters arrived on the scene—so too did the U. S. Army. Captain Kevin D. Randle’s article “The Kecksburg UFO Crash” ["UFO Universe", Vol. 1, No. 3, 1991] examines the incident from the perspective of those who presume the object an alien spacecraft tested by the military, resulting in less-than-spectacular results. Randle writes that, the radio report[ed] . . . something . . . landed . . . . and . . . the State Police . . . cordoned off a section of the woods. News media . . . were broadcasting from . . . the site. A number of them were talking about an unidentified flying object crash in Westmoreland County. None of the reporters were allowed to enter the woods.
Although no reporter made it into the ravine where the object had partially buried itself, Randle reports that “Stan Gordon, of the Pennsylvania Association for the Study of the Unexplained [PASU], said that he’d interviewed a fire fighter who had gotten deep into the woods before the military sealed off the area . . . [A]ccording to Gordon . . . the object [was] not a meteor!”
Where the Kecksburg incident overlaps with Die Glocke is in its physical description. The man who found the Kecksburg object described it as "acorn shaped, nine to twelve feet in diameter, [with] a gold band around it with writing on it.
The writing was described as like "ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics". But then, more importantly, he said that there were characters of broken and straight lines, dots, rectangles and circles.
A craft approximately "nine to twelve feet in diameter," shaped like an "acorn" [or sometimes described as "bell-shaped"] with a band of hieroglyphs around the base? The mystery deepens into conspiracy when one includes other reports of NASA personnel working alongside Army troops to load the craft onto a flatbed truck. The item was spirited away to the nearest base [presumably Wright-Patterson in Dayton, Ohio, associated with the mysterious “Hangar 18”]. Several witnesses stated seeing a man who looked like von Braun at the scene, but no photographic evidence corroborates such claims.
Whether or not one believes in visitations by aliens, the description of the Kecksburg craft and that of Die Glocke seem too similar for coincidence. Several researchers propose that Kammler’s Die Glocke technology ended up in the hands of the American military where it was obviously tested [if unsuccessfully], generating incidents like Kecksburg in 1965 and perhaps others throughout the years.
From Antarctica to the Moon [and Back Again]
"Iron Sky" , a soon-to-be-released Finnish film, presents an alternative view of history. While the Allies dug through the rubble after WWII, the Nazis built a secret facility in Antarctica where they developed UFO technology. They soon moved to a base on the dark side of the moon and continued, throughout the decades, to construct an armada of flying saucers. The Nazis plan to invade the world anew in 2018.
While not exactly a “new” idea [see Philip K. Dick’s "The Man in the High Castle", 1962, and W. A. Harbinson’s "Projekt Saucer" series, 1991], the movie’s premise seems like much Hollywood-inspired science fiction. However, there is the possibility that "Iron Sky" comes close to the truth.
The German magazine "Faktor-X" [issue 11, 1997] reported Apollo 14 astronauts’ description of strange objects visible on the surface of the moon. Astronaut Gordon Cooper claimed to have seen UFOs and Neil Armstrong said that NASA was not the first to reach the moon. Ham radio operators, bypassing frequencies used by TV and radio during the 1969 moon landing, heard an exchange between NASA and Armstrong describing other spacecraft lining the crater rim in which the Eagle module had landed.
Those who believe in visitations by E. T. cite such encounters as evidence of alien presences. Yet what if the answer is less prosaic? What if the first man to set foot on the moon was not Neil Armstrong, but a Nazi Stormtrooper? If Die Glocke experiments produced anti-gravity technology, what was to stop Nazi engineers and rocket scientists from taking the next step, beyond ballistic missiles and into the cold reaches of outer space? If the Nazis made it to the moon, might they not lurk there still, waiting for an opportunity to continue where they left off with Hitler’s master plan or start a new Reich for a new millennium?
During the early 1940s Axis engineers developed a Sonic cannon that could cause fatal vibrations in its target body.
A methane gas combustion chamber leading to two parabolic dishes pulse-detonated at roughly 44 Hz.
This infrasound, magnified by the dish reflectors, caused vertigo and nausea at 200–400 metres by vibrating the middle ear bones and shaking the cochlear fluid within the inner ear.
At distances of 50–200 metres, the sound waves could act on organ tissues and fluids by repeatedly compressing and releasing compressive resistant organs such as the kidneys, spleen, and liver.
It had little detectable effect on malleable organs such as the heart, stomach and intestines, and lung tissue was affected at only the closest ranges as atmospheric air is highly compressible and only the blood rich alveoli resist compression.
In practice, the weapon system was highly vulnerable to enemy fire. Rifle, bazooka and mortar rounds easily deformed the parabolic reflectors, rendering the wave amplification ineffective.
In the later phases of World War II, Nazi Germany increasingly put its hopes on research into technologically revolutionary secret weapons, the Wunderwaffen.
Among the directed-energy weapons the Nazis investigated were X-ray beam weapons developed under Heinz Schmellenmeier, Richard Gans and Fritz Houtermans.
They built an electron accelerator called "Rheotron" [later called "Betatron" by the Americans] to generate hard X-ray synchrotron beams for the Reichsluftfahrtministerium [RLM].
The intent was to pre-ionize ignition in aircraft engines and hence serve as anti-aircraft directed energy weapons [DEW] and bring planes down to lower altitudes, into the reach of the Flak.
More than a decade before, an obscure idea in a German research journal, of Max Steenbeck at Siemens-Schuckert in 1935, had led the US scientist Ernest Lawrence to invent Cyclotrons, machines to whirl protons and other sub-atomic fragments and accelerate them to high energies. Schmellenmeier's idea was to investigate whether these new machines could be made into weapons.
The effectiveness of conventional German anti-aircraft guns had been reduced by Allied bombers flying high, out of range of the guns, and wreaking increasing havoc on German cities. Perhaps Schmellenmeier's new weapon could hit such targets in the stratosphere.
The idea was to whirl electrons round in a ring to create intense microwave radiation. This would then be beamed at enemy airplanes and interfere with engine ignition or blind the crew. The device was called the "Rheotron".
On a paper, it sounded very impressive, a new superweapon to complement the V1 and the V2 "Vergeltungswaffen" [retaliation weapons] then being readied.
However the idea of such a "death ray" was not new. In 1935, Britain had set up a committee to study the new methods of air defense. Soon it appeared that the beam power needed was unattainable, but the technology was soon refocused into what became to known as "radar".
Norwegian born Dr Rolf Widerøe wrote in his autobiography, "The Infancy of Particle Accelerators" that he worked on a particle accelerator X-Ray transformer for this project at Hamburg in 1943:
"I eventually found out why the German Air Force was so interested in the Betatron.
"Physicist Dr. Ernst Schiebold from Leipzig, a specialist on non-destructive testing of materials using X-rays among other methods, had had the idea that it would be possible to build an X-ray tube....[that] would cause the X-rays to be emitted in a narrow bundle.
"With sufficiently high voltage it would then be possible to achieve high radiation intensities at long distances. Thus it may even be possible to kill the pilots".
The Philips subsidiary Valvo also participated and much of the engineering was performed by CHF Müller & Co.
Widerøe later rescued the device from the rubble of Dresden and delivered it to General Patton's 3rd Army at Burggrub near Beyreuth about 14 April 1945.
It disappeared into US black projects in New Mexico, brought back to the USA by Operation LUSTY [LUftwaffe Secret TechnologY], the United States Army Air Forces effort to capture and evaluate German aeronautical technology during and after World War II.
Another approach was Ernst Schiebolds "Röntgenkanone" developed from 1943 in Großostheim near Aschaffenburg. This employed a particle accelerator cupped from beneath by a Beryllium parabolic mirror with a bundle of nine beryllium rods as an anode at it's core, to be aimed at Allied bomber formations. The Company Richert Seifert & Co from Hamburg was largely responsible for its manufacture.
Microwave weapons were investigated together with the Japanese.
Did This Nazi Killer Teach America How To Build UFOs?
For ten years a leading writer on Britain's most authoritative military journal has conducted an extraordinary investigation into aviations greatest mystery: Anti-Gravity. Now he reveals why he believes he has uncovered an incredible secret the truth about flying saucers...
Nick Cook - Aviation Editor of "Jane's Defence Weekly"
The Sunday Mail - London
4 September 2001
It was not until 1988 that the out going Reagan administration admitted a plane, strictly classified even though it had been in service for three years, was a F117A Stealth fighter.
It was a measure of the lengths the US military goes to guard its secrets. But I was to discover there is an even greater secret, which is no less than the aerospace equivalent of the Holy Grail antigravity. In other words, the action of levitation where gravity's force is more than overcome by electrostatic or other propulsion.
For some time I had regarded an antigravity system as the ultimate quantum leap in aircraft design. Something dreamed about, but beyond reach and likely to remain so.
It was the stuff of science fiction. Or so I thought until my investigations, undertaken over the last ten years, led me to change my mind. I am now convinced it is one of the last century's most breath taking and most closely guarded discoveries.
Anti-gravity is a discovery born of the Nazis' desire to conquer the world. And it could also explain the thousands of sightings of UFOs that have, occurred since the Second World War. In the light of anti-gravity, the notion of "X-Files" type flying saucers does not seem so strange.
I have worked for 14 years at "Jane's Defence Weekly", the British magazine which documents the day-to-day dealings of the multi-billion-dollar global defence industry, as aviation editor and aerospace consultant, covering everything from Chinese combat engines to radar systems.
I began to research the subject of anti-gravity and discovered that the seeds of the technology were sown by German scientists in the dying days of the Second World War and appropriated by the conquering Americans under the noses of their allies.
The key man was a German engineer and administrator, Hans Kammler, who began as a civil servant with the Reich Air Ministry but whose ambition led him to the SS, where he became head of the Building and Works divisions that masterminded the concentration camps.
Albert Speer, Hitler's Minister for Armaments, noted that Kammler was 'blond, blue-eyed, long-headed, always neatly dressed and well bred ... capable of unexpected decisions at any minute'.
It was the SS, not the Luftwaffe, that controlled Hitler's secret weapons programme and Kammler, a qualified engineer, soon became deeply involved.
He was clever and cruel 20,000 slave workers died creating the vast galleried complex hacked out under the Hartz Mountains in Germany, where Kammler oversaw production of V1 rockets. One day in March 1945, the guards hanged 52 people in Gallery 41, tying a dozen at a time to a beam, which was then pulled up by a crane. Those next in line were forced to watch. These were Kammler's hallmarks.
Kammler rose to the rank of SS General, in charge not only of all aircraft and missile programmes but also his own high-powered research and development think-tank. He set up his secret operation in the vast Skoda industrial complex in Czechoslovakia, a country which the SS regarded as its own private domain.
According to my researches, scientists there were working on weapons systems so futuristic that they made Germany's V1 and V2 rocket bombs look pedestrian. Among these were nuclear power plants for rockets and aircraft, highly sophisticated guided weapons and anti-aircraft lasers.
But there was more. A Polish source told me the extraordinary story of "The Bell".
Experiments had been taking place in a mine close to the Czech border. They involved feeding large doses of electricity into an underground chamber where a bell-shaped device emitted a pale blue light. Five scientists exposed to the device had died of side-effects. Word had it that they were investigating some kind of anti-gravitational effect. The Bell, which was about the height of a man and glowed during testing, was made of hard, heavy metal, filled with a violet mercury-like substance. This metallic liquid was stored in a flask, encased in lead three centimeters thick.
Experiments always took place under a thick ceramic cover and involved the rapid spinning of two cylinders in opposite directions. The chamber in which the experiments took place was deep below ground. Only the Bell itself was preserved after a series of tests, each lasting about one minute. Even the room was destroyed and rebuilt.
Various plants, and animals such as frogs, mice and rats, were exposed to the Bell's sphere of influence. Rapid decay set in and people who helped conduct the experiments suffered from sleep problems, memory loss and muscle spasms. One of the terms used was "vortex compression". Another was "magnetic fields separation". Both were associated with anti-gravity.
These secrets were undoubtedly Kammler's ticket to safety once war had ended. By mid April of 1945 Kammler had dropped off the map. He was a leading Nazi, implicated in the Final Solution yet protracted searches in the US National Archives yielded not a single mention.
How could this monster, the most powerful individual outside Hitler's inner circle, be so easily forgotten?
Kammler was fair. Take away his uniform, and he could have been any 40 year old European male. In the chaos of the collapsing Reich, Kammler could have gone anywhere, assumed any persona, and no one would have noticed.
Kammler, who had moved his HQ to Munich, told Albert Speer he would offer the Americans "jet planes and rockets". He also let slip he had "other developments" up his sleeve.
He probably went east, back to his "special projects group" in Czechoslovakia, rather than simply wait for the Americans to arrive in Munich. He had a twofold purpose in making his dangerous journey. First, to retrieve the mother lode of documentation and blueprints. And second, to hide it prior to setting up the deal, which would buy his freedom.
Although the Skoda Works were in, the Soviet zone of occupation, my research shows that US forces had the run of the place for six days before the Red Army turned up.
Plenty of time to remove something you want if you know it is there. Or ignore it, if you have it already. The Americans appeared indifferent to any pointers towards Kammler. Had he already done a deal with the Americans? The answer must be yes.
The Bell was removed by a special SS evacuation team just before the Russians arrived. More than 60 Scientists working on the experiment were then ruthlessly killed to preserve the secrets of the mine. The Bell was shipped out but to where?
One possibility was using one of the northern Adriatic ports that remained in German hands. A U-Boat commander could conceivably have run the gauntlet of the Allies to evacuate cargo and personnel by sea. Another possibility was a heavy transport plane used by a special German air force wing and flown under an enemy or neutral flag. Either way, Kammler had the means to move thousands of tons of documentation, equipment and personnel pretty much where he wanted.
At the end of the Second World War, via captured technology from Germany that has never seen the light of day, America acquired knowledge of the most dangerous kind.
Whatever the secrets, of "The Bell" and other technology, the German secret weapons programme had yielded the ability to design a radically different form of aircraft. A craft that was "circular or elliptical", made no sound and could turn on a sixpence. And one involving a process, which could also be harnessed to create a weapon more destructive than the hydrogen bomb.
With the help of German-derived science, America's technological lead over the rest of the world accelerated after the war. Kammler's secrets from the Skoda Works had moved 4,000 miles to the west and somehow, Kammler had come with it.
The extensive US recruitment programme would have bent over backwards to accommodate Kammler, keeper of the Third Reich's most exotic military secrets.
Not all attempts to produce disc technology were successful. It emerged, during the 1959 hearings of the Space Committee of the US Congress, that the US Department of Defense had been working with the Avro Canada company to develop a "flying saucer".
The "Avrocar", as it was called, was the brainchild of gifted British engineer John Frost, who had moved to Canada after the war. News leaked as early as 1953, when a Canadian newspaper revealed plans for it to take off and land vertically, and fly at 1,500 mph.
It was easy to see why Avro played down reports of the Avrocar. One look at the prototype, underpowered and unstable, was enough to confirm it would never achieve supersonic flight. It became an aviation joke, which drifted into obscurity. Yet, that may have been the intention.
Recently declassified papers show that Avro was working on a range of flying saucers capable of eclipsing existing jet-fighters. And the US air force had bought Avro's disc-shaped designs for craft called 'Project Silverbug', capable of almost instant high-speed turns in any direction.
Were the Americans using the Canadians to perfect the aerodynamics of a flying saucer? Or had the disastrous Avro programme been hushed up to avoid embarrassment? Either way, it showed that man-made flying saucers existed.
I discovered evidence of the Pentagon's enormous "black budgets", which finance deeply classified defence programmes. Huge amounts of money have been spent, often in areas of the US where UFO reports are most common.
What happened to Kammler's secrets, and was anti-gravity among them?
Extracted from: "The Hunt For Zero Point: One Man's Journey To Discover The Biggest Secret Since The Invention Of The Atom Bomb" - by Nick Cook
The term Foo Fighter was used by Allied aircraft pilots in World War II to describe various UFOs or mysterious aerial phenomena seen in the skies over Europe and the Pacific theatre. Contemporary witnesses often assumed that the foo fighters were secret weapons employed by the enemy, and it was not until after the war that it was discovered neither side had anything to do with them. Despite these fears, foo fighters [whatever they might have been] were apparently never reported to have harmed or tried to harm anyone.
Though usually thought of as blobs of light or fire, several different types of reported phenomena were classed as "foo fighters".
There were several other terms used to describe these objects [such as "Kraut fireballs"], but "foo fighter" seems to have been the most popular.
The term is generally thought to have been borrowed from the often surrealist comic strip "Smokey Stover". Smokey, a firefighter, was fond of saying "Where there's foo there's fire".
[This "foo" may have come from "feu", the French word for "fire", or from Smokey's pronunciation of the word "fuel"].
A Big Little Book titled "Smokey Stover the Foo Fighter" was published in 1938. Foo may have also come from the French word faux meaning, in this case, "fake".
In the same vein, "Foo" could be derived from the French "Fou," or "mad."
"Foo fighter" was supposedly used as a semi-derogatory reference to Japanese fighter pilots [known for erratic flying and extreme maneuvering], it became a catch-all term for fast moving, erratically flying objects [such as UFOs].
1. interj. Term of disgust. 2. [very common] Used very generally as a sample name for absolutely anything. When "foo" is used in connection with "bar" it has generally traced to the WWII-era Army slang acronym FUBAR ["Fucked Up Beyond All Repair"], later modified to foobar. This change used to be interpreted as a post-war bowdlerization, but it now seems more likely that FUBAR was itself a derivative of "foo" perhaps influenced by German "furchtbar" [terrible] - "foobar" may actually have been the original form. It seems, the word "foo" itself had an immediate pre-war history in comic strips and cartoons. The earliest documented uses were in the "Smokey Stover" comic strip published from about 1930 to about 1952. Bill Holman, the author of the strip, filled it with odd jokes and personal contrivances, including other nonsense phrases such as "Notary Sojac", and Holman had Smokey say "Where there's foo, there's fire".
One place "foo" is known to have remained live is in the U.S.military during the WWII years. In 1944-45, the term "foo fighters" was in use by radar operators for the kind of mysterious or spurious trace that would later be called a UFO [the older term resurfaced in popular American usage in 1995 via the name of one of the better grunge-rock bands}. Because informants connected the term directly to the "Smokey Stover" strip, the folk etymology that connects it to French "feu" [fire] can be gently dismissed.
Foo fighters were reported on many occasions from around the world.
A nighttime sighting from September, 1941 in the Indian Ocean was similar to some later foo fighter reports. From the deck of the 'S.S. Pu&aski', [a Polish merchant vessel transporting British troops], two sailors reported a "strange globe glowing with greenish light, about half the size of the full moon as it appears to us". They alerted a British officer, who watched the object's movements with them for over an hour.
On 28 February 1942, just prior to its participation in the Battle of the Java Sea, the 'USS Houston' reportedly saw a large number of strange, unexplained yellow flares and lights which illuminated the sea for miles around.
A report was made from the Solomon Islands in 1942 by United States Marine Stephen J. Brickner. Following an air raid alarm, Brickner and others witnessed about 150 objects grouped in lines of 10 or 12 objects each. Seeming to "wobble" as they moved, Brickner reported that the objects resembled polished silver and seemed to move a little faster than common Japanese aircraft. He described the sighting, saying:
"All in all, it was the most awe-inspiring and yet frightening spectacle I have seen in my life".
Foo fighters were formally reported and named from November 1944 onward, by the U.S. 415th Night Fighter Squadron.
On 13 December 1944, the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force in Paris issued a press release, which was featured in the "New York Times" the next day, officially describing the phenomenon as a "new German weapon". Follow-up stories, using the term "Foo Fighters", appeared in the "New York Herald Tribune" and the "British Daily Telegraph".
On 31 December 1944, Bob Wilson, an "Associated Press" corps correspondent, visited and interviewed members of the 415th NFS at their base in Dijon, France. On 2 January 1945, the AP syndicate article hit all of the major U.S. newspapers. The "Chicago Tribune" ran the story as, 'Mystery Flares Tag Along with U.S. Night Pilots; Yanks call Nazi Weapon a 'Foo Fighter'. The "St. Louis Post Dispatch" ran it as, 'Mysterious 'Foo Fighters,' Balls of Fire, Trail U.S. Night Flyers'. The "New York Times" ran the story as 'Balls of Fire Stalk U.S. Fighters in Night Assaults Over Germany', and in it was US Air Force Lieutenant Donald Meiers' description of the "Mysterious" foo fighters:
"A foo fighter picked me up at 700 feet and chased me 20 miles down the Rhine Valley," Meiers said. "I turned to starboard and two balls of fire turned with me. We were going 260 miles an hour and the balls were keeping right up with us. On another occasion when a foo fighter picked us up, I dived at 360 miles an hour. It kept right off our wing tips for awhile and then zoomed into the sky. When I first saw the things, I had the horrible thought that a German on the ground was ready to press a button and explode them. But they didn't explode or attack us. They just seem to follow us like the Will-o'-the-wisp".
Explanations and theories
· The phenomenon could be based on the misinterpretation of the Luftwaffe's standard operating procedure of having selected anti-aircraft batteries near German airfields fire colored flare patterns in regular intervals to aid Luftwaffe night fighters with visual navigation.
· Proponents of the extraterrestrial hypothesis [commonly shortened to ETH] have suggested that foo fighters are evidence of extraterrestrials visiting Earth.
· It has also been suggested that the foo fighter was a secret disk-shaped Luftwaffe aircraft nicknamed the "Feuerfighter" by the Germans, but as this hypothetical name is a mix of German and English, and as no such craft has been found, this explanation is likely an urban legend.
· Likewise, the suggestion that some sightings of foo fighters may have been night-sightings of the German Messerschmitt Me 163 'Komet' rocket-plane makes no sense: the Me 163 was completely unsuitable for nocturnal operations since it had only a few minutes of fuel, totally insufficient to make contact with an enemy at night, carried no airborne interception radar, and lacked all night-flying equipment which would have been vital to make its characteristic engine-out glider-style dead-stick landing at night.
· A type of electrical discharge from airplanes' wings [St. Elmo's Fire] has been suggested as an explanation.
· Another theory suggests that pilots may have seen ball lightning.
· Reports of strange lights in the night are common throughout history, with explanations ranging from elves and Wild Hunt to UFO. It seems to be another example of the common, although still not fully explained, phenomenon.
· Multiple internal reflections of bright ground objects from the curved plastic canopy of an aircraft can be perceived as images above the horizon, a phenomenon that has been identified with some UFO sightings from aircraft.
When the "Foo Fighter" controversy stopped in April 1945 with Germany's collapse it amazingly started all over again in the PTO over Japan August 1945 with the 20th and 21st BGs. Coincidence? No, German submarine technology transfer [along with the jet engines, missiles, Uranium for the Japanese atomic bomb project, etc].
The Japanese, however, lacked all the documentation for this weapon and only launched a few after fueling them and igniting them. It is said that the Japanese were frightened by this "demonic thing" and destroyed the remaining Feuerballs by dynamiting them together in a large pit after VJ-Day.
Jim Wilson of "Popular Mechanics" magazine through FOIA [Freedom of Information Act] documents discovered that the USAF finally admitted by 1995 that the Germans had disc aircraft prototypes but stated that they were "highly unstable". The USAF, however, failed to give any details, identifications, photos, nor flight footage because the discs are still largely classified until 2020 - which makes you wonder what technology in 1945 would be considered that sensitive to receive a 75 year classification well into the 21st century? The Jonastal S-III complex where the discs were to be manufactured is classified until 2045 - 100 years.